Current Biochemisches Institut News and Events

Current Biochemisches Institut News and Events, Biochemisches Institut News Articles.
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Improving immunotherapies for blood cancers: real-time exploration in the tumor
Monoclonal antibodies are part of the therapeutic arsenal for eliminating cancer cells. Some make use of the immune system to act and belong to a class of treatment called ''immunotherapies.'' But how do these antibodies function within the tumor? And how can we hope to improve their efficacy? Using innovative in vivo imaging approaches, scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm visualized in real time how anti-CD20 antibodies, used to treat B-cell lymphoma, guide the immune system to attack tumor cells. (2021-02-21)

3D biopsies to better understand brain tumors
Researchers at the Institut de Neurociències of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (INc-UAB) obtained a highly accurate recreation of human glioblastoma's features using a novel 3D microscopy analysis. The study, published in the journal Acta Neuropathologica Communications, provides new information to help with the diagnose, by finding therapeutical targets and designing immunotherapeutical strategies. (2021-02-19)

The quantum advantage: a novel demonstration
Scientists have just proved that a quantum machine can perform a given verification task in seconds when the same exercise would take a time equivalent to the age of the universe for a conventional computer. For this demonstration, they combined a complex interactive algorithm that solves a certain type of mathematical problem with limited information and a simple experimental photonics system that can be made in all advanced photonics laboratories. (2021-02-08)

Antarctica: the ocean cools at the surface but warms up at depth
Scientists from the CNRS, CNES, IRD, Sorbonne Université, l'Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier and their Australian colleagues, with the support of the IPEV, have concluded that the slight cooling observed at the surface of the Southern Ocean hides a rapid and marked warming of the waters, to a depth of up to 800 metres. These results were obtained thanks to unique data acquired over the past 25 years. (2021-01-21)

Scientists discover how the potentially oldest coral reefs in the Mediterranean developed
A new study from the Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC, Spain) and the National Oceanography Centre brings unprecedented insights into the environmental constraints and climatic events that controlled the formation of the potentially oldest coral reefs in the Mediterranean. (2021-01-21)

Keeping sperm cells on track
Researchers point to a new mechanism underlying male infertility. (2021-01-07)

In plants, channels set the rhythm
Like animals, plants have 'molecular switches' on the surface of their cells that transduce a mechanical signal into an electrical one in milliseconds. In animals, sound vibrations activate 'molecular switches' located in the ear. French scientists have found that in plants, rapid oscillations of stems and leaves due to wind may activate these 'switches' very effectively. They could allow plants to 'listen' to the wind. (2020-12-29)

Slow start of plate tectonics despite a hot early Earth
Writing in PNAS, scientists from Cologne university present important new constraints showing that plate tectonics started relatively slow, although the early Earth's interior was much hotter than today. (2020-12-22)

How a very "sociable" protein can hold clues about Alzheimer's origin
An international team of scientists led by the ESRF, the European Synchrotron, have found how the ECSIT protein dictates the behaviour of proteins linked to the energy activity in mitochondria, which is largely affected in Alzheimer's disease. Their results are published today in Angewandte Chemie. (2020-12-16)

Gut microbiota plays a role in brain function and mood regulation
Depression is a mental disorder that affects more than 264 million people of all ages worldwide. Understanding its mechanisms is vital for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, Inserm and the CNRS recently conducted a study showing that an imbalance in the gut bacterial community can cause a reduction in some metabolites, resulting in depressive-like behaviors. These findings, which show that a healthy gut microbiota contributes to normal brain function, were published in Nature Communications on December 11, 2020. (2020-12-11)

Research reveals how a fungal infection activates inflammation
Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have shed light on the mechanisms that underlie how Aspergillus fumigatus activates the inflammasome, with implications for therapeutic development. (2020-12-02)

A cold-health watch and warning system for cold waves in Quebec
A team from the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) and the Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), led by Professor Fateh Chebana, has recently developed a cold-health watch and warning system for cold waves, a first in the world. Their results were published in November 2020 in the journal Science of the Total Environment. (2020-11-26)

Greater mosquito susceptibility to Zika virus fueled the epidemic
By experimentally comparing wild populations of Ae. aegypti the researchers discovered that the invasive subspecies is very effective at transmitting the Zika virus not only because it has more frequent contacts with humans for blood meals, but also as a result of its greater susceptibility to the virus relative to the African subspecies. (2020-11-19)

Rats also capable of transmitting hantavirus
A group of researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have confirmed Germany's first-ever case of animal-to-human transmission involving a specific species of virus known as the 'Seoul virus'. Working alongside colleagues from Friedrich-Loeffer-Institut (FLI), the researchers were able to confirm the presence of the virus in a young female patient and her pet rat. (2020-11-12)

