Current Atmosphere News and Events

Current Atmosphere News and Events, Atmosphere News Articles.
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Low-level jets create winds of change for turbines
Global wind power capacity has increased more than fivefold over the past decade, leading to larger turbines, but low-level jets are one cause for concern. The effects of these strong, energetic wind flows depend on how high the wind flows are in relation to the turbines. In the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, researchers considered three different scenarios in which the LLJs were above, below, and in the middle of the turbine rotors. (2021-02-23)

Life from Earth could temporarily survive on Mars
German Aerospace Center scientists. The researchers launched these small lifeforms into Earth's stratosphere, which replicates key characteristics of the Martian environment, and found that some microorganisms, in particular spores of black mold, survived the trip. This new way of testing endurance to space travel will be invaluable for understanding the threats and opportunities of microbes in future missions to Mars. (2021-02-22)

SwRI scientists image a bright meteoroid explosion in Jupiter's atmosphere
From aboard the Juno spacecraft, a Southwest Research Institute-led instrument observing auroras serendipitously spotted a bright flash above Jupiter's clouds last spring. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) team studied the data and determined that they had captured a bolide, an extremely bright meteoroid explosion in the gas giant's upper atmosphere. (2021-02-22)

42,000-year-old trees allow more accurate analysis of last Earth's magnetic field reversal
The last complete reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, the so-called Laschamps event, took place 42,000 years ago. Radiocarbon analyses of the remains of kauri trees from New Zealand now make it possible for the first time to precisely time and analyse this event and its associated effects, as well as to calibrate geological archives such as sediment and ice cores from this period. Simulations based on this show considerable effects in the Earth's atmosphere. (2021-02-19)

Human impact on solar radiation levels for decades
Based on the long-term Potsdam radiation time series, ETH Professor Martin Wild and his collaborators have shown that variations in the intensity of sunlight over decades are down to ultra-fine, man-made dirt particles in the atmosphere. (2021-02-18)

Exaggerated radar data above the freezing level induced by terrain
Scientists find exaggerated radar data above the freezing level are induced by terrain. (2021-02-17)

Biotech fit for the Red Planet
Astrobiologists from the University of Bremen show for the first time that a N2/CO2-rich low-pressure atmosphere, water, and nutrients from Mars-like dust are sufficient for Cyanobacterium-Based Life-Support Systems, making it easier for future astronauts to produce food and other resources. (2021-02-16)

HKU planetary scientists discover evidence for a reduced atmosphere on ancient Mars
The transition from a reduced planet to an oxidized planet is referred to as the Great Oxidation Event or GOE. This transition was a central part of our planet's evolution, and fundamentally linked to the evolution of life here -- specifically to the prevalence of photosynthesis that produced oxygen. Planetary geologists at HKU have discovered that Mars underwent a great oxygenation event of its own -- billions of years ago, the red planet was not so red. (2021-02-16)

RUDN University biologists studied the effect of jungles on global warming
Biologists from RUDN University described the role of tropical rainforests in the production of methane, the second most harmful greenhouse gas after CO2. It turned out that some areas of rainforests not only consumed methane but also emitted it. (2021-02-16)

Cloud simulations get a dose of realism
A focus on the fundamental physics of cloud formation leads to highly realistic simulations of different types of clouds. (2021-02-15)

The vertical evolution of volatile organic compounds vary between winter and summer
Scientists have discovered that pollution concentration varies between seasons. A new study, conducted in the North China Plain, determined where volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are distributed within the vertical layers of the atmosphere, and found notable changes from winter to summer. (2021-02-15)

Combination of pine scent and ozone as super source of particulate emissions
Scientists have managed to figure out why conifer forests produce so many fine particles into the atmosphere. Aerosol particles are particularly abundant when ?-pinene, the molecule responsible for the characteristic pattern of pine trees reacts with atmospheric ozone. (2021-02-11)

Climate research: rapid formation of iodic particles over the Arctic
When sea ice melts and the water surface increases, more iodine-containing vapours rise from the sea. Scientists from the international research network CLOUD have now discovered that aerosol particles form rapidly from iodine vapours, which can serve as condensation nuclei for cloud formation. The CLOUD researchers, among them scientists from the Goethe University Frankfurt, fear a mutual intensification of sea ice melt and cloud formation, which could accelerate the warming of the Arctic and Antarctic. (2021-02-11)

