Current Atoms News and Events

Current Atoms News and Events, Atoms News Articles.
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Concept for a new storage medium
Physicists from Switzerland, Germany and Ukraine have proposed an innovative new data storage medium. The technique is based on specific properties of antiferromagnetic materials that had previously resisted experimental examination. (2021-02-22)

New crystalline ice form
Three years ago, chemists at the University of Innsbruck found evidence for the existence of a new variety of ice. Until then, 18 types of crystalline ice were known. The team led by Thomas Loerting now reports in Nature Communications on the elucidation of the crystal structure of ice XIX using neutron diffraction. (2021-02-18)

Tuning electrode surfaces to optimize solar fuel production
Scientists discovered that changing the topmost layer of atoms on electrode surfaces can impact the activity of splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen--a clean fuel. (2021-02-18)

Experimental tests of relativistic chemistry will update the periodic table
Researchers from Osaka University used a particle accelerator and co-precipitation to study the chemical reactivity of single rutherfordium atoms. Such experiments will continue the advancement of relativistic chemistry that is pertinent to a range of applications including renewable energy and new materials. (2021-02-16)

Nanotechnologies reduce friction and improve durability of materials
A team of scientists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and Immanuel Kant Baltic State Federal University suggested using innovative thin films to considerably reduce friction and thus increase the durability of surfaces in mechanisms. This discovery can be important for many fields, from medicine to space technologies. (2021-02-16)

Kagome graphene promises exciting properties
For the first time, physicists from the University of Basel have produced a graphene compound consisting of carbon atoms and a small number of nitrogen atoms in a regular grid of hexagons and triangles. This honeycomb-structured ''kagome lattice'' behaves as a semiconductor and may also have unusual electrical properties. In the future, it could potentially be used in electronic sensors or quantum computers. (2021-02-15)

New insight into protein structures that could treat Huntington's disease
In Huntington's disease, a faulty protein aggregates in brain cells and eventually kills them. Such protein aggregates could, in principle, be prevented with a heat shock protein. However, it is not well known how these proteins interact with the Huntington's disease protein. New research by Patrick van der Wel (University of Groningen) and colleagues at the University of Texas has partially resolved the structure of heat shock proteins that bind to such aggregating proteins. (2021-02-12)

Study reveals platinum's role in clean fuel conversion
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Stony Brook University (SBU), and other collaborating institutions have uncovered dynamic, atomic-level details of how an important platinum-based catalyst works in the water gas shift reaction. The experiments provide definitive evidence that only certain platinum atoms play an important role in the chemical conversion, and could therefore guide the design of catalysts that use less of this precious metal. (2021-02-10)

Scientists create liquid crystals that look a lot like their solid counterparts
New kinds of liquid crystals developed at the University of Colorado Boulder resemble gypsum or lazulite crystals--except that they flow like fluids. (2021-02-10)

Samara Polytech chemists simplify crystal structures
Samara Polytech scientists have developed new methods of modelling the crystal structure of chemical substances, which makes it possible to obtain additional information about the object under study, unknown in the initial experimental data, and also to find regularities determining its structure and properties. (2021-02-09)

Chemists identified necessary conditions for successful synthesis of small molecules
A team of researchers from Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and Saint Petersburg State University identified the factors that affect the speed of synthesis of organic molecules consisting of several heterocycles. According to the team, accurate selection of reagents and reaction conditions can help efficiently obtain compounds used in the pharmaceutical industry. (2021-02-09)

How metal atoms can arrange themselves on an insulator
In order to produce tiny electronic memories or sensors in future, it is essential to be able to arrange individual metal atoms on an insulating layer. Scientists at Bielefeld University's Faculty of Chemistry have now demonstrated that this is possible at room temperature: molecules of the metal-containing compound molybdenum acetate form an ordered structure on the insulator calcite without jumping to other positions or rotating. Their findings have been presented in the Nature Communications journal. (2021-02-04)

Quasicrystal-clear: Material reveals unique shifting surface structure under microscope
Ever since their discovery, quasicrystals have garnered much attention due to their strange structure. Today, they remain far from being well-understood. In a new study, scientists reveal, for the first time, a unique shifting surface atomic structure in a material emulating quasicrystals, opening doors to the better understanding of magnetic and superconducting properties of quasicrystals, and potential applications in semiconductor film growth. (2021-02-04)

Imaging technique provides link to innovative products
A study led by University of Georgia researchers announces the successful use of a new nanoimaging technique that will allow researchers to test and identify two-dimensional materials (2021-02-04)

