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OHSU study reveals continued reports of increased pain in dying hospitalized patients
A study By the Center for Ethics in Health Care at Oregon Health Sciences University details continued reports of increased pain in dying patients. This finding follows an earlier study that showed a sharp increase in pain reported by the families of dying Oregon residents. (2000-06-04)

Shedding light on luminescence: Scientists visualize structure of the photoprotein aequorin
In this week's issue of the journal Nature, Shimomura and his colleagues James Head from Boston University, Katsunori Teranishi from Mei University (Japan), and Satoshi Inouye from Chisso Corporation (Japan), describe the three- dimensional crystal structure of aequorin, the photoprotein that illuminates jellyfish, centophores and many other luminescing organisms. The study was supported by the National Science Foundation. (2000-05-17)

Getting to the core of reovirus
HHMI researchers have solved the structure of an important component of reovirus, a double-stranded RNA virus that bears similarity to pathogens such as rotavirus, a potentially deadly cause of diarrhea in infants. (2000-04-26)

Polyester may help shore up damaged bones
Michael Yaszemski, M.D., Ph.D. of Mayo Clinic has combined his two areas of expertise -- orthopedic surgery and chemical engineering -- into two new molecular approaches to fixing bone injuries. Both involve polyesters, the same chemical substances used in fabrics and plastics, only these are biodegradable. (2000-04-10)

DFG presents the results of the reviewer elections
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) has announced the results of its reviewer elections: 88,000 entitled scientists have elected 650 reviewers in 189 special fields. (2000-03-28)

Differences in foot structure associated with overuse injuries
A recent study by a Mayo Clinic orthopedic researcher and researchers from the Naval Health Research Center and Naval Medical Center sheds some light on factors involved in overuse injuries suffered by people who pursue intense training activities (1999-12-01)

California chemist named president-elect of the world's largest scientific society
Attila E. Pavlath, Ph.D., a chemist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Albany, Calif., has been named president- elect of the world's largest scientific society, the American Chemical Society. (1999-11-18)

Cranfield pioneers coach safety research
Cranfield University has been working with Dutch coach manufacturers Bova to develop a new coach structure which will dramatically increase the survival rate of passengers in the event of a crash. The new system comes ahead of new safety measures currently being discussed in Europe. (1999-11-08)

Antibiotics-resistant bacteria
DNA becomes remarkably organized in bacteria that are subjected to various conditions of stress, Weizmann Institute scientists report in the July 1 issue of Nature. The tightly packed configuration of the DNA promotes the ability of the cells to withstand extreme environmental assaults such as oxidative agents and starvation. (1999-07-01)

'Altered state' may be responsible for creating important brain chemicals
Twenty years after visualizing a surprising left-handed form of the DNA double helix, Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher Alexander Rich has found that this altered form of genetic material is involved in some important biological activities. (1999-06-10)

Structure Of HDL Cholesterol Determined
Using novel methods for performing infrared spectroscopy University of Pennsylvania Medical Center researchers have resolved a contentious scientific debate over the structure of high-density lipoproteins, or HDL particles, the so-called (1999-05-24)

NICHD Researchers Discover Gene For Major Brain Structure
Researchers at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) have discovered a gene that controls the development of the hippocampus, a brain structure crucial for learning and memory. The work was performed by Yangu Zhao, Ph.D., and his colleagues, of NICHD's Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, led by Heiner Westphal, M.D., chief of the laboratory. The finding appears in the May 14th issue of Science. (1999-05-14)

3D Sight From Sonic Imaging
A new technique for visualising the three dimensional internal structure of an object will allow engineers to see exactly where cracks and faults have appeared and how well the structure has been built. The technique, being developed by Sonoscan, can provide an unparalleled 3D view of the internal features and defects of items such as integrated circuit packages, diamond coatings or ceramic discs. (1999-04-01)

Viral Harpoon Structure Suggests Measles, HIV And Ebola Viruses Related
The mumps and measles viruses use a molecular harpoon to spear host cells that they are going to infect. HHMI researchers reveal that the three-dimensional structure of this protein is similar to the fusion protein used by HIV, influenza and Ebola, suggesting common ancestry for all of these viruses. (1999-03-26)

