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Simply speaking while infected can potentially spread COVID-19
COVID-19 can spread from asymptomatic but infected people through small aerosol droplets in their exhaled breath. Most studies of the flow of exhaled air have focused on coughing or sneezing; however, speaking while near one another is also risky. In Physics of Fluids, scientists used smoke and laser light to study the flow of expelled breath near and around two people conversing in various relative postures commonly found in the service industry. (2021-02-23)

An eco-route for heavy-duty vehicles could reduce fuel consumption
Semi-trucks and other heavy-duty vehicles are responsible for nearly half of road transportation carbon dioxide emissions in Europe, according to the International Council on Clean Transportation. A team of researchers in Italy has proposed a plan to reduce the emissions without compromising priorities such as delivery times. They published their approach in IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, a joint publication of the IEEE and the Chinese Association of Automation. (2021-02-19)

Quantum computing: when ignorance is wanted
Quantum technologies for computers open up new concepts of preserving the privacy of input and output data of a computation. Scientists from the University of Vienna, the Singapore University of Technology and Design and the Polytechnic University of Milan have shown that optical quantum systems are not only particularly suitable for some quantum computations, but can also effectively encrypt the associated input and output data. (2021-02-18)

Human impact on solar radiation levels for decades
Based on the long-term Potsdam radiation time series, ETH Professor Martin Wild and his collaborators have shown that variations in the intensity of sunlight over decades are down to ultra-fine, man-made dirt particles in the atmosphere. (2021-02-18)

Record sunshine during first COVID-19 lockdown largely caused by unusual weather
Exceptional weather conditions were mainly responsible for high solar radiation, not the aerosol reduction due to the shutdown of industry and reduced traffic in the first lockdown / International research team continues to develop climate simulations that take into account influences of the COVID-19 pandemic. (2021-02-16)

Bacteria and algae get rides in clouds
Human health and ecosystems could be affected by microbes including cyanobacteria and algae that hitch rides in clouds and enter soil, lakes, oceans and other environments when it rains, according to a Rutgers co-authored study. (2021-02-16)

Comet or asteroid: What killed the dinosaurs and where did it come from?
It forever changed history when it crashed into Earth about 66 million years ago. The Chicxulub impactor, as it's known, left behind a crater off the coast of Mexico that spans 93 miles and runs 12 miles deep. (2021-02-15)

Light used to detect quantum information stored in 100,000 nuclear quantum bits
Researchers have found a way to use light and a single electron to communicate with a cloud of quantum bits and sense their behaviour, making it possible to detect a single quantum bit in a dense cloud. (2021-02-15)

Cloud simulations get a dose of realism
A focus on the fundamental physics of cloud formation leads to highly realistic simulations of different types of clouds. (2021-02-15)

Climate research: rapid formation of iodic particles over the Arctic
When sea ice melts and the water surface increases, more iodine-containing vapours rise from the sea. Scientists from the international research network CLOUD have now discovered that aerosol particles form rapidly from iodine vapours, which can serve as condensation nuclei for cloud formation. The CLOUD researchers, among them scientists from the Goethe University Frankfurt, fear a mutual intensification of sea ice melt and cloud formation, which could accelerate the warming of the Arctic and Antarctic. (2021-02-11)

Russian scientists significantly improved coal-burning efficiency
A team of Russian scientists from NUST MISIS, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis has suggested a new approach to modifying the combustion behavior of coal. The addition of copper salts reduces the content of unburnt carbon in ash residue by 3.1 times and CO content in the gaseous combustion products by 40%, the scientists found. The research was published in Fuel Processing Technology. (2021-02-10)

Clear-sky detection methods in a highly polluted region still need further improvements
Clear-sky detection methods in a highly polluted region still need further improvements. (2021-02-09)

How iodine-containing molecules contribute to the formation of atmospheric aerosols
As part of a worldwide collaboration, Carnegie Mellon University chemists have helped discover that iodic acids can rapidly form aerosol particles in the atmosphere, giving scientists more knowledge of how iodine emissions can contribute to cloud formation and climate change. (2021-02-05)