A biomimetic membrane for desalinating seawater on an industrial scale
Reverse osmosis is one of the most widely used techniques for the desalination of water. Some of the membranes currently used are artificial channels of water inserted into lipid layers. But their large-scale performance is not satisfactory. An international team has developed a hybrid strategy, which consists of combining a polyamide matrix and artificial water channels into a single structure. Their membranes have been tested under industrial conditions and outperform conventional membranes. (2020-11-09)

Has the hidden matter of the universe been discovered?
Astrophysicists consider that around 40% of the ordinary matter that makes up stars, planets and galaxies remains undetected, concealed in the form of a hot gas in the complexe cosmic web. Today, scientists at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (CNRS/Université Paris-Saclay) may have detected, for the first time, this hidden matter through an innovative statistical analysis of 20-year-old data. Their findings are published on November 6, 2020 in Astronomy & Astrophysics. (2020-11-06)

Starting kindergarten on the right foot
Going into kindergarten already well-prepared gives a child advantagesgives a child many advantages later in life and lowers costs for society in the long term, researchers in Canada find. (2020-11-02)

In your gut: How bacteria survive low oxygen environments
Researchers from ITQB NOVA, in collaboration with the Institut Pasteur in Paris, have shed light on the mechanisms that allow Clostridioides difficile, a pathogen that can only grow in oxygen-free environments, to survive low oxygen levels. C. difficile is a major cause of intestinal problems associated with the use of antibiotics, causing an estimated number of 124k cases per year in the EU, costing on average 5k€ per patient, as a direct consequence of healthcare-associated contagion. (2020-11-02)

Towards next-generation molecule-based magnets
Magnets are to be found everywhere in our daily lives, whether in satellites, telephones or on fridge doors. However, they are made up of heavy inorganic materials whose component elements are, in some cases, of limited availability. Now, researchers from the CNRS, the University of Bordeaux and the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble) have developed a new lightweight molecule-based magnet, produced at low temperatures, and exhibiting unprecedented magnetic properties. (2020-10-29)

Researchers uncover crucial gene for growth of Ewing sarcoma
Researchers have discovered a gene that is critical for the development of Ewing sarcoma, a rare type of developmental cancer that presents in bones and soft tissues. Exploring the pharmacological inhibition of RING1B as a clinical therapy to treat Ewing sarcoma could open the door for new treatments for the rare disease. (2020-10-23)

A promising discovery could lead to better treatment for Hepatitis C
Virologists at Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) have identified a critical role played by a cellular protein in the progression of Hepatitis C virus infection, paving the way for more effective treatment. No vaccine currently exists for Hepatitis C virus infection, which affects more than 130 million people worldwide and nearly 250,000 Canadians. Antivirals exist but are expensive and not readily available in developing countries, where the disease is most prevalent. (2020-10-22)

Scientists shed new light on mechanisms of malaria parasite motility
New insight on the molecular mechanisms that allow malaria parasites to move and spread disease within their hosts has been published today in the open-access eLife journal. (2020-10-13)

Timing, complications, safety of tracheotomy in critically ill patients with COVID-19
The complications, safety and timing of tracheotomy performed for critically ill patients with COVID-19 is assessed in this observational study. (2020-10-08)

Cocaine addiction: Impact of genetic mutations elucidated
Cocaine addiction is a chronic disorder with a high rate of relapse for which no effective treatment is currently available. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm and the Paris Public Hospital Network (AP-HP) recently demonstrated that two gene mutations involved in the conformation of nicotinic receptors in the brain appear to play a role in various aspects of cocaine addiction. (2020-09-25)

New tool mimics human skin to allow detailed study of mosquito biting
Scientists have developed a tool for studying the biting behaviour of common pathogen-carrying mosquitoes, according to new research published this week in eLife. (2020-09-23)

Improving European healthcare through cell-based interceptive medicine
Hundreds of innovators, research pioneers, clinicians, industry leaders and policy makers from all around Europe are united by a vision of how to revolutionize healthcare. In two publications - a perspective article in the journal Nature and the LifeTime Strategic Research Agenda - they now present a detailed roadmap of how to leverage the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies over the next decade, to track, understand and treat human cells throughout an individual's lifetime. (2020-09-07)

Nanoearthquakes control spin centers in SiC
Researchers from the Paul-Drude-Institut in Berlin, the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Dresden and the Ioffe Institute in St. Petersburg have demonstrated the use of elastic vibrations to manipulate the spin states of optically active color centers in SiC at room temperature. They show a non-trivial dependence of the acoustically induced spin transitions on the spin quantization direction, which can lead to chiral spin-acoustic resonances. These findings are important for applications in future quantum-electronic devices. (2020-09-04)

