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Light pollution linked to preterm births, reduced birth weights
Researchers discovered that light pollution is linked to preterm birth, a shortened gestational length, and reduced birth weight. babies born too early have higher rates of death and disability. In 2018, preterm birth and low birth weight accounted for roughly 17% of infant deaths (deaths before one year of age). Researchers hope this spawns policy discussion around minimizing light pollution. (2021-01-28)

Physicists develop record-breaking source for single photons
Researchers at the University of Basel and Ruhr University Bochum have developed a source of single photons that can produce billions of these quantum particles per second. With its record-breaking efficiency, the photon source represents a new and powerful building-block for quantum technologies. (2021-01-28)

Machine-learning to predict the performance of organic solar cells
Researchers from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV) specialized in Artificial Intelligence have collaborated with researchers from Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona, specialized on materials for energy applications, to combine the experimental data points that they gather with artificial intelligence algorithms and enable an unprecedented predicting capability of the performance of organic solar cells. (2021-01-28)

In tune with the moon
Does the moon affect women's menstrual cycles? This question has been controversial for a long time. A new study by chronobiologists from Würzburg (Germany) now suggest that such an influence does exist. It's complicated, though. (2021-01-27)

Women's menstrual cycles temporarily synchronize with Moon cycles
An analysis of long-term menstrual cycle records kept by 22 women for up to 32 years shows that women with cycles lasting longer than 27 days intermittently synchronized with cycles that affect the intensity of moonlight and the moon's gravitational pull. This synchrony was lost as women aged and when they were exposed to artificial light at night. The (2021-01-27)

Going Organic: uOttawa team realizing the limitless possibilities of wearable electronics
uOttawa Professor Benoît Lessard and his team are developing carbon-based technologies which could lead to improved flexible phone displays, make robotic skin more sensitive and allow for wearable electronics that could monitor the physical health of athletes in real-time. (2021-01-27)

Scientists publish a blueprint to apply artificial intelligence to extend human longevity
The international team of artificial intelligence experts and medical doctors propose a framework for the application of next-generation AI to extend human longevity (2021-01-27)

Smart algorithm cleans up images by searching for clues buried in noise
In a new study published in Nature Machine Intelligence, researchers at Texas A&M University have unveiled a machine learning-based algorithm that can reduce graininess in low-resolution images and reveal new details that were otherwise buried within the noise. (2021-01-26)

White turns into (extreme-)ultraviolet
Researchers from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have developed a new method to modify the spectral width of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light. By employing a novel phase-matching scheme in four-wave mixing, they could compress the spectral width of the initial broadband light by more than hundred times. The detailed experimental and theoretical results have been published in Nature Photonics. (2021-01-25)

Light pollution linked to preterm birth increase
Scientists conducted the first study to examine the fetal health impact of light pollution based on a direct measure of skyglow, an important aspect of light pollution. Using an empirical regularity discovered in physics, called Walker's Law, a team from Lehigh University, Lafayette College and the University of Colorado Denver in the U.S., found evidence of reduced birth weight, shortened gestational length and preterm births. (2021-01-25)

A world first in circadian clock manipulation
A new method developed by Nagoya University and Groningen University scientists allows for reversible manipulation of the circadian clock period using a light-activated switch. Compounds which act on clock proteins were identified through large-scale chemical screening, and modified to include a light-activated switch, which was further modified to react to non-harmful visible light, creating a non-toxic and fully reversible circadian clock control process. (2021-01-24)

A method for calculating optimal parameters of liquid chrystal displays developed at RUDN University
A professor from RUDN University together with his colleagues from Saratov Chernyshevsky State University and D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia developed a method for calculating the parameters of diffraction optical elements used in LCDs. In particular, the new technology can be used to expand the angle of view while preserving high resolution and color rendition. (2021-01-22)

Gold nanoparticles more stable by putting rings on them
Hokkaido University scientists have found a way to prevent gold nanoparticles from clumping, which could help towards their use as an anti-cancer therapy. (2021-01-21)

Neuronal recycling: This is how our brain allows us to read
Is there an area and cognitive mechanism in our brain specifically devoted to reading? Probably not. According to new research, underlying reading there is evolutionarily ancient function more generally used to process many other visual stimuli. We process letters and words similarly to how we do with any visual stimulus: we identify basic features as shape, size, structure. On the basis of the statistical frequency of specific symbols, we can recognise orthography, understand it and immerse ourselves in the pleasure of reading. (2021-01-21)