Black carbon aerosols in Beijing become "slim"
Scientists observed evident decreases of black carbon aerosol (BC) loading in the atmosphere of urban Beijing since the implementation of China's Action Plan of Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in 2013. And the BC aerosols became ''slim'', appearing with smaller core sizes and less coatings. (2021-02-10)

Reductions in CFC-11 emissions put ozone recovery back on track
An international research team, including scientists from MIT, have observed a global reduction of the banned ozone-depleting chemical CFC-11, after it spiked unexpectedly several years ago. (2021-02-10)

WVU biologists uncover forests' unexpected role in climate change
New research from West Virginia University biologists shows that trees around the world are consuming more carbon dioxide than previously reported, making forests even more important in regulating the Earth's atmosphere and forever shift how we think about climate change. (2021-02-08)

Iodine oxoacids drive rapid aerosol formation in pristine atmospheric areas
Iodine plays a bigger role than thought in rapid new particle formation (NPF) in relatively pristine regions of the atmosphere, such as along marine coasts, in the Arctic boundary layer or in the upper free troposphere, according to a new study. (2021-02-04)

Sea ice kept oxygen from reaching deep ocean during last ice age
Extensive sea ice covered the world's oceans during the last ice age, which prevented oxygen from penetrating into the deep ocean waters, complicating the relationship between oxygen and carbon. (2021-02-02)

Extreme UV laser shows generation of atmospheric pollutant
Hokkaido University scientists show that under laboratory conditions, ultraviolet light reacts with nitrophenol to produce smog-generating nitrous acid. (2021-02-02)

Human activity caused the long-term growth of greenhouse gas methane
Decadal growth rate of methane in the atmosphere varied dramatically over the past 30 yeas with three distinct periods of slowed (1988-1998), quasi-stationary (1999-2006) and renewed (2007-2016) phases. An inverse analysis with atmospheric chemistry transport modeling explained these variations consistently. While emissions from oil and gas exploitation and natural climate events caused the slowed growth and the temporary pause, those from coal mining in China and livestock farming in the tropics drove the renewed growth. (2021-01-29)

Arctic warming and diminishing sea ice are influencing the atmosphere
Researchers of the Institute for Atmospheric and Earth system research at the University of Helsinki have resolved for the first time, how the environment affects the formation of nanoparticles in the Arctic. The results give additional insight into the future of melting sea ice and the Arctic atmosphere. Until recent studies, the molecular processes of particle formation in the high Arctic remained a mystery. (2021-01-29)

Ecologists conducted a novel study on vegetation transpiration from a global network of 251 sites
An ecologist from RUDN University together with colleagues from 14 countries compared three methods for estimating ecosystem transpiration in a study. In the first ever research with such a comprehensive data-set, the team used land-atmosphere water vapor flux data of collected at 251 locations all over the planet, from Australia to Greenland. The outcome of the research help to understand the role of plants in the global water and carbon cycles in the current predicament of global warming. (2021-01-28)

More than just CO2: It's time to tackle short-lived climate-forcing pollutants
Climate change mitigation is about more than just CO2. So-called 'short-lived climate-forcing pollutants' such as soot, methane, and tropospheric ozone all have harmful effects. Climate policy should be guided by a clearer understanding of their differentiated impacts. (2021-01-27)

Record-breaking laser link could help us test whether Einstein was right
Scientists from Australia have set a world record for the most stable transmission of a laser signal through the atmosphere. The team combined Aussie 'phase stabilisation' technology with advanced self-guiding optical terminals to 'effectively eliminate atmospheric turbulence,' an advance which could help test Einstein's theory of general relativity. (2021-01-22)

Magnetic waves explain mystery of Sun's outer layer
in a new study published in The Astrophysical Journal, researchers combined observations from a telescope in New Mexico, the United States, with satellites located near Earth to identify a link between magnetic waves in the chromosphere and areas of abundant ionised particles in the hot outer atmosphere. (2021-01-22)

Astronomers discover first cloudless, Jupiter-like planet
Astronomers at the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian have detected the first Jupiter-like planet without clouds or haze in its observable atmosphere. The findings were published this month in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. (2021-01-21)

