Current Bacterial Infections News and Events

Current Bacterial Infections News and Events, Bacterial Infections News Articles.
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Mouse study shows bacteriophage therapy could fight drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae
Using viruses instead of antibiotics to tame troublesome drug-resistant bacteria is a promising strategy, known as bacteriophage or ''phage therapy.'' Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have used two different bacteriophage viruses individually and then together to successfully treat research mice infected with multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 258 (ST258). (2021-02-23)

Toxins from one bacterial species contribute to genetic diversity of others
A toxin produced by bacteria as a defence mechanism causes mutations in target bacteria that could help them survive. (2021-02-23)

Biological therapy has proved a suitable alternative to antibiotics
Tel Aviv University researchers have developed a biological substitute for the treatment of tuberculosis, which in the future could serve as an alternative for the traditional ''chemical'' antibiotic therapy. Dr. Freund: ''Advances in molecular medicine enable us to develop new tools to rout microbes, which can also solve the problem of drug-resistant germs''. This groundbreaking study has been published in the prestigious scientific journal Nature Communications. (2021-02-22)

Antibiotic tolerance study paves way for new treatments
The study in mice, 'A Multifaceted Cellular Damage Repair and Prevention Pathway Promotes High Level Tolerance to Beta-lactam Antibiotics,' published Feb. 3 in the journal EMBO Reports, reveals how tolerance occurs, thanks to a system that mitigates iron toxicity in bacteria that have been exposed to penicillin. (2021-02-22)

CUHK physicists discover new route to active matter self-organisation
An international team led by Professor Yilin Wu, Associate Professor of the Department of Physics at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has made a novel conceptual advance in the field of active matter science. The team discovered a new route in which the self-organisation of active fluids in space and time can be controlled by a single material property called viscoelasticity. (2021-02-20)

Hospital hygiene: A closer look reveals realistic frequency of infection
A research team led by Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and the University of Bern found a correlation between the frequency of infections after surgery and performance in quality audits. Lower surgical site infection rates correlate with a lower audit score. In other words, looking more closely reveals more reported infections. Recommendations for possible correction are presented. (2021-02-18)

Antibiotic could be repurposed and added to tuberculosis treatment arsenal
Research has found fidaxomicin, an antibiotic usually used to treat bowel infections, prevents growth of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) in the lab. (2021-02-17)

TB vaccine may protect newborns against other infectious diseases
The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) could protect newborns against a variety of common infections, such as upper respiratory tract infections, chest infections and diarrhoea, according to a new study in Lancet Infectious Diseases. (2021-02-17)

How bacteria hunt bacteria
The research team led by Dr. Christine Kaimer from the Microbial Biology department at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) has taken a close look at predatory bacteria, which feed on other bacteria. Through microscopic examinations and protein analyses, they characterized the strategies used by the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus: It combines several mechanisms to kill structurally different prey bacteria, and also works in groups where necessary. (2021-02-16)

Campylobacter strains exchange genes, can become more virulent and antibiotic resistant
Campylobacter bacteria persist throughout poultry production, and two of the most common strains are exchanging genetic material, which could result in more antibiotic-resistant and infectious Campylobacter strains. (2021-02-15)

Scientists identify how harmless gut bacteria "turn bad"
An international team of scientists has determined how harmless E. coli gut bacteria in chickens can easily pick up the genes required to evolve to cause a life-threatening infection. Their study, published in Nature Communications, warns that such infections not only affect the poultry industry but could also potentially cross over to infect humans. (2021-02-12)

Rebuilding soil microbiomes in high-tunnel agricultural systems focus of study
The presence of high salt and nitrogen concentrations in high- tunnel soils may make it more challenging to rebuild a healthy soil microbiome following a soil-clearing event, according to microbial ecologists in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences. (2021-02-11)

Pooping out miracles: scientists reveal mechanism behind fecal microbiota transplantation
In a study published in Gastroenterology - Researchers at Osaka City University and The Institute for Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, in collaboration with Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, report the intestinal bacterial and viral metagenome information from the fecal samples of patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). This comprehensive analysis reveals the bacteria and phages involved in pathogenesis in rCDI, and their remarkable pathways important for the recovery of intestinal flora function. (2021-02-10)

