Current Biological Diversity News and Events

Current Biological Diversity News and Events, Biological Diversity News Articles.
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Multi-ethnic neighborhoods in England retain diversity unlike in the U.S.
Multi-ethnic neighborhoods in England retain their diversity and are much more stable than such neighborhoods in the U.S., according to geographers from the U.S. and U.K. The team examined how neighborhood diversity has changed on a national scale from 1991 to 2011 using U.K. Census data. (2021-02-23)

Dozens of new lichen species discovered in East African mountain forests
The species diversity and relationships of lichens in the genus Leptogium, which are often very difficult to identify to species, were assessed on the basis of DNA analyses using a large dataset collected during more than 10 years from East Africa. (2021-02-22)

Unique study of isolated bobcat population confirms accuracy of extinction model
The reintroduction of 32 bobcats to an island off the coast of Georgia more than three decades ago created an ideal experiment to examine the accuracy of a genetic-modeling technique that predicts extinction of isolated wildlife populations. (2021-02-22)

Female heart disease patients with female physicians fare better
Female physicians have better patient outcomes compared with their male peers, while female patients are less likely to receive guideline-recommended care when treated by a male physician, according to a systematic review from the American College of Cardiology's Cardiovascular Disease in Women section published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. (2021-02-22)

Researchers grow artificial hairs with clever physics trick
Things just got hairy at Princeton. Researchers found they could coat a liquid elastic on the outside of a disc and spin it to form useful, complex patterns. When spun just right, tiny spindles rise from the material as it cures. The spindles grow as the disc accelerates, forming a soft solid that resembles hairs. Published in PNAS Feb. 22 (2021-02-22)

Salmon scales reveal substantial decline in wild salmon population & diversity
The diversity and numbers of wild salmon in Northern B.C. have declined approximately 70 per cent over the past century, according to a new Simon Fraser University study. (2021-02-22)

Don't focus on genetic diversity to save our species
Scientists at the University of Adelaide have challenged the common assumption that genetic diversity of a species is a key indicator of extinction risk. Published in the journal PNAS, the scientists demonstrate that there is no simple relationship between genetic diversity and species survival. But, Dr João Teixeira and Dr Christian Huber from the University of Adelaide's School of Biological Sciences conclude, the focus shouldn't be on genetic diversity anyway, it should be on habitat protection. (2021-02-22)

Researchers demonstrate new method to track genetic diversity of salmon, trout
Scientists at Oregon State University and the U.S. Forest Service have demonstrated that DNA extracted from water samples from rivers across Oregon and Northern California can be used to estimate genetic diversity of Pacific salmon and trout. (2021-02-21)

Electrical transmission lines have power to enhance habitat connectivity for wildlife
CORVALLIS, Ore. - Converting the ground under electrical transmission towers into spaces for wildlife can enable fragmented populations to connect with one another, increasing local biodiversity and providing animals around the globe an important tool for adapting to climate change, a new study found. (2021-02-19)

New recommendations aim to eliminate racial bias in myeloma trials
Recommendations designed to address the under-representation of African Americans in clinical trials for multiple myeloma (MM), a blood cancer that is twice as deadly in this demographic as in whites. (2021-02-18)

Increasingly fragmented tiger populations may require 'genetic rescue'
A new study reveals the lasting genetic impacts of increased isolation among different tiger subpopulations. (2021-02-18)

More than half of Earth's rivers strongly impacted by human activity
Few of Earth's freshwater areas remain untouched by humans. More than half of the planet's freshwater river basins have been heavily impacted by human activities, according to a new study, which presents a novel, multi-faceted approach for evaluating biodiversity change at a global scale. (2021-02-18)

How to improve gender equity in medicine
Gender equity and racial diversity in medicine can promote creative solutions to complex health problems and improve the delivery of high-quality care, argue authors in an analysis in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). (2021-02-16)

Climate change forces rethinking of conservation biology planning
For more than a decade, governments in countries across the world have made significant progress to expand their protected areas network to conserve the planet's biodiversity. According to a new study published in the journal Global Change Biology, the locations of these protected areas do not take into account the potential long-term effects of climate change in these protected areas. (2021-02-15)