Iodine oxoacids drive rapid aerosol formation in pristine atmospheric areas
Iodine plays a bigger role than thought in rapid new particle formation (NPF) in relatively pristine regions of the atmosphere, such as along marine coasts, in the Arctic boundary layer or in the upper free troposphere, according to a new study. (2021-02-04)

Student astronomer finds galactic missing matter
Half of the universe's matter is 'missing', but PhD student Yuanming Wang has developed an ingenious method to help track it down. She has done this using distant galaxies as 'locator pins' to detect an otherwise 'invisible' cold clump of gas just 10 light years from Earth. (2021-02-04)

Yangtze River observational system to improve East Asian rainy season forecasting
A major observation effort deploying airplanes, satellites and ground-based tracking systems was mounted in 2020 along the Yangtze River in China to better describe the physical processes that cause the mei-yu, an intense rainy season that occurs during East Asia's summer monsoon. (2021-01-29)

How vitamins, steroids and potential antivirals might affect SARS-CoV-2
Evidence is emerging that vitamin D -- and possibly vitamins K and A -- might help combat COVID-19. A new study from the University of Bristol published in the journal of the German Chemical Society Angewandte Chemie has shown how they - and other antiviral drugs -- might work. The research indicates that these dietary supplements and compounds could bind to the viral spike protein and so might reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. (2021-01-29)

Crowdfunding? Check weather forecast first!
Investors' moods are affected by gloomy weather. New research from Copenhagen Business School recommends entrepreneurs looking for finance should be aware of the weather forecast at the time they want to launch their crowdfunding campaigns. (2021-01-28)

Rediscovery of the 'extinct' Pinatubo volcano mouse
When Mount Pinatubo exploded in 1990, the surrounding Philippine ecosystem was devastated. Scientists thought that the Pinatubo volcano mouse that lived there went extinct. But researchers just discovered the volcano mouse alive and well. (2021-01-22)

How aerosols are formed
ETH Zurich researchers conducted an experiment to investigate the initial steps in the formation of aerosols. Their findings are now aiding efforts to better understand and model that process - for example, the formation of clouds in the atmosphere. (2021-01-14)

Researchers at Brazil's space institute discover why lightning branches and flickers
Analysis of the first super slow motion recordings of upward flashes suggests a possible explanation for the formation of luminous structures after electrical discharges split in the atmosphere. (2021-01-13)

Flashing plastic ash completes recycling
Rice University's flash graphene process, adapted to convert worthless pyrolyzed plastic ash, could be used to strengthen concrete and toughen plastics used in medicine, energy and packaging applications. (2021-01-13)

Characteristics of severe thunderstorm and lightning activity in the Beijing metropolitan region
Severe thunderstorm is a kind of high-impact weather process producing lightning, heavy precipitation, hails, and wind gust, and still very difficult to be forecasted accurately up to now. A recent study published in Science China: Earth Sciences reported the characteristics of thunderstorm and lightning activity in the Beijing metropolitan region, and the result indicated that lightning data could be assimilated into the numerical weather model to improve the forecast of severe thunderstorm and heavy precipitation. (2021-01-12)

Organizations collaborate to develop international von Willebrand Disease guidelines
The American Society of Hematology (ASH), the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF), and World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) have developed joint clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis and management of von Willebrand Disease (VWD), the world's most common inherited bleeding disorder. The guidelines were published today in Blood Advances. (2021-01-12)

Accelerating AI computing to the speed of light
A University of Washington-led team has come up with a system that could help speed up AI performance and find ways to reduce its energy consumption: an optical computing core prototype that uses phase-change material. (2021-01-08)

Scientists develop new approach to understanding massive volcanic eruptions
An international volcanology team has created a first-of-its kind tool that can aid scientists in understanding past explosive eruptions that shaped the earth and improve the way of estimating hazards of future eruptions. (2021-01-04)

New proposal for how aerosols drive increased atmospheric convection in thunderstorm clouds
High in the clouds, atmospheric aerosols, including anthropogenic air pollutants, increase updraft speeds in storm clouds by making the surrounding air more humid, a new study finds. (2020-12-31)