New populations of black holes revealed by gravitational waves
The gravitational wave detectors LIGO and Virgo have just chalked up their biggest catch yet, a black hole 142 times the mass of the Sun, resulting from the merger of two ''lighter'' black holes. It could give some clues about the formation of the supermassive black holes that sit at the centres of some galaxies. One of the merging black holes could improve our understanding of the final stages in the evolution of massive stars. (2020-09-02)

Significantly more Danes infected with campylobacter in 2019
In 2019, the number of registered campylobacter infections increased by almost a fifth and studies show that many of the campylobacter outbreaks recorded that year were caused by chicken meat. (2020-09-02)

Development of serological assays to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies
Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm and Université de Paris conducted a pilot study to evaluate the reliability of several laboratory tests with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the profile of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and how the virus is spreading among the population. Four tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were developed and evaluated, as well as two tests for the detection of neutralizing antibodies. (2020-08-20)

Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography: 3D live-imaging of retinal organoids
Optical coherence tomography offers astounding opportunities to image the complex structure of living tissue but lacks functional information. We present dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography as a technique to noninvasively image living human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids. Coloured images with an endogenous contrast linked to organelle motility are generated, with submicrometre spatial resolution and millisecond temporal resolution, creating a way to identify specific cell types in living tissue via their dynamic profile. (2020-08-18)

Flexible and protected
In the fight against the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 researchers from multiple research institutions in Germany have combined their resources to study the spike protein on the surface of the virus. With its spikes, the virus binds to human cells and infects them. The study gave surprising insights into the spike protein, including an unexpected freedom of movement and a protective coat to hide it from antibodies. The results are published in Science. (2020-08-18)

The behavior of therapeutic antibodies in immunotherapy
Since the late 1990s, immunotherapy has been the frontline treatment against lymphomas where synthetic antibodies are used to stop the proliferation of cancerous white blood cells. However, in the more than 20 years since their use began, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this therapy are still little understood. For the first time, scientists from the CNRS, Institut Pasteur and Université de Bordeaux have observed the interaction between therapeutic antibodies and their target protein. (2020-08-13)

Hepatitis B: Natural controllers shed light on immunity mechanisms
To improve our understanding of the antibody response conferring protection against HBV infection, scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm, in collaboration with the Roche Innovation Center in Switzerland, produced and characterized human monoclonal antibodies specific to viral envelope antigens, referred as HBsAg, from blood memory B cells isolated from HBV vaccinees and natural controllers. (2020-08-13)

Secretion of sugar polymers modulates multicellularity in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus
Research by INRS (Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique) Professor Salim Timo Islam has revealed that multicellular physiology in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus--a bacterium that can actively reorganize its community according to the environment in which it is found--is modulated by the secretion of two natural sugar polymers in separate zones of a swarm. Results from their research, done in collaboration with an international team, have been published in the journal PLOS Biology. (2020-08-12)

Genetic cause of congenital malformation discovered
Spontaneous mutations of a single gene are likely to cause serious developmental disorders of the excretory organs and genitalia. This is shown in an international study led by the University of Bonn and published in the journal ''Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology''. The researchers also owe their findings to an unusual model organism: the zebrafish. (2020-08-07)

Malaria: Parasite resistance to artemisinin derivatives now affecting Africa
Resistance to artemisinin, the main component of the current antimalarial treatments recommended by WHO, is already widespread in South-East Asia, but it had not previously been described in Africa. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur recently detected the emergence and spread of malaria parasites capable of resisting artemisinin derivatives for the first time in Rwanda. (2020-08-04)

Iron-mediated cancer cell activity: A new regulation mechanism
CNRS researchers at the Institut Curie have recently shown that cancer cells use a membrane protein that has been known for several decades to internalise iron. Published in Nature Chemistry (August 3rd, 2020), this work shows that the absorbed iron allows cancer cells to acquire metastatic properties. (2020-08-03)

Link confirmed between a healthy diet and prostate cancer prevention
Using data from a study conducted in Montreal between 2005 and 2012, a research team led by Professor Marie-Élise Parent of Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) has shown a link between diet and prostate cancer in the article ''Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Population-Based Case-Control Study in Montreal, Canada'', published in Nutrients in June. (2020-07-27)

Skin cancer treatments could be used to treat other forms of the disease
The creation of a silica nanocapsule could allow treatments that use light to destroy cancerous or precancerous cells in the skin to also be used to treat other types of cancer. Such are the findings of a study by INRS (Institut national de la recherche scientifique) professors Fiorenzo Vetrone and Federico Rosei, in collaboration with an international research team. (2020-07-21)

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