Study finds gender disparities on National Institutes of Health study sections
Investigators at the University of Chicago Medicine have found that women are less likely to be represented as chairs and reviewers on study sections for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), based on data from one review cycle in 2019. (2021-02-15)

Protected areas see continued deforestation but at a reduced rate, OSU research shows
A survey of more than 18,000 land parcels spanning 2 million square miles across 63 countries shows that a ''protected area'' designation reduces the rate of deforestation but does not prevent it. (2021-02-11)

Diversity in policing can improve police-civilian interactions
Black and Hispanic officers make far fewer stops and arrests and use less force than white officers, especially against Black civilians, when facing otherwise common circumstances. Hispanic officers also engage in less enforcement activity. Female officers of all races also use less force than males. (2021-02-11)

Microbiota transfer therapy for autism: Multi-omic approaches and lessons learned
Recent studies in mice and humans have revealed intriguing links between the composition of gut microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a disease believed to affect one in 54 children, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Dr. Krajmalnik-Brown's lecture will propose linkages between gut bacteria and ASD, highlighting encouraging results of a microbiome-targeted, ASD open-label clinical trial. (2021-02-08)

Special Issue: Human genome at 20
In February 2001, the first drafts of the human genome were published. (2021-02-04)

Pharmacologist offers plan to solve disparities in designing medicine
In a new perspective piece published in the Feb. 5 issue of Science, Johns Hopkins pharmacologist Namandje Bumpus, Ph.D., outlines the molecular origins for differences in how well certain drugs work among distinct populations. She also lays out a four-part plan to improve the equity of drug development. (2021-02-04)

Flower diversity may mitigate insecticide effects on wild bees
A higher diversity of flowering plants increases the breeding success of wild bees and may help compensate for the negative effects of insecticides. This is what researchers from the Universities of Göttingen and Hohenheim, as well as the Julius Kühn Institute, have found in a large-scale experimental study. The results have been published in the scientific journal Ecology Letters. (2021-02-03)

Biodiversity is its own catalyst -- to a point
For decades, scientists have wrestled with rival theories to explain how interactions between species, like competition, influence biodiversity. Tracking microbial life across the planet, researchers from McGill University show that biodiversity does in fact foster further diversity in microbiomes that are initially less diverse. However, diversity rates plateau with increased competition for survival and space in more diverse microbiomes. (2021-02-03)

Alpine plants at risk of extinction following disappearing glaciers
Nearly a quarter of Italian alpine plant species are threatened by glacier retreat, according to a new study from Stanford University. Glaciers around the world are predicted to disappear within the next decade and the consequences for the plants, animals and societies surrounding them are still uncertain. By combining historical records, current surveys and computational models, the researchers' findings may help guide conservation efforts. (2021-01-29)

Reindeer lichens are having more sex than expected
Scientists thought that reindeer lichens (moss-looking organisms that form a major part of reindeer diets) reproduced mainly asexually by cloning themselves. But it turns out, reindeer lichens are having a lot more sex than scientists expected. In a new study, researchers found that the reindeer lichens they examined have unexpected levels of genetic diversity, indicating that the lichens have been doing more gene-mixing with each other than the scientists would have guessed. (2021-01-29)

New research about emerging 'COVID-19 personality types'
New research just published identifies and explores the impacts of salient viral or COVID-19 behavioural identities that are emerging. (2021-01-29)

Key switchgrass genes identified, which could mean better biofuels ahead
Biologists believe they are one step closer to a long-held goal of making a cheap, widely available plant a source for energy and fuel, meaning one of the next big weapons in the battle against climate change may be able to trace its roots to the side of a Texas highway. The complex genome analysis of switchgrass is explained in a new paper in Nature. (2021-01-27)