Two-photon polymerization of PEGda hydrogel microstructure with low threshold power with green laser
The fabrication of shape-memory hydrogel scaffolds not only requires biocompatibility, micrometre resolution, high mechanical strength, but also requires a low polymerisation threshold in high-water content environment to incorporate microstructures with biological tissues. Towards this goal, scientists from China and australite developed a new hydrogel formula that full fills this goal and demonstrated water-responsive structures with a shape-memory effect at a micrometre scale. This work is of importance for the development future reversible microdevices in biomedical engineering. (2021-01-20)

Using VR training to boost our sense of agency and improve motor control
Patients with motor dysfunctions are on the rise across Japan as its population continues to age. A Tohoku University researcher has developed a new method of rehabilitation using virtual reality to increase the sense of agency over our body and aid motor skills. (2021-01-20)

Boosted photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution: Reactant supply thru phosphonate groups
Water splitting research for solar hydrogen production has focused on physical processes inside the semiconductor, such as light absorption, charge separation, and chemical processes on the surface that are highly complex and rely on the development of new materials. The concept proposed in this study is design of the electrolyte-photocatalyst interface. The approach of immobilizing functional groups near the solid-liquid interface can be a broad-ranging methodology that is effective regardless of the materials used. (2021-01-20)

Appreciating a flower's texture, color, and shape leads to better drone landings
A team of TU Delft and the Westphalian University of Applied Sciences researchers present an optical flow-based learning process that allows robots to estimate distances through the visual appearance (shape, color, texture) of the objects in view. This artificial intelligence (AI)-based learning strategy increases the navigation skills of small flying drones and entails a new hypothesis on insect intelligence. (2021-01-19)

Artificial Intelligence beats us in chess, but not in memory
A new piece of research shows that the brain strategy for storing memories may lead to imperfect memories, but in turn, allows it to store more memories, and with less hassle than AI. The new study, carried out by SISSA scientists in collaboration with Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience & Centre for Neural Computation, Trondheim, Norway, has just been published in Physical Review Letters. (2021-01-15)

Is your skin thirsty? Optoacoustic sensor measures water content in living tissue
Researchers from Skoltech and the University of Texas Medical Branch (US) have shown how optoacoustics can be used for monitoring skin water content, a technique which is promising for medical applications such as tissue trauma management and in cosmetology. (2021-01-15)

Faeces and algorithms: Artificial Intelligence to map our intestinal bacteria
The intestines and their bacteria are sometimes called our 'second brain', but studying these bacteria in their natural environment is difficult. Now researchers from the University of Copenhagen have developed a method that uses artificial intelligence to map intestinal bacteria using faeces. The researchers thus hope to gain more knowledge of the role played by these bacteria in various diseases. (2021-01-14)

Diffractive networks light the way for optical image classification
There is renewed interest in optical computing due to its potential advantages, including parallelization, power-efficiency, and computation speed. Diffractive networks utilize deep learning-based design of successive diffractive layers to all-optically process information as the light is transmitted from the input to the output plane. UCLA researchers significantly improved the statistical inference performance of diffractive optical networks using feature engineering and ensemble learning, which is important for applications including all-optical object classification and computational imaging. (2021-01-13)

Tweaking AI software to function like a human brain improves computer's learning ability
Computer-based artificial intelligence can function more like human intelligence when programmed to use a much faster technique for learning new objects, say two neuroscientists who designed such a model that was designed to mirror human visual learning. (2021-01-12)

Artificial intelligence puts focus on the life of insects
Scientists are combining artificial intelligence and advanced computer technology with biological know how to identify insects with supernatural speed. This opens up new possibilities for describing unknown species and for tracking the life of insects across space and time (2021-01-12)

High doses of saccharin don't lead to diabetes in healthy adults, study finds
For those trying to live a healthy lifestyle, the choice between sugar and artificial sweeteners such as saccharin can be confusing. A new study led by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and The Ohio State University College of Medicine found the sugar substitute saccharin doesn't lead to the development of diabetes in healthy adults as previous studies have suggested. (2021-01-12)

Computer scientists: We wouldn't be able to control super intelligent machines
We are fascinated by machines that can control cars, compose symphonies, or defeat people at chess, Go, or Jeopardy! While more progress is being made all the time in Artificial Intelligence (AI), some scientists and philosophers warn of the dangers of an uncontrollable superintelligent AI. Using theoretical calculations, an international team of researchers, including scientists from the Center for Humans and Machines at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, shows that it would not be possible to control a superintelligent AI. (2021-01-11)

