Current Baboons News and Events

Current Baboons News and Events, Baboons News Articles.
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Competition among human females likely contributed to concealed ovulation
Humans are among the few species that lack overt physical indicators of female fertility. One explanation for concealed ovulation in human females is that hiding fertility from males helps females secure resources from males for raising children. A new model developed by a team of evolutionary scientists casts doubt on this idea, showing that females might have evolved to conceal ovulation from one another, not from males. (2021-01-25)

Neuronal recycling: This is how our brain allows us to read
Is there an area and cognitive mechanism in our brain specifically devoted to reading? Probably not. According to new research, underlying reading there is evolutionarily ancient function more generally used to process many other visual stimuli. We process letters and words similarly to how we do with any visual stimulus: we identify basic features as shape, size, structure. On the basis of the statistical frequency of specific symbols, we can recognise orthography, understand it and immerse ourselves in the pleasure of reading. (2021-01-21)

All-purpose dinosaur opening reconstructed for first time
For the first time ever, a team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, have described in detail a dinosaur's cloacal or vent -- the all-purpose opening used for defecation, urination and breeding. (2021-01-19)

Guinea baboons grunt with an accent
Vocal learning leads to modification of call structure in a multi-level baboon society (2021-01-06)

Results of comprehensive SARS-CoV-2 animal model study published in Nature Microbiology
Findings by Texas Biomed and SNPRC scientists support the rhesus macaque as an excellent animal model for vaccine development; suggest baboon as an animal model for drug development. Results provide insight on the complex lung immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Defining animal models has been a critical step in advancing COVID-19 vaccines & therapeutics (2021-01-04)

Mummified baboons shine new light on the lost land of Punt
Ancient Punt was a major trading partner of Egyptians for at least 1,100 years. It was an important source of luxury goods, including incense, gold, and living baboons. Located somewhere in the southern Red Sea region in either Africa or Arabia, scholars have debated its geographic location for more than 150 years. A new Dartmouth-led study tracing the geographic origins of Egyptian mummified baboons provides new insight into Punt's location, demonstrating the tremendous nautical range of early Egyptian seafarers. (2020-12-15)

An alternate savanna
When civil war broke out in Mozambique more than 40 years ago, it largely spelled doom for animals in Gorongosa National Park, a 1,500-square-mile reserve on the floor of the southern end of the Great African Rift Valley, in the heart of the country. As the decades-long fighting spilled over into the reserve, many of the creatures became casualties of the conflict. (2020-12-14)

Alpha animals must bow to the majority when they abuse their power
Democratic decision-making allows subordinate vulturine guineafowl to regain control over collective group actions when dominants have a monopoly over resources. (2020-11-26)

Hearts harvested from pigs may soon help solve chronic shortages of these donor organs
An analysis discusses scientific breakthroughs that have overcome obstacles to cardiac xenotransplantation. (2020-10-07)

Primate brain size does not predict their intelligence
A research team from the German Primate Center has systematically investigated the cognitive abilities of lemurs, which have relatively small brains compared to other primates. Conducting systematic tests with identical methods revealed that cognitive abilities of lemurs hardly differ from those of monkeys and great apes. Instead, this study revealed that the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities cannot be generalized and it provides new insights into the evolution of primates. (2020-09-25)

Male baboons with female friends live longer
Opposite-sex friendships can have non-romantic benefits. And not just for people, but for our primate cousins, too. A 35-year study of 542 baboons finds that males that have close female friends have higher rates of survival. Previous studies have assumed that males befriend females to protect their offspring, or to boost their chances of mating later on. But the new study points to an additional benefit: female friends may help them live a longer life. (2020-09-20)

The surprising rhythms of Leopards: Females are early birds, males are nocturnal
After 10 months of camera surveillance in the Tanzanian rainforest, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have become the first to conclude that female and male leopards are active at very different times of the day. The discovery contradicts previous assumptions and could be used to help protect the endangered feline, whose populations have dwindled by 85 percent over the past century. (2020-09-10)

