Current Artificial Light News and Events

Current Artificial Light News and Events, Artificial Light News Articles.
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Simply speaking while infected can potentially spread COVID-19
COVID-19 can spread from asymptomatic but infected people through small aerosol droplets in their exhaled breath. Most studies of the flow of exhaled air have focused on coughing or sneezing; however, speaking while near one another is also risky. In Physics of Fluids, scientists used smoke and laser light to study the flow of expelled breath near and around two people conversing in various relative postures commonly found in the service industry. (2021-02-23)

The appearance of robots affects our perception of the morality of their decisions
Artificial intelligence and robotics are advancing at a rapid pace, with the number of autonomous intelligent machines making moral choices among us continuously on the rise. Knowledge in moral psychology pertaining to artificial intelligence and robotics is important when discussing the ethics of their development. (2021-02-22)

Artificial pancreas system upgraded with AI algorithm
POSTECH professor Sung-Min Park's research team is developing a fully automated glucose management system that goes beyond the limits. (2021-02-22)

Seeing stable topology using instabilities
The researchers explore how topological phases of light in nonlinear optical media undergo the process of modulational instability. (2021-02-19)

Artificial intelligence predicts nonlinear ultrafast dynamics in optics
Researchers at Tampere University have successfully used artificial intelligence to predict nonlinear dynamics that take place when ultrashort light pulses interact with matter. This novel solution can be used for efficient and fast numerical modelling, for example, in imaging, manufacturing and surgery. The findings were published in the prestigious Nature Machine Intelligence journal. (2021-02-19)

Spin hall effect of light with near 100% efficiency
POSTECH-KAIST joint research team develops perfect SHEL using anisotropic metasurfaces. (2021-02-18)

Credit card-sized soft pumps power wearable artificial muscles
Robotic clothing that is entirely soft and could help people to move more easily is a step closer to reality thanks to the development of a new flexible and lightweight power system for soft robotics. (2021-02-17)

Skoltech's recent achievement takes us one step closer to Mars
Scientists have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) system that enables processing images from autonomous greenhouses, monitoring plant growth, and automating the cultivation process. In their article, they share the experience in the scope of controlled-environment agriculture automation in the Antarctic station greenhouse facility called EDEN ISS. (2021-02-17)

Cancer research: Targeted elimination of leukemic stem cells
Cancer research in Bern has discovered a further mechanism to combat leukemia: a research team at Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and the University of Bern has succeeded in identifying an important signaling pathway for regulating leukemic stem cells. With this discovery, the researchers are expanding the arsenal of potentially highly effective drugs against leukemia. (2021-02-16)

Army researchers expand study of ethics, artificial intelligence
The Army of the future will involve humans and autonomous machines working together to accomplish the mission. According to Army researchers, this vision will only succeed if artificial intelligence is perceived to be ethical. (2021-02-16)

Observations at a shed light on how hard coral survives without light
French researchers have studied for the first time the distribution of hard corals in the French Polynesian archipelago, from the surface to 120 metres deep. As the amount of light decreases, this coral associates with other filamentous algae, in addition to zooxanthellae, which become inserted into its skeleton. These algae, the only ones found at this depth, could therefore play an important role in the coral's adaptation to life at depth. (2021-02-16)

Light used to detect quantum information stored in 100,000 nuclear quantum bits
Researchers have found a way to use light and a single electron to communicate with a cloud of quantum bits and sense their behaviour, making it possible to detect a single quantum bit in a dense cloud. (2021-02-15)

Artificial intelligence generates new diversity of AAV capsids for broader gene therapy
Research in Nature Biotechnology demonstrates the use of machine learning to generate unprecedented diversity of functional AAV capsids, towards evading immune system neutralization to allow more patients to benefit from gene therapies. It is estimated that up to 50-70% of the human population have pre-existing immunity to natural forms of the AAV vectors currently used in gene therapies. Dyno Therapeutics is applying CapsidMap™ and partnering with gene therapy companies to develop next-generation AAV vectors. (2021-02-11)

Insilico announces MolGrow -- a new generative model for hierarchical molecular generation
Insilico Presented Its New Molecular Generation Model at the 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2021-02-11)