New study points to better diagnostics for cancer
A new University of California, Irvine-led study finds a new method for identifying biomarkers may aid in early cancer diagnosis. The study focused on lung cancer, however the Cell Heterogeneity-Adjusted cLonal Methylation (CHALM) method has been tested on aging and Alzheimer's diseases as well and is expected to be effective for studying other diseases. (2021-01-27)

Highly specific synaptic plasticity in addiction
Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a complex neurological condition that includes drug-seeking behavior among other cognitive, emotional and behavioral features. Synaptic plasticity, or changes in the way neurons communicate with one another, drives these addictive behaviors. A new study in Biological Psychiatry, published by Elsevier, now shows that players in the extracellular environment - not just at neuronal interfaces - contribute to addiction plasticity. (2021-01-26)

Litter provides habitat for diverse animal communities in rivers, study finds
In a study of local rivers, experts at the University of Nottingham in the UK have discovered more invertebrates - animals without a backbone, such as insects and snails - living on litter than on rocks. (2021-01-25)

Pioneering new technique could revolutionise super-resolution imaging systems
Scientists have developed a pioneering new technique that could revolutionise the accuracy, precision and clarity of super-resolution imaging systems. (2021-01-21)

Childhood neglect leaves generational imprint
Early life experiences can have an outsized effect on brain development and neurobiological health. New research is showing that those effects can be passed down to subsequent generations, reporting that the infant children of mothers who had experienced childhood emotional neglect displayed altered brain circuitry involved in fear responses and anxiety. (2021-01-19)

Dinosaur-era sea lizard had teeth like a shark
New study identifies a bizarre new species suggesting that giant marine lizards thrived before the asteroid wiped them out 66 million years ago. (2021-01-19)

New biomaterials can be 'fine-tuned' for medical applications
Researchers in the UK and the United States have succeeded in 'fine tuning' a new thermoplastic biomaterial to enable both the rate at which it degrades in the body and its mechanical properties to be controlled independently. (2021-01-19)

Climate change is hurting children's diets, global study finds
A first-of-its-kind, international study of 107,000 children finds that higher temperatures are an equal or even greater contributor to child malnutrition than the traditional culprits of poverty, inadequate sanitation, and poor education. The 19-nation study is the largest investigation to date of the relationship between our changing climate and children's diet diversity. Of the six regions examined--in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America--five had significant reductions in diet diversity associated with higher temperatures. (2021-01-14)

What does marketing have to do with ill-advised consumer behavior?
A biological account of human behavior can benefit human welfare and marketing can play a critical role in facilitating public understanding and acceptance of biological causation. (2021-01-13)

Ukraine genome survey adds missing pieces to human diversity puzzle
The largest study of genetic diversity in Ukraine was published in the open science journal GigaScience. Led by researchers at Uzhhorod National University and Oakland University in the US, the work provides genetic understanding of the historic and pre-historic migration settlements in one of the key intersections of human trade and migration between the Eurasian peoples and identifies genetic variants of medical interest in the Ukrainian population that differ from other European populations. (2021-01-13)

Fossils' soft tissues helping to solve puzzle that vexed Darwin
Remarkably well-preserved fossils are helping scientists unravel a mystery about the origins of early animals that puzzled Charles Darwin. (2021-01-12)

DNA in water used to uncover genes of invasive fish
In a proof-of-principle study, Cornell researchers describe a new technique in which they analyzed environmental DNA - or eDNA - from water samples in Cayuga Lake to gather nuanced information about the presence of these invasive fish. (2021-01-12)

Metabolic potential and molecular diversity of natural products from microorganisms
Metabolic potential and molecular diversity of natural products from microorganisms https://doi.org/10.1007/s42995-020-00077-5 Announcing a new publication for Marine Life Science & Technology journal. In this review article the authors consider the metabolic potential and molecular diversity of natural products from microorganisms. (2021-01-10)

Research explains why crocodiles have changed so little since the age of the dinosaurs
New research by scientists at the University of Bristol explains how a 'stop-start' pattern of evolution, governed by environmental change, could explain why crocodiles have changed so little since the age of the dinosaurs. (2021-01-07)

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