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A full blood count of COVID-19 patients can predict disease severity
International research led by the Radboud university medical center shows that a full blood count of COVID-19 patients predicts fairly accurately whether the infection will have a complicated course or not. This makes it easier for healthcare providers to estimate the expected clinical picture. This study, conducted in eleven hospitals, has now been published in the scientific journal eLife. (2020-12-21)

Protecting against atherosclerosis at the molecular level
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified a novel mechanism by which CREB3L3 protects against atherosclerosis. By studying the absence or overexpression of the protein in mice prone to develop atherosclerosis, the researchers demonstrated that the absence of CREB3L3 exacerbates the formation of atherosclerosis, whereby the overexpression protects against atherosclerosis. At the molecular level, CREB3L3 exhibited its protective effects by inhibiting SREBP. This study could help develop a novel molecular target against atherosclerosis. (2020-12-20)

Stem cell treatment for vascular diseases can be predicted through real-time observation
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) recently announced that the collaborative research team led by Dr. Kwangmeyung Kim from Center for Theragnosis and Sung-Hwan Moon from Stem Cell Research Institute, T&R Biofab Co. Ltd developed a method that can predict the therapeutic efficacy based on the distribution of the initial transplantation of hEPCs by tracking the initial distribution and migration of the transplanted cells using fluorescence romographic images. (2020-12-18)

AI-supported test predicts eye disease three years before symptoms
A pioneering new eye test, developed by scientists at UCL in collaboration with the Western Eye Hospital, London, may predict wet AMD, a leading cause of severe sight loss, three years before symptoms develop, finds a new study in Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. (2020-12-18)

Nanotechnology -- nanoparticles as weapons against cancer
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have developed a novel type of nanoparticle that efficiently and selectively kills cancer cells, thus opening up new therapeutic options for the treatment of tumors. (2020-12-18)

A step toward understanding why COVID-19 boosts stroke risk
A UCLA-led study may help explain how COVID-19 increases the risk for stroke. Scientists made the finding by running fluid spiked with a COVID-19-like protein through a 3D-printed model of the arteries of a patient who had suffered a stroke. (2020-12-18)

Cancer researchers identify potential new class of drugs to treat blood and bone marrow cancers
CLEVELAND - A new study by researchers in Cleveland Clinic's Taussig Cancer Institute and Lerner Research Institute describes a novel class of targeted cancer drugs that may prove effective in treating certain common types of leukemia. The results first appeared online in Blood Cancer Discovery. (2020-12-15)

Immune cell that drives breast cancer could be effective target in novel immunotherapies
VCU Massey Cancer Center researcher Paula Bos, Ph.D., identified a type of immune cells that acts as a major driver of breast cancer growth by preventing the accumulation of a specific protein that induces anti-tumor responses. This new knowledge could be utilized for the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches to treat the disease. (2020-12-15)

Molecule holds promise to reprogram white blood cells for better cancer treatment
Cancer immunotherapy using ''designer'' immune cells has revolutionized cancer treatment. In this type of therapy, T cells, a type of white blood cell, are collected from a patient's blood and genetically engineered to produce T cells carrying a synthetic molecule termed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that enables T cells to recognize and destroy cancer cells. Then these genetically modified CAR T cells are expanded and infused back to the patient. (2020-12-14)

Hinder handing the message -- stopping tumors from creating new blood vessels
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) have found that vasohibin-1 (VASH1), a protein known to prevent the formation of new blood vessels, acts by changing the conditions of microtubules which bring blocking the certain signal from outside through encumbering transport of its message to the inner of cell. The unique function of this protein can inhibit tumor cells from spreading throughout the body, making it a notable finding for cancer therapeutic research. (2020-12-14)

New analysis method for predicting the risks and effects of immunotherapy
In a new study, researchers at Uppsala University have been able to show differences in how Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody drug, interacts with the blood of healthy individuals compared to patients with chronic lymphatic leukaemia. This has awakened hopes that this analysis method could pave the way for important breakthroughs in immunotherapy research and treatment. (2020-12-11)

Calibrating kidney function for cancer patients
A new model to evaluate kidney function can help clinicians find the right balance between treating cancer and avoiding chemotherapy's dangerous side effects. (2020-12-10)