Fine tuned: adjusting the composition and properties of semiconducting 2D alloys
Semiconducting 2D alloys could be key to overcoming the technical limitations of modern electronics. Although 2D Si-Ge alloys would have interesting properties for this purpose, they were only predicted theoretically. Now, scientists from Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology have realized the first experimental demonstration. They have also shown that the Si to Ge ratio can be adjusted to fine tune the electronic properties of the alloys, paving the way for novel applications. (2021-02-02)

The first steps toward a quantum brain
An intelligent material that learns by physically changing itself, similar to how the human brain works, could be the foundation of a completely new generation of computers. Radboud physicists working toward this so-called 'quantum brain' have made an important step. They have demonstrated that they can pattern and interconnect a network of single atoms, and mimic the autonomous behaviour of neurons and synapses in a brain. (2021-02-01)

Using zirconium as an additive in super-strong composite materials
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are incredibly strong materials used in jet engines, gas turbines, and cutting tools for nickel superalloys. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is hard and chemically inert, and tungsten carbide (WC) is used as a superhard material, but past efforts to create an Al2O3-WC CMC yielded unsatisfactory results. Recently, a study by Japanese scientists shows that adding zirconium atoms results in improved Al2O3-WC CMCs. (2021-01-28)

Beauty in imperfection: How crystal defects can help convert waste heat into electricity
Half-Heusler Ni-based alloys are thermoelectric materials with the potential for converting waste heat into electricity. However, the origin of their impressive conversion efficiency is not entirely clear. In a recent study, scientists from Japan and Turkey have attempted to uncover the role that Ni defects have in the crystal structure of these alloys and how their desirable thermoelectric properties are a consequence of small changes in strain around defective sites. (2021-01-26)

Better bundled: new principle for generating X-rays
X-rays are usually difficult to direct and guide. X-ray physicists at the University of Göttingen have developed a new method with which the X-rays can be emitted more precisely in one direction. To do this, the scientists use a structure of thin layers of materials with different densities of electrons to simultaneously deflect and focus the generated beams. The results of the study were published in the journal Science Advances. (2021-01-25)

Reactive halogen from domestic coal burning aggravates winter air pollution
During the winter in the North China Plain, scientists found high concentrations of reactive halogen gases (BrCl, HOBr, Cl2) in the atmosphere which was associated with widespread coal burning in rural areas. Halogen atoms released from BrCl and Cl2 under sunlight significantly increased the oxidative capacity, and has the potential to boost the productions of secondary aerosols - the major components of winter haze in northern China - and the toxic form of mercury. (2021-01-25)

Single atoms as a catalyst: Surprising effects ensue
Catalysts are getting smaller - ''single-atom'' catalysts are the logical end point of this downsizing. However, individual atoms can no longer be described using the rules developed from larger pieces of metal, so the rules used to predict which metals will be good catalysts must be revamped - this has now been achieved at TU Wien. As it turns out, single atom catalysts based on much cheaper materials might be even more effective. (2021-01-22)

New blueprint for more stable quantum computers
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have put forward a detailed plan of how faster and better defined quantum bits - qubits - can be created. The central elements are magnetic atoms from the class of so-called rare-earth metals, which would be selectively implanted into the crystal lattice of a material. Each of these atoms represents one qubit. The researchers have demonstrated how these qubits can be activated, entangled, used as memory bits, and read out. (2021-01-22)

Teamwork in a molecule
Chemists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena have demonstrated the value of 'teamwork' by successfully harnessing the interaction between two gallium atoms in a novel compound to split the particularly strong bond between fluorine and carbon. The gallium compound is also cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional alternatives. (2021-01-21)

Alpha particles lurk at the surface of neutron-rich nuclei
Scientists from an international collaboration have found evidence of alpha particles at the surface of neutron-rich heavy nuclei, providing new insights into the structure of neutron stars, as well as the process of alpha decay. (2021-01-21)

Bringing atoms to a standstill: NIST miniaturizes laser cooling
Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems. (2021-01-21)

What stops flows in glassy materials?
Researchers from the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology recently conducted experimental studies for the first time on glassy systems composed of nonspherical particles. (2021-01-17)

New state of matter in one-dimensional quantum gas
By adding some magnetic flair to an exotic quantum experiment, physicists produced an ultra-stable one-dimensional quantum gas with never-before-seen ''scar'' states - a feature that could someday be useful for securing quantum information. (2021-01-14)