Wistar Professor Awarded W.W. Smith Charitable Trust Grant for Work in Heart Research
Dr. Francesca Marassi, a professor at Philadelphia's Wistar Institute was awarded a three-year $228,000 grant from The W.W. Smith Charitable Trust for her research in (1999-01-22)

NYU Researchers Find Infants Understand How To Put Words Together Into Simple Language-Like Sentences
A team of researchers led by NYU psychologist Gary Marcus has discovered that seven-month-old infants have a previously undiscovered ability for learning about the world and attacking the problem of language acquisition. Marcus found that infants can recognize and generalize simple language- like rules. (1998-12-31)

Wistar Scientists Gain Information About Molecular Recognition
Wistar Institute scientists working in the structural biology laboratory of Ronen Marmorstein, Ph.D., have identified a new mechanism by which proteins regulate DNA transcription. These latest findings appear in the January 1999 issue of the scientific journal, Nature Structural Biology. (1998-12-21)

How HIV Evades AZT
HHMI investigators have produced an image of the active form of the HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase. This work may clarify how mutations render HIV resistant to antiviral drugs. (1998-11-27)

'Smart' Material Superconductors
A new technique for examining the microscopic structure of materials has opened the doorway to designing 'smart' superconductors and electronics. (1998-10-29)

Study Suggests Racism, Not Family Structure, Affects Black Men
It's not family structure but institutionalized racism in America that negatively influences the lives of black men, according to an Ohio University researcher. This first known study of the effects of early childhood on black men suggests that family structure has little to do with how black men view the world. (1998-10-29)

Penicillin Gets A "Checkmate" Against Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
Groundbreaking work to alter penicillin's structure and make it effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria has been reported in the October 9, 1998 Web edition of The Journal of Organic Chemistry, published by the American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society. The researchers say their prototype structure offers a (1998-10-09)

Turning "Unrecyclable" Waste Into Plastic Products
Often recyclers are left with an unpleasant pile of dark rank smelling scrap yard shredder waste that refuses to transform into anything intrinsically useful. But now researchers at the University of Warwick have found a way of using this unpleasant residue to form the basic structure of everyday plastic containers and components. (1998-09-04)

Enzyme's Structure Yields Blueprint For Antibiotic Resistance
A team of biologists has determined the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme that allows certain bacteria to resist the killing effects of the antibiotic gentamicin. The structure is also shared by a number of proteins involved in basic biological processes, including circadian rhythms and gene regulation. (1998-08-21)

Vertex Researchers Report Three-Dimensional Atomic Structure Of JNK3 Enzyme; Report In Structure
Vertex Pharmaceuticals researchers have solved the three- dimensional atomic structure of the JNK3 enzyme, a research advance that may pave the way for new drugs to treat epilepsy and stroke. The discovery, which represents the first known structure of JNK3, will be published in the August 15, 1998 issue of the journal Structure. Vertex will use the structural information to design novel, small molecule inhibitors of JNK3. (1998-08-14)

Australian Scientists In World-First Cell Discovery
A team of Australian scientists has achieved a world first by describing the structure of a vital receptor found on the surface of the body cells of all animals including humans. (1998-07-24)

Crystal Structure Of gp120 Reveals HIV In Action
In the long battle against AIDS, a philosophy of (1998-06-17)

Damaged Minds
Scientists in Baltimore, Maryland, have found that some stunted regions of the brain may be to blame for the most severe symptoms of autism, while other undersized regions may cause the milder symptoms often suffered by close relatives of autistics. (1998-06-10)

Smart Concrete May Mean Less Road Closures
Engineers at the University of Toronto turned a bridge into a smart structure by lining the bridge's columns with fibre- optic sensors and wrapping them with a synthetic material that holds the structure together while the sensors precisely measure possible corrosion that may be occurring underneath, meaning less road maintenance in general and ultimately less road closures. (1998-04-29)