COVID-19 may also invade the central nervous system, cause neurological illnesses
COVID-19 is known primarily as a respiratory disease, with symptoms that include cough, shortness of breath, and, in severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia. Now, Cleveland Clinic researchers note in a recent review that infection with the coronavirus may also affect the central nervous system and cause corresponding neurological disorders, including ischemic stroke, encephalitis, encephalopathy and epileptic seizures. According to the review published in Cells, the symptoms of COVID-19-related neurological manifestations include dizziness, headache, a loss of consciousness and ataxia. (2020-12-10)

Targeting T cell protein could prevent type 1 diabetes, study suggests
Researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine have identified a new therapeutic target to treat patients with type 1 diabetes. The study, which will be published December 9 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine (JEM), reveals that inhibiting a protein called OCA-B protects mice from type 1 diabetes by limiting the activity of immune cells that would otherwise destroy the pancreas' insulin-producing β cells. (2020-12-09)

A new way to make arteries
In the study, published in Nature, the authors propose that selective blockade of cell proliferation and metabolism could be used to enhance arterialization in patients with cardiovascular disease. (2020-12-09)

New method to boost supply of life-saving stem cells
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona and Columbia University in New York City have found a new method for growing a large quantity of life-saving blood stem cells. The scarcity of these cells is one of the greatest limitations for their use in a variety of medical procedures, from treatment of blood cancers to inherited blood disorders that require a bone marrow transplantation. (2020-12-08)

Keep taking the blood pressure medicine during the pandemic
An extensive study of more than one million Danes who have been tested for corona now confirms what several smaller studies have already indicated: That the risk of getting corona, being hospitalised or dying from the disease, is no higher for people taking medication such as ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blockers. (2020-12-08)

Cervical cancer survival may improve by targeting senescent "zombie" cells
How well women with cervical cancer respond to treatment and survive correlates with the level of 10 proteins in their blood that also are associated with a ''zombie'' cell state called senescence, Medical College of Georgia scientists report. (2020-12-07)

CRISPR-edited CAR T cells enhance fight against blood cancers
Knocking out a protein known to stifle T cell activation on CAR T cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology enhanced the engineered T cells' ability to eliminate blood cancers. (2020-12-07)

Children's Hospital Colorado study published in Science Immunology
Children's Hospital Colorado (Children's Colorado) Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders (CCBD) announced today that a study about the manipulation of bone marrow stem cells into innate lymphoid and natural killer cells will be published in Science Immunology, a well-respected, high-impact medical journal. (2020-12-07)

Circulating tumor DNA indicates risk of relapse after transplant in DLBCL patients
Many patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be cured by a transplant using their own blood-forming stem cells, but as many as half eventually relapse. New research led by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists suggests that patients whose blood or stem cell samples harbor tumor DNA are likely to relapse. (2020-12-07)

White blood cells may cause tumor cell death -- but that's not good news
White blood cells are part of many immune system responses in the human body. New research shows that a specific type of those cells may cause brain cancer tissues to die -- but that's not good news, according to researchers at Penn State College of Medicine. They said that higher amounts of this tissue death have been associated with poor survival in patients with aggressive glioblastomas, a deadly type of brain cancer that is common in adults. (2020-12-07)

Study reveals surprising benefit of clonal hematopoiesis in allogeneic transplants
Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is a recently identified condition in which mutations associated with blood cancers are detected in the blood of some healthy, usually older, individuals who don't have cancer. People with CH, while asymptomatic, have an elevated risk of developing blood cancers and other negative health outcomes, including heart attacks and strokes. (2020-12-05)

Findings about cilia on cells of the vessel wall may be relevant for diabetes treatment
A new study from Karolinska Institutet and the Helmholtz Diabetes Research Center shows that primary cilia, hair-like protrusions on endothelial cells inside vessels, play an important role in the blood supply and delivery of glucose to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets. The findings are published in eLife and may be relevant for transplantation therapies in diabetes, as formation of functional blood vessels is important for the treatment to be successful. (2020-12-04)

New study debunks blood type diet
A study published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics by researchers with the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine -- a nonprofit of 12,000 doctors -- debunks the 'blood type diet' by finding that blood type was not associated with the effects of a plant-based diet on body weight, body fat, plasma lipid concentrations, or glycemic control. (2020-12-04)

Donor stem cell transplant shown to improve survival in older patients with MDS
A new clinical trial offers the most compelling evidence to date that a donor stem cell transplant can improve survival rates for older patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators report at the virtual 62nd American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting. (2020-12-04)