Origami powered by light
Some man-made materials can mimic plants' slow but steady reaction to light energy, usually triggered by lasers or focused ambient light. New research from the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University has discovered a way to speed up this effect enough that its performance can compete against electrical and pneumatic systems. (2021-02-10)

A study presents an algorithm that automates electrocardiogram recordings
Artificial intelligence can help health personnel to diagnose heart diseases, as shown in a study published in Scientific Reports, by Guillermo Jiménez-Pérez and Oscar Camara, members of the PhySense group, and Alejandro Alcaine, a researcher at the University of San Jorge, Zaragoza. (2021-02-09)

Study links exposure to nighttime artificial lights with elevated thyroid cancer risk
People living in regions with high levels of outdoor artificial light at night may face a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer. The finding comes from a study published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. (2021-02-08)

Correspondence between representations in visual cortices and neural networks
A research group led by Nobuhiko Wagatsuma, Lecturer at Toho University, Akinori Hidaka, Associate Professor at Tokyo Denki University, and Hiroshi Tamura, Associate Professor at Osaka University, found that the neural network structure of attention prediction, based on deep learning used in the development of artificial intelligence, has similar characteristics to the cerebral mechanism of primates. (2021-02-08)

'Multiplying' light could be key to ultra-powerful optical computers
New type of optical computing could solve highly complex problems that are out of reach for even the most powerful supercomputers. (2021-02-08)

Ophiura from Russky Island might make photodynamic therapy more affordable
An unusual biologically active porphyrin compound was isolated from seabed dweller Ophiura sarsii. The substance might be used as an affordable light-sensitive drug for innovative photodynamic therapy and for targeted treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and some other cancers. Researchers from the School of Biomedicine of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and the University of Geneva reported the findings in Marine Drugs. (2021-02-08)

AI researchers ask: What's going on inside the black box?
Brain-like artificial networks are often referred to as a ''black box'' because researchers do not know how they learn and make predictions. Researchers at CSHL reported a way to peek inside the box and identify key features on which the computer relies, particularly when trying to identify complex DNA sequences. (2021-02-08)

How humans can build better teamwork with robots
Nancy Cooke is a cognitive psychologist and professor of human systems engineering at the Polytechnic School at Arizona State University (ASU). She explores how an artificial intelligence agent can contribute to team communications failure, and how to improve those interactions, in her discussion at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (2021-02-08)

Computer can determine whether you'll die from COVID
Using patient data, artificial intelligence can make a 90 percent accurate assessment of whether a person will die from COVID-19 or not, according to new research at the University of Copenhagen. Body mass index (BMI), gender and high blood pressure are among the most heavily weighted factors. The research can be used to predict the number of patients in hospitals, who will need a respirator and determine who ought to be first in line for a vaccination. (2021-02-05)

Machine learning generates realistic genomes for imaginary humans
Machines, thanks to novel algorithms and advances in computer technology, can now learn complex models and even generate high-quality synthetic data such as photo-realistic images or even resumes of imaginary humans. A study recently published in the international journal PLOS Genetics uses machine learning to mine existing biobanks and generate chunks of human genomes which do not belong to real humans but have the characteristics of real genomes. (2021-02-05)

RUDN University mathematicians reduced neural network size six times without post-training
A team of mathematicians from RUDN University found a way to reduce the size of a trained neural network six times without spending additional resources on re-training it. The approach is based on finding a correlation between the weights of neural connections in the initial system and its simplified version. (2021-02-05)

Large-area periodic perovskite nanostructures for lenticular printing laser displays
We fabricated large-area periodic structures with spatial resolution at wavelength scale from hybrid perovskite materials via a space-confined solution growth method. It takes advantages of both high refractive index contrast and high luminescence brightness, which allows the optical modulation on not only the reflection of illumination, but also the light emission from hybrid perovskites. The distributed feedback within these periodic structures significantly improves the degree of polarization and directionality of laser action while its threshold is also reduced. (2021-02-04)

Switching nanolight on and off
The report demonstrates a new method to control the flow of light of nanolight. Optical manipulation on the nanoscale, or nanophotonics, has become a critical area of interest as researchers seek ways to meet the increasing demand for technologies that go well beyond what is possible with conventional photonics and electronics. (2021-02-04)