Theory describes quantum phenomenon in nanomaterials
Theoretical physicists Yoshimichi Teratani and Akira Oguri of Osaka City University, and Rui Sakano of the University of Tokyo have developed mathematical formulas that describe a physical phenomenon happening within quantum dots and other nanosized materials. The formulas, published in the journal Physical Review Letters, could be applied to further theoretical research about the physics of quantum dots, ultra-cold atomic gasses, and quarks. (2020-12-23)

Climate warming linked to tree leaf unfolding and flowering growing apart
Climate warming is linked to a widening interval between leaf unfolding and flowering in European trees, with implications for tree fitness and the wider environment, according to new research published in the British Ecological Society's Journal of Ecology. (2020-12-21)

Crops near Chernobyl still contaminated
Crops grown near Chernobyl are still contaminated due to the 1986 nuclear accident, new research shows. (2020-12-17)

New toolkit aims to improve quality of thrombosis data in COVID-19 trials
The ASH Research Collaborative (ASH RC) and the International Society of Haemostasis and Thrombosis (ISTH), two organizations with multidisciplinary expertise in blood clotting and bleeding disorders, have developed a toolkit to help clinical researchers from across medical disciplines design clinical trials that further the understanding of blood clotting events associated with COVID-19. (2020-12-17)

Extracting precious zinc from waste ash
Incineration of solid waste produces millions of tonnes of waste fly ash in Europe each year, that most commonly ends up in landfill. But this ash often contains significant amounts of precious metals, such as zinc. A unique method developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, can now help extract these precious metals, potentially leading to reductions in environmental pollution, landfill and transport. (2020-12-16)

Physicists solve geometrical puzzle in electromagnetism
A team of scientists have solved the longstanding problem of how electrons move together as a group inside cylindrical nanoparticles. (2020-12-16)

Fast walking in narrow corridors can increase COVID-19 transmission risk
Simulations have been used to predict droplet dispersal patterns in situations where COVID-19 might be spread and results in Physics of Fluids show the importance of the space shape in modeling how droplets move. The simulations are used to determine flow patterns behind a walking individual in spaces of different shape. The results reveal a higher transmission risk for children in some instances, such as behind quickly moving people in a long narrow hallway. (2020-12-15)

Circulating tumor DNA indicates risk of relapse after transplant in DLBCL patients
Many patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be cured by a transplant using their own blood-forming stem cells, but as many as half eventually relapse. New research led by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists suggests that patients whose blood or stem cell samples harbor tumor DNA are likely to relapse. (2020-12-07)

Chemotherapy and blinatumomab improves survival for patients with B-cell acute lympho
A study led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center showed that first-line treatment with a regimen of chemotherapy combined with the monoclonal antibody blinatumomab resulted in increased survival and achieved a high rate of measurable residual disease (MRD) negativity for patients who were newly diagnosed with a high-risk form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) known as Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell ALL (Ph-negative B-ALL). (2020-12-07)

Study reveals surprising benefit of clonal hematopoiesis in allogeneic transplants
Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is a recently identified condition in which mutations associated with blood cancers are detected in the blood of some healthy, usually older, individuals who don't have cancer. People with CH, while asymptomatic, have an elevated risk of developing blood cancers and other negative health outcomes, including heart attacks and strokes. (2020-12-05)

CAR T-cell therapy found highly effective in patients with high-risk non-Hodgkin lymphoma
A CAR T-cell therapy known as axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) drove cancer cells to undetectable levels in nearly 80% of patients with advanced non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a phase 2 clinical trial, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators report at the virtual 62nd American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting. (2020-12-05)

Venetoclax added to standard treatments shows promise in high-risk myeloid blood cancers
The novel oral drug venetoclax can be safely added to standard therapies for some high-risk myeloid blood cancers and in early studies the combination shows promise of improved outcomes, say scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. (2020-12-05)

Donor stem cell transplant shown to improve survival in older patients with MDS
A new clinical trial offers the most compelling evidence to date that a donor stem cell transplant can improve survival rates for older patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators report at the virtual 62nd American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting. (2020-12-04)

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