Structure Of The Plasma Membrane Proton Pump Offers A First Glimpse Of The Mechanism Of Ion Pumping Across Membranes
A research team from the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt/Germany, and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill/NC, has determined the structure of the plasma membrane proton ATPase at a resolution of about 0.8 nm by electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional crystals (nature, vol. 392, 23 April 1998, 840). (1998-04-27)

Structure Of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Converting Enzyme Solved - Milestone Toward Rational Drug Design For Rheumatoid Arthritis And Endotoxic Shock
The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme was solved by scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried/Germany, in cooperation with researchers from Immunex/Seattle, Wyeth-Ayerst/New York, and the Max Planck Research Unit for Proteindynamics at DESY/Hamburg. The results were published in PNAS (1998), 95 (7), 3408-3412. (1998-04-06)

Crystal Structure Of The Archaeal Chaperonin Thermosome, A Protein-Folding Machine, Determined
A research team at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried/Germany, and the Institute of Microbiology, University of Regensburg, has solved the crystal structure of the thermosome. This structure, published in Cell on April 3, 1998, provides clues for understanding the mode of action of archaeal and eukaryotic chaperonins. (1998-04-03)

Statement By Dr. Richard Zare On Proposed National Institute For The Environment
The national and global environmental challenges we face are acute. Federal support for environmental research is a critical investment in this country's future and in the health of our children. The National Science Board has passed a resolution which makes clear its support for increased federally-funded environmental research and education. It expresses the strong belief that the National Science Foundation (NSF) can and should play a greater leadership role in this effort. (1998-03-20)

3-D Structure of Human Tumor-Suppressor Protein Produced
Researchers here have determined the three-dimensional structure of the protein produced by one of the most important human tumor-suppressor genes. The gene is the p16 tumor-suppressor gene. The protein produced by this gene, the p16 protein, normally prevents cells from dividing when they shouldn't. (1998-03-02)

Harvard Medical School Researchers Present Atomic Structure Of DNA-Replicating Enzyme Widely Used In DNA Sequencing
Harvard Medical School researchers have established the 3-D, atom-by-atom structure of a DNA-replicating enzyme at work. This protein, T7 DNA polymerase, is used worldwide to sequence DNA. This structure will be of special interest to researchers who develop drugs targeting DNA replication. Many antiviral drugs, including the AIDS drug AZT and drugs against herpes simplex virus, inhibit DNA polymerase. (1998-01-15)

Max-Planck Researchers Unravel The Structure Of The Methane Forming Enzyme
A team of the Max Planck Institutes from Frankfurt and Marburg has recently determined the structure of methyl- coenzyme M reductase, a key enzyme of methanogenesis that catalyzes a highly complex chemical reaction namely the reduction of a thioether to a hydrocarbon. (1997-11-21)

Abnormally High Metabolism In An Area Of The Brain May Account For Many Symptoms Of Depression, Say Pitt Researchers
Using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, researchers at UPMC Health System have found evidence that many emotional symptoms of depression may be caused by abnormally high metabolism in an almond-sized area in the center of the brain called the amygdala. (1997-10-28)

Students' Engineering Analysis Shows San Francisco's New Air Terminal Will Withstand Quakes
More than two years before it opens its doors -- and who knows how long before it experiences a major earthquake -- University at Buffalo engineering students have determined that San Francisco's new airport terminal building should remain operational during earthquakes registering as high as eight on the Richter scale. (1997-10-27)

Nonbiological Molecule May Hold Clues To Protein Folding
University of Illinois chemists have synthesized a nonbiological molecule that self-assembles into a structure similar to that found in living matter. The discovery may offer new insights into the biological folding process. (1997-09-18)

Computer Model Offers New Insight On Bacterial Photosynthesis
Using advanced computer modeling and bacteria gathered from mud, University of Illinois scientists have shed new light on one of Earth's most efficient photosynthetic systems. (1997-09-05)

Progress In Prion Research: Three-Dimensional Structure Of Prion Protein Fully Uncovered
A team of researchers from the Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich are the first to successfully decode the three-dimensional structure of an intact prion protein. The newly decoded part of the protein structure might play an important role in the conversion of the normal prion protein into its disease-inducing variant. (1997-08-13)

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