Artificial skin brings robots closer to 'touching' human lives
Modern-day robots are often required to interact with humans intelligently and efficiently, which can be enabled by providing them the ability to perceive touch. However, previous attempts at mimicking human skin have involved bulky and complex electronics, wiring, and a risk of damage. In a recent study, researchers from Japan sidestep these difficulties by constructing a 3D vision-guided artificial skin that enables tactile sensing with high performance, opening doors to innumerable applications in medicine, healthcare, and industry. (2021-02-03)

Dynamic 3D printing process features a light-driven twist
The speed of light has come to 3D printing. Northwestern University engineers have developed a new method that uses light to improve 3D printing speed and precision while also, in combination with a high-precision robot arm, providing the freedom to move, rotate or dilate each layer as the structure is being built. The method introduces the 'on-the-fly' ability to manipulate the original design layer by layer and pivot the printing direction without recreating the model. (2021-02-03)

Air-guiding in solid-core optical waveguides: A solution for on-chip trace gas spectroscopy
We demonstrate an air-suspended waveguide that exhibits exceptional field delocalization and an external field confinement of 107 %, providing a stronger interaction with the surrounding air than a free-space beam. Operating at mid-infrared wavelengths, the waveguide is an ideal building block of next-generation on-chip sensors for sensitive and specific trace gas detection by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). (2021-02-02)

The benefits of reading outdoors
Investigators demonstrate that image luminance has opposite effects on the contrast sensitivity of cortical pathways signaling lights than darks. It impairs luminance discrimination for the brightest stimuli of the scene while improving it for the darkest stimuli, a mechanism that is needed to efficiently sample natural scenes. (2021-02-02)

Extreme UV laser shows generation of atmospheric pollutant
Hokkaido University scientists show that under laboratory conditions, ultraviolet light reacts with nitrophenol to produce smog-generating nitrous acid. (2021-02-02)

Aging-US: Screening Alzheimer's disease by facial complexion using artificial intelligence
This Aging-US study showed that deep learning programs such as Xception have the ability to differentiate the faces of patients with mild dementia from that of patients without dementia. (2021-02-02)

Origami with DNA
To study the behaviour of T-cells, an unusual method was used at TU Wien: DNA molecules were folded in an ingenious way, similar to the paper folding art origami. In this way, not just a double helix is created, but a rectangular ''molecular raft'' that floats across a cell membrane and serves as a tool for novel measurements. (2021-02-01)

The first steps toward a quantum brain
An intelligent material that learns by physically changing itself, similar to how the human brain works, could be the foundation of a completely new generation of computers. Radboud physicists working toward this so-called 'quantum brain' have made an important step. They have demonstrated that they can pattern and interconnect a network of single atoms, and mimic the autonomous behaviour of neurons and synapses in a brain. (2021-02-01)

Photonics research makes smaller, more efficient VR, augmented reality tech possible
Engineering researchers have developed and demonstrated a new approach for designing photonic devices. The advance allows them to control the direction and polarization of light from thin-film LEDs, paving the way for a new generation of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies. (2021-02-01)

SLAS Technology special collection on AI in process automation available now
The February edition of SLAS Technology is a special collection of articles focused on 'Artificial Intelligence in Process Automation' by Guest Editor Cenk Ündey, Ph.D. (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA). (2021-02-01)

Traffic noise makes mating crickets less picky
New research has found that the mating behaviour of crickets is significantly affected by traffic noise and other man-made sounds. When man-made noise pollution was present, the females didn't take into account the courtship song of the male crickets during mating. As the courtship song is energetically costly and provides crucial information about the health of the male, this could affect long-term population viability as females could choose less suitable mates. (2021-02-01)

High-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Tohoku University, Toin University of Yokohama, and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) have succeeded in developing a scanless high-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution for a 3D space. The system is based on digital holography. The developed microscopy system has an algorithm to acquire 3D information of fluorescent objects toward scanless 3D measurement in less than 1 millisecond. (2021-01-29)

New study investigates photonics for artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing
Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the next steps to develop fast, energy-efficient, future computing systems that use light instead of electrons to process and store information - incorporating hardware inspired directly by the functioning of the human brain. (2021-01-29)

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