Catalysts: worth taking a closer look
Metal surfaces play a role as catalysts for many important applications - from fuel cells to the purification of car exhaust gases. However, their behaviour is decisively affected by oxygen atoms incorporated into the surface. This phenomenon has been known for a long time, but until now it has been impossible to precisely investigate the role of oxygen in complex surfaces point by point in order to understand the chemical background at the atomic level. (2021-01-13)

iCeMS makes highly conductive antiperovskites with soft anion lattices
A new structural arrangement of atoms shows promise for developing safer batteries made with solid materials. Scientists at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) designed a new type of 'antiperovskite' that could help efforts to replace the flammable organic electrolytes currently used in lithium ion batteries. Their findings were described in the journal Nature Communications. (2021-01-12)

Sustainable transportation: clearing the air on nitrogen doping
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba elucidated the initial reaction pathways on the pyridinic nitrogen atoms at the armchair edges of doped carbon catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. This will help optimize a low-carbon technology for future transportation needs. (2021-01-12)

Scientists have synthesized an unusual superconducting barium superhydride
A new exotic compound, BaH12, has been discovered by experiment and theory. Unusually, it is a molecular metal and demonstrates the superconducting transition around 20?K at 140?GPa (2021-01-12)

USTC obtains Pd-Pt tesseracts for oxygen reduction reaction
A team led by Prof. ZENG Jie from Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Prof. BAO Jun from National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory of University of Science and Technology of China of the Chinese Academy of Sciences made breakthrough in the controlled synthesis of Pd-Pt tesseracts for ORR and the mechanism investigation of their etching process. (2021-01-12)

Core design strategy for fire-resistant batteries
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) is proud to announce that the research team of Dr. Sang-baek Park at the Center for Energy Materials Research, in collaboration with the research team of Professor Hyun-jung Shin of Sungkyunkwan University, has developed a breakthrough material design strategy that can overcome the problem of high interfacial resistance between the solid electrolyte and the cathode, which is an obstacle to the commercialization of all-solid-state batteries. (2021-01-11)

High-flux table-top source for femtosecond hard X-ray pulses
Researchers at the Max Born Institute (MBI) in Berlin have now accomplished a breakthrough in table-top generation of femtosecond X-ray pulses by demonstrating a stable pulse train at kilohertz repetition rate with a total flux of some 10^12 X-ray photons per second. (2021-01-07)

Researchers question fundamental study on the Kondo effect
In 1998, spectroscopic studies on the Kondo effect using scanning tunnelling microscopy were published, which are considered ground-breaking and have triggered countless others of a similar kind. Many of these studies may have to be re-examined now that researchers from Jülich, Germany have shown that the Kondo effect cannot be proven beyond doubt by this method. Instead, another phenomenon is creating precisely the spectroscopic ''fingerprint'' that was previously attributed to the Kondo effect. (2021-01-07)

Physicists observe competition between magnetic orders
Two-dimensional materials, consisting of a single layer of atoms, have been booming in research for years. They possess novel properties that can only be explained with the help of the laws of quantum mechanics. Researchers have now used ultracold atoms to gain new insights into previously unknown quantum phenomena. They found out that the magnetic orders between two coupled thin films of atoms compete with each other. The study has been published in Nature. (2021-01-06)

Scrambled supersolids
Supersolids are fluid and solid at the same time. Physicists from Innsbruck and Geneva have for the first time investigated what happens when such a state is brought out of balance. They discovered a soft form of a solid of high interest for science. As the researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino and Thierry Giamarchi report in Nature Physics, they were also able to reverse the process and restore supersolidity. (2021-01-04)

Shapeshifting crystals-varying stability in different forms of gallium selenide monolayers
The gallium selenide monolayer has been recently discovered to have an alternative crystal structure and has diverse potential applications in electronics. Understanding its properties is crucial to understand its functions. Now, scientists from the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the University of Tokyo have explored its structural stability, electronic states, and transformation of crystal phases. (2020-12-24)

Quantum wave in helium dimer filmed for the first time
For the first time, an international team of scientists from Goethe University and the University of Oklahoma has succeeded in filming quantum physical effects on a helium dimer as it breaks apart. The film shows the superposition of matter waves from two simultaneous events that occur with different probability: The survival and the disintegration of the helium dimer. This method might in future make it possible to track experimentally the formation and decay of quantum Efimov systems. (2020-12-23)

Mapping out a transient atom
A new experiment provides better understanding of fundamental photo-induced processes with special importance for photocatalysis, photosynthesis and radiation damage (2020-12-22)

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