Intertropical Convergence Zone limits climate predictions in the tropical Atlantic
The strongest climate fluctuation on time scales of a few years is the so-called El NiƱo phenomenon, which originates in the Pacific. A similar circulation pattern exists in the Atlantic, which scientists under the leadership of GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel have studied in more detail. Their results, now published in the international journal Nature Communications, contribute to a better understanding of this climate fluctuation and pose a challenge for prediction models. (2021-01-15)

How aerosols are formed
ETH Zurich researchers conducted an experiment to investigate the initial steps in the formation of aerosols. Their findings are now aiding efforts to better understand and model that process - for example, the formation of clouds in the atmosphere. (2021-01-14)

Earth's terrestrial ecosystems may transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources within decades
Rising temperatures could trigger Earth's terrestrial ecosystems to transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources in the next 20 to 30 years, according to data from the world's largest continuous carbon monitoring network. The researchers suggest that up to half of land ecosystems could reach this tipping point - when plants begin to release carbon into the atmosphere. (2021-01-13)

Researchers find wildfire smoke is more cooling on climate than computer models assume
Many of the most advanced climate models simulate smoke that is darker, or more light absorbing, than what researchers see in observations. (2021-01-12)

Anthropogenic heat flux increases the frequency of extreme heat events
Scientists of Institute of Atmospheric Phyics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences developed a case study of Beijing, China, analyzing anthropogenic heat data based on energy consumption. They find anthropogenic heat increased the frequency and trend of the extreme heat events, while the extreme cold events were opposite. (2021-01-11)

Surprising news: drylands are not getting drier
Columbia Engineering study is the first to show the importance of long-term soil moisture changes and associated soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks in future predictions of water availability in drylands. The researchers identified a long-term soil moisture regulation of atmospheric circulation and moisture transport that largely ameliorates the potential decline of future water availability in drylands, beyond that expected in the absence of soil moisture feedbacks. (2021-01-04)

Goldilocks and the three quantum dots: Just right for peak solar panel performance
Maximizing the efficiency of renewable energy technology is dependent on creating nanoparticles with ideal dimensions and density, new simulations have shown. (2020-12-20)

Land ecosystems are becoming less efficient at absorbing CO2
Land ecosystems currently play a key role in mitigating climate change. The more carbon dioxide (CO2) plants and trees absorb during photosynthesis, the process they use to make food, the less CO2 remains trapped in the atmosphere where it can cause temperatures to rise. But scientists have identified an unsettling trend - as levels of CO2 in the atmosphere increase, 86 percent of land ecosystems globally are becoming progressively less efficient at absorbing it. (2020-12-18)

Recently discovered comet seen during 2020 total solar eclipse
As Chile and Argentina witnessed the total solar eclipse on Dec. 14, 2020, unbeknownst to skywatchers, a little tiny speck was flying past the Sun -- a recently discovered comet. (2020-12-18)

How much greenhouse gas emission comes from tropical deforestation and peatland loss?
New research papers provide better data for tropical countries on how land conversion -- in this case, the removal of tropical forests and peatland for agriculture -- leads to increased greenhouse gas emissions. (2020-12-16)

The moon controls the release of methane in Arctic Ocean
The moon controls one of the most formidable forces in nature - the tides that shape our coastlines. Tides, in turn, significantly affect the intensity of methane emissions from the Arctic Ocean seafloor. High tides may even counter the potential threat of submarine methane release from the warming Arctic. (2020-12-14)

Scientists discover compounds that could have helped to start life on Earth
Scientists from St Petersburg University and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have discovered natural cyclophosphates. These are possible precursors of phosphorus-containing molecules that are believed to have contributed to the emergence of primordial life on Earth. Cyclophosphates could have been formed billions of years ago in regions of elevated geothermal activity or during meteorite bombardments of the Earth. (2020-12-14)

Exploring the relationship between nitrogen and carbon dioxide in greenhouse gas emissions
A University of Oklahoma-led interdisciplinary study on a decade-long experiment (1997-2009) at the University of Minnesota found that lower nitrogen levels in soil promoted release of carbon dioxide from soils under high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and could therefore contribute to furthering rising atmospheric greenhouse gases and climate change. (2020-12-14)

Impacts of COVID-19 emissions reductions remain murky in the oceans
While greenhouse gas emissions dropped significantly in the first half of 2020, new research finds ocean acidification remains unchanged--yet the world's oceans can respond quickly in other ways to reduced emissions. (2020-12-10)

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