Gulls, sentinels of bacteria in the environment
Gulls are one of the main wild birds that act as reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella, two most relevant intestinal antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing gastroenteritis in humans. Therefore, according to an article published in the journal Science of the Total Environment seagulls could act as sentinels of the antibiotic pressure in the environment. (2021-02-10)

Researchers unravel what makes someone a COVID-19 super-spreader
Researchers at Tulane University, Harvard University, MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have learned that obesity, age and COVID-19 infection correlate with a propensity to breathe out more respiratory droplets -- key spreaders of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Their findings were published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2021-02-10)

How the 3-D structure of eye-lens proteins is formed
Chemical bonds within the eye-lens protein gamma-B crystallin hold the protein together and are therefore important for the function of the protein within the lens. Contrary to previous assumptions, some of these bonds, called disulphide bridges, are already formed simultaneously with the synthesis of the protein in the cell. This is what scientists at Goethe University Frankfurt, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics and the French Institute de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble have discovered. (2021-02-10)

A novel approach to determine how carcinogenic bacteria find their targets
The gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize the stomachs of the majority of the world's population. Although most people may never experience major complications due to the pathogen, H. pylori infections increase the risk of certain types of gastric cancer, as well as other illnesses such as peptic ulcers and gastritis. (2021-02-10)

Infectious disease causes long-term changes to frog's microbiome
In a rare study published this week, Andrea Jani, a researcher with the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, determined the skin microbiome of an endangered frog was altered when the frogs were infected by a specific fungus, and it didn't recover to its initial state even when the frog was cured of the infection. (2021-02-10)

Phages can anticipate bacteria's location and destroy them before they cause an infection
A novel strategy has the potential of becoming a game changer in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria that live in hard-to-reach places. (2021-02-09)

The genetic susceptibility of people with Down's syndrome to COVID-19
A study reveals the genetic factors that may expose or protect people with Down syndrome from SARS-CoV-2. TMPRSS2, a gene that codes for an enzyme critical for aiding the entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human cells, had 60% higher levels of expression in Down syndrome. The researchers also found higher expression levels for CXCL10, a gene that can trigger cytokine storms. The authors call to vaccinate people with Down syndrome against COVID-19 as a priority. (2021-02-08)

Richness of plant species reduces the number of viral infections in meadows
A new study indicates that agricultural activity confuses the mechanisms that regulate the occurrence of plant diseases in nature. A wider variety of virus species was found in meadows close to agricultural fields compared to those located in natural surroundings, with the richness of plant species having no effect on the number of virus species. However, maintaining biodiversity is worthwhile, as plant richness did reduce the number of viral infections in the meadows. (2021-02-08)

Severe undercounting of COVID-19 cases in U.S., other countries estimated via model
A new machine-learning framework uses reported test results and death rates to calculate estimates of the actual number of current COVID-19 infections within all 50 U.S. states and 50 countries. Jungsik Noh and Gaudenz Danuser of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on February 8, 2021. (2021-02-08)

COVID-19 infections in the U.S. nearly three times greater than reported, model estimates
DALLAS - Feb. 8, 2021 - World health experts have long suspected that the incidence of COVID-19 has been higher than reported. Now, a machine-learning algorithm developed at UT Southwestern estimates that the number of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. since the pandemic began is nearly three times that of confirmed cases. (2021-02-08)

Fungi in the gut prime immunity against infection
Common fungi, often present in the gut, teach the immune system how to respond to their more dangerous relatives, according to new research from scientists at Weill Cornell Medicine. Breakdowns in this process can leave people susceptible to deadly fungal infections. (2021-02-05)

BU study: New vaginal film, MB66, is safe
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Mapp Biopharmaceutical have now found that MB66, a vaginal film product containing monoclonal antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and 2), is safe and effective. (2021-02-03)

Age groups that sustain resurging COVID-19 epidemics in the United States
By late summer 2020, the resurgence of COVID-19 in the United States was largely driven by adults between the ages of 20 and 49, a new study finds. (2021-02-02)