More than just a sun tan: Ultraviolet light helps marine animals to tell the time of year
Changes in daylength are a well-established annual timing cue for animal behavior and physiology. An international collaboration of scientists led by Kristin Tessmar-Raible at the Max Perutz Labs, a joint venture of the University of Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna, now shows that, in addition to daylength, marine bristle worms sense seasonal intensity changes of UVA/deep violet light to adjust the levels of important neurohormones and their behavior. The study is published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. (2021-01-11)

Using light to revolutionize artificial intelligence
An international team of researchers, including Professor Roberto Morandotti of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), just introduced a new photonic processor that could revolutionize artificial intelligence, as reported by the prestigious journal Nature. (2021-01-11)

Preserving workers' hearing health by improving earplug efficiency
How could we improve the comfort and effectiveness of these earplugs? What aspects of the ear canal must be taken into account? To answer these questions, researchers from the École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS University) and the Institut de recherche en santé et sécurité du travail (IRSST) analyzed the varying structure of ear canals to find a correlation between their shapes and the effectiveness of three commonly-used models of earplugs. (2021-01-08)

Accelerating AI computing to the speed of light
A University of Washington-led team has come up with a system that could help speed up AI performance and find ways to reduce its energy consumption: an optical computing core prototype that uses phase-change material. (2021-01-08)

Light-carrying chips advance machine learning
An international team of researchers found that so-called photonic processors, with which data is processed by means of light, can process information very much more rapidly and in parallel than electronic chips. The results have been published in the scientific journal ''Nature''. (2021-01-06)

Light-based processors boost machine-learning processing
An international team of scientists have developed a photonic processor that uses rays of light inside silicon chips to process information much faster than conventional electronic chips. Published in Nature, the breakthrough study was carried out by scientists from EPFL, the Universities of Oxford, Münster, Exeter, Pittsburgh, and IBM Research - Zurich. (2021-01-06)

Swinburne-led research team demonstrates world's fastest optical neuromorphic processor
A Swinburne-led team has demonstrated the world's fastest and most powerful optical neuromorphic processor for artificial intelligence. The neuromorphic processor operates faster than 10 trillion operations per second and is capable of processing ultra-large scale data. (2021-01-06)

3D-printed smart gel changes shape when exposed to light
Inspired by the color-changing skin of cuttlefish, octopuses and squids, Rutgers engineers have created a 3D-printed smart gel that changes shape when exposed to light, becomes ''artificial muscle'' and may lead to new military camouflage, soft robotics and flexible displays. The engineers also developed a 3D-printed stretchy material that can reveal colors when light changes, according to their study in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. (2021-01-05)

Researchers featured in Medical Research Journal for Artificial Intelligence Studies
A paper written by Arash Shaban-Nejad, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor, and Nariman Ammar, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow, both at the Center for Biomedical Informatics in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, was recently published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research - Medical Informatics. The paper discussed how an artificial intelligence system developed by the researchers was used to diagnose and treat children and adults who suffer from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). (2021-01-05)

Convex to concave: More metasurface moiré results in wide-range lens
The odd, wavy pattern that results from viewing certain phone or computer screens through polarized glasses has led researchers to take a step toward thinner, lighter-weight lenses. Called moiré, the pattern is made by laying one material with opaque and translucent parts at an angle over another material of similar contrast. (2021-01-04)

Uncovering how plants see blue light
Plants can perceive and react to light across a wide spectrum. New research from the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences shows how plants can respond to blue light in particular by revealing the structure of cryptochrome-2, the molecule that reacts to blue light. (2021-01-04)

Quick look under the skin
Imaging techniques enable a detailed look inside an organism. But interpreting the data is time-consuming and requires a great deal of experience. Artificial neural networks open up new possibilities: They require just seconds to interpret whole-body scans of mice and to segment and depict the organs in colors, instead of in various shades of gray. This facilitates the analysis considerably. (2020-12-28)

Big bumblebees learn locations of best flowers
Big bumblebees take time to learn the locations of the best flowers, new research shows. (2020-12-28)

Experiment takes 'snapshots' of light, stops light, uses light to change properties of matter
The team generated a movie of how light waves churn on their nanometer wavelength scale by imaging electrons that two light photons coming together cause to emit from the surface. (2020-12-23)

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