Baboon matriarchs enjoy less stress
You know the type: Loud. Swaggering. Pushy. The alpha male clearly runs the show. Female alphas are often less conspicuous than their puffed up male counterparts, but holding the top spot still has its perks. Now, a study of female baboons points to another upside to being No. 1. A Duke University-led study of 237 female baboons in Kenya found that alphas have significantly lower levels of glucocorticoids, hormones produced in response to stress. (2020-09-09)

Key brain region was 'recycled' as humans developed the ability to read
An MIT study offers evidence that the brain's inferotemporal cortex, which is specialized to perform object recognition, has been repurposed for a key component of reading called orthographic processing -- the ability to recognize written letters and words. (2020-08-04)

Social bonds in adulthood don't mediate early life trauma
When baboons experience trauma in early life, they have higher levels of stress hormones in adulthood--a potential marker of poor health--than their peers who don't experience trauma, even if they have strong social relationships as adults, according to a study led by a University of Michigan researcher. (2020-08-03)

Strong relationships in adulthood won't 'fix' effects of early childhood adversity
Harsh conditions in early life are a fundamental cause of adult stress, and according to new research from the University of Notre Dame on wild baboons, this effect is not explained by a lack of social support in adulthood. (2020-08-03)

Study suggests Baboon model could aide in Alzheimer's disease interventions
Scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute's (Texas Biomed) Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC) recently published findings indicating the baboon could prove to be a relevant model to test therapeutics and interventions for neurodegenerative diseases, such as early stage Alzheimer's and related dementias. (2020-06-10)

Baboon mothers carry their dead infant up to 10 days
Baboon mothers living in the wild carry dead infants for up to 10 days, according to a new study led by UCL and Université de Montpellier. (2020-03-10)

Health care in baboons
Sexually transmitted diseases reduce the willingness of female baboons to mate. (2019-12-04)

Monkeys outperform humans when it comes to cognitive flexibility, Georgia State study finds
When it comes to being willing to explore more efficient options to solving a problem, monkeys exhibit more cognitive flexibility than humans, according to a study by Georgia State University psychology researchers. (2019-10-14)

New research furthers understanding about what shapes human gut microbiome
A new Northwestern University study finds that despite human's close genetic relationship to apes, the human gut microbiome is more similar to that of Old World monkeys like baboons than to that of apes like chimpanzees. (2019-10-07)

For baboons, a mother's history of hardship can have lasting effects on her kids too
Numerous studies show that children who had a rough start in life are more likely to have health problems later on. The pattern isn't unique to humans. But for baboons, the impacts aren't just borne by one generation -- the next generation bears the brunt as well. A study finds that a baboon mother's early trauma is linked to shorter lifespans for her kids, even if they grew up more carefree than she did. (2019-09-24)

You are what you eat: How the pursuit of carbs changed mammals' genes and saliva
A study of dozens of mammal species explores the evolutionary history of amylase, a compound that breaks down carbs. (2019-05-14)

Familiarity breeds aggression
Aggressiveness among animals may increase the longer individuals live together in stable groups. This is the finding of a recent study carried out by researchers from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries. The study, published in the journal Animal Behaviour used the Amazon molly, a naturally clonal fish species that produces genetically identical individuals to isolate the effects of familiarity on behavior. (2019-02-19)

How new species emerge
International research team reconstructs the evolutionary history of baboons. (2019-01-31)

Baboons provide new insights into the evolution of the genome
A team of researchers including scientists from Vetmeduni Vienna investigated the process of evolutionary diversification by looking at six baboon species. The results of the study provide exciting new insights into the evolution of the genome - including that of humans. (2019-01-30)

Whopping big viruses prey on human gut bacteria
Sequencing gut microbiomes typically turns up new microbes and other denizens of the intestinal tract, including viruses or phages that prey on these microbes. A new UC Berkeley study has discovered the largest phages every found in humans, with genomes 10 times the average and larger than the genomes of the smallest bacteria. They target bacteria found primarily in people eating non-Western diets. Their large size blurs the line between life and non-life. (2019-01-28)

More young and other traits help mammals adapt to urban environments
Species of mammals that live in urban environments produce more young compared to other mammals. But next to this common 'winning trait', mammals deal with different strategies to successfully inhabit cities. This is what Radboud University ecologist Luca Santini and colleagues found in a study that they will publish in Ecology Letters on 21 December. 'This is the first step of many to understand why certain mammals manage to live in cities and why other species don't.' (2018-12-21)