Toxin-antitoxin function fuels antibiotic-resistance research
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are now known to negatively control plasmid replication, according to Thomas Wood, Biotechnology Endowed Chair and professor of chemical engineering in the Penn State College of Engineering. (2021-02-01)

Study identifies noncoding RNA involved in immune response and sepsis
When the body's immune response to an infection gets out of control, the result can be sepsis, a life-threatening condition in which an overwhelming inflammatory response can lead rapidly to failure of multiple organs and death. In a new study, researchers at UC Santa Cruz have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) molecule that regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in immune system cells called macrophages and affects the susceptibility of mice to septic shock. (2021-02-01)

Lactobacillus manipulates bile acids to create favorable gut environment
Probiotic Lactobacillus bacteria use enzymes situationally to manipulate bile acids and promote their own survival in the gut. (2021-02-01)

Nasal spray that protects against COVID-19 is also effective against the common cold
Research into a new drug, known as INNA-X, which primes the immune system in the respiratory tract and is in development for COVID-19 shows it is also effective against rhinovirus. Rhinovirus is the most common respiratory virus, the main cause of the common cold and is responsible for exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (2021-02-01)

Socioeconomic, demographic and urban factors influence the spread of COVID-19
Per capita income, population volume and density, the structure of cities, transport infrastructure or whether districts have their own schools are all factors that can affect the spread of COVID-19. This has been confirmed by a study carried out in 73 districts in Barcelona (Spain) by researchers from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili, the results of which have been published in the Journal of Public Health. (2021-01-31)

Inherited immune condition reversed by random DNA change
Researchers have revealed how a rare DNA change rebalanced the immune system of patients with a life-threatening genetic immunodeficiency. (2021-01-31)

By changing their shape, some bacteria can grow more resilient to antibiotics
New research led by Carnegie Mellon University Assistant Professor of Physics Shiladitya Banerjee demonstrates how certain types of bacteria can adapt to long-term exposure to antibiotics by changing their shape. (2021-01-29)

Why people overuse antibiotics
The overuse of antibiotics occurs due to the mistaken widespread belief that they are beneficial for a broad array of conditions and because many physicians are willing to prescribe antibiotics if patients ask for the medication, according to a Rutgers study. (2021-01-27)

Neonatal antibiotic use associated with reduced growth in boys
Exposure to antibiotics in the first few weeks of life is associated with reduced weight and height in boys up to the age of six, but not girls, reports a paper in Nature Communications. The study, led by Prof. Omry Koren, of Bar-Ilan University, together with Prof. Samuli Rautava, of the University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, suggests that this effect may be due to changes in the development of the gut microbiome. (2021-01-26)

Iron-carrying extracellular vesicles are key to respiratory viral-bacterial co-infection
The vesicles associate with bacterial cells and supply them with essential nutrients, promoting the growth of expansive bacterial communities. (2021-01-26)

New study: Malaria tricks the brain's defence system
Malaria is one of the most common causes of death in children in Africa. When the parasite builds up in the blood vessels of the brain, it develops into one of the most dangerous forms of the disease, cerebral malaria. Though it wasn't certain if the parasite was able to penetrate the brain tissue, now researchers from the University of Copenhagen have found parasites can do that and have mapped the mechanism they utilise. (2021-01-26)

Medicaid expansion helps uncover undiagnosed HIV infections
Expanding eligibility for Medicaid, the federal-state health insurance program for low-income individuals, was associated with a 13.9% increase in HIV diagnoses, says new research co-written by Dolores Albarracín, a professor of psychology and of business administration at Illinois, and Bita Fayaz Farkhad, pictured, an economist and a postdoctoral researcher in psychology at Illinois. (2021-01-26)

Antibiotic resistance may spread even more easily than expected
Pathogenic bacteria in humans are developing resistance to antibiotics much faster than expected. Now, computational research at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, shows that one reason could be significant genetic transfer between bacteria in our ecosystems and to humans. This work has also led to new tools for resistance researchers. (2021-01-21)

Immunology - Functionality of immune cells in early life
A study by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers shows that putatively immature dendritic cells found in young children are able to induce robust immune responses. The results could lead to improved vaccination protocols. (2021-01-21)

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