Baboon sexes differ in how social status gets 'under the skin'
A growing body of evidence shows that those at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder are more likely to die prematurely than those at the top. The pattern isn't unique to humans: Across many animals, the lower an individual's social status, the worse their health. But new research in baboons suggests that the nature of the status-health relationship depends on whether an individual has to fight for status, or it's given to them. (2018-12-17)

Understanding endometriosis
About 10 percent of women worldwide suffer from endometriosis, a painful and debilitating disease with inadequate treatments. Currently, doctors don't know what causes the condition, which occurs when endometrial tissue escapes the uterus and forms lesions on other organs. But scientists are working hard to better understand the disease and develop new diagnostic tests and medicines, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society. (2018-10-31)

New approach to neonatal sepsis in developing nations could save thousands of lives
Sepsis is a major cause of preventable death among newborn children in tropical countries. Now the antibiotic ceftriaxone, which has been available only as an injectable, can be administered through rectal delivery. This method could annually save the lives of several hundred thousand newborns with sepsis. The research is published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. (2018-10-22)

Marmosets serve as an effective model for non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Small, New World monkeys called marmosets can mimic the sleep disturbances, changes in circadian rhythm, and cognitive impairment people with Parkinson's disease develop, according to a new study by scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute. (2018-09-05)

New research could reduce primate electrocutions and help conservation strategies
New research has mapped and analysed the incidence of primate electrocutions in Diani, Kenya to identify hotspot areas that should be prioritised to reduce the risk of electric shock. The study could also inform conservation strategies in other parts of the world where primate electrocutions are common. Electrocution threatens a wide range of primate species across the world and the hazard could become more widespread as species are increasingly restricted to human-dominated landscapes. (2018-09-05)

Baboons shed light on antimicrobial resistance
Antibiotic resistance is an ancient feature of gut microbial communities and sharing habitat with humans has had an important impact on the structure and function of gut microbiota of non-human primates, according to a study involving wild and captive baboons. The study, published in the journal mSystems, is one of the first to provide a glimpse of the pre-antibiotic resistome of primates. (2018-06-26)

Marmosets as the canary in the coal mine for Zika
New research shows small, New World monkeys called marmosets may be an important animal model for emerging viruses with the potential for harmful effects on fetuses. Establishing animal models for emerging diseases, like Zika, is necessary for the development of vaccines, therapies and diagnostics. (2018-05-01)

Social status influences infection risk and disease-induced mortality
Spotted hyena cubs of high-ranking mothers have a lower probability of infection with and are more likely to die from canine distemper virus than cubs of low-ranking mothers. In subadults and adults, the picture is reversed -- high-ranking females exhibit a higher infection probability than low-ranking females whereas mortality was similar for both groups. These are the results of a long-term study conducted by scientists at the German Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research. (2018-03-06)

Pigeons can discriminate both space and time
Pigeons aren't so bird-brained after all. New research from the University of Iowa shows that pigeons can discriminate the abstract concepts of space and time, likely using a different region of the brain than humans and primates to do so. Results appear in the journal Current Biology. (2017-12-04)

Tracking collars uncover the secrets of baboons' raiding tactics
New research shows how canny baboons in Cape Town use a sit-and-wait tactic before raiding people's homes in search of food. (2017-11-08)

New tissue-engineered blood vessel replacements one step closer to human trials
Researchers at the University of Minnesota have created a new lab-grown blood vessel replacement that is composed completely of biological materials, but surprisingly doesn't contain any living cells at implantation. The vessel, that could be used as an (2017-11-01)

Sibling bonding is stronger when dad's around
For many female mammals, mothers and maternal sisters dominate all aspects of an individual's social life. Emily Lynch of the University of Missouri, Columbia, in the US argues fathers might play a significant role, as well. She is the lead author of a study that highlights how social bonds develop between paternal half-siblings when their shared father is in the vicinity. Her findings are published in Springer's journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. (2017-07-18)

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