Medicine-carriers made from human cells can cure lung infections
Scientists used human white blood cell membranes to carry two drugs, an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory, directly to infected lungs in mice. The nano-sized drug delivery method successfully treated both the bacterial growth and inflammation in the mice's lungs. The study shows a potential new strategy for treating infectious diseases, including COVID-19. (2020-12-03)

Better diabetes treatment: New insulin molecule can self-regulate blood sugar
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen and biotech firm Gubra have developed a new insulin molecule that will make blood sugar regulation both easier and safer for those with type 1 diabetes. (2020-12-03)

Marine mammals' adaptations to low oxygen offer new perspective on COVID-19
When Terrie Williams began hearing about the wide range of symptoms experienced by patients with COVID-19, she saw a connection between the various ways the disease is affecting people and the many physiological adaptations that have enabled marine mammals to tolerate low oxygen levels during dives. In a new review article, Williams explores how the diving physiology of marine mammals can help us understand the effects of COVID-19. (2020-12-03)

Cancer cells 'remove blindfold' to spread
Cells are effectively 'blindfolded' as they lose sensitivity to their surroundings early in cancer progression, but scientists used a new method to find some cancer cells are able to switch this sense back on in order to move and spread. In future, these cells could potentially be targeted by treatments before cancer spreads to give patients a better chance of recovery. (2020-12-01)

Penn researchers unlock the door to tumor microenvironment for CAR T cells
Combining chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy with a PAK4 inhibitor drug allowed the engineered cells to punch their way through and attack solid tumors, leading to significantly enhanced survival in mice. (2020-11-30)

How SARS-CoV-2 reaches the brain
Using post-mortem tissue samples, researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have studied the mechanisms by which the novel coronavirus can reach the brains of patients with COVID-19. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 enters the brain via nerve cells in the olfactory mucosa. For the first time, researchers have been able to produce electron microscope images of intact coronavirus particles inside the olfactory mucosa. (2020-11-30)

Customized programming of human stem cells
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) have the potential to convert into a wide variety of cell types and tissues. However, the ''recipes'' for this conversion are often complicated and difficult to implement. Researchers at TU Dresden, Harvard University (USA) and the University of Bonn have found a way to systematically extract hundreds of different cells quickly and easily from iPS using transcription factors. Researchers can use this transcription factor source through the non-profit organization Addgene. (2020-11-30)

Gene therapy gives man with sickle cell disease the chance for a better future
Watch a video about Evie's treatment with an experimental gene therapy for sickle cell disease here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmQJpuLx07Y (2020-11-30)

Survival protein may prevent collateral damage during cancer therapy
Australian researchers have identified a protein that could protect the kidneys from 'bystander' damage caused by cancer therapies. The 'cell survival protein', called BCL-XL, was required in laboratory models to keep kidney cells alive and functioning during exposure to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Kidney damage is a common side effect of these widely used cancer therapies, and the discovery has shed light on how this damage occurs at the molecular level. (2020-11-25)

Signaling switch in pancreatic β-cells determines anti-diabetic drug effectiveness
An international research group headed by Professor SEINO Susumu (Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine) has clarified the action mechanism of widely utilized incretin-based drugs in the treatment of diabetes. These findings are important for illuminating the mechanism behind diabetes and will hopefully provide a basis for new treatments. (2020-11-25)

Mapping out the mystery of blood stem cells
Princess Margaret scientists have revealed how stem cells are able to generate new blood cells throughout our life by looking at vast, uncharted regions of our genetic material that hold important clues to subtle biological changes in these cells. (2020-11-25)

An ionic forcefield for nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are promising drug delivery tools but they struggle to get past the immune system's first line of defense: proteins in the blood serum that tag potential invaders. Now, Harvard researchers have developed an ionic forcefield that prevents proteins from binding to and tagging nanoparticles. In mouse experiments, nanoparticles coated with the ionic liquid survived significantly longer in the body than uncoated particles. (2020-11-25)

Early trial hints CAR T cells may combat solid tumors in children with neuroblastoma
A phase 1 trial involving 12 children with relapsed neuroblastoma - a hard-to-treat pediatric cancer - shows that anticancer CAR T cells displayed signs of efficacy against these tumors while avoiding damage to nerve tissue. (2020-11-25)

Channeling the immune system for head and neck cancer
University of Cincinnati researchers have discovered new clues into why some people with head and neck cancer respond to immunotherapy, while others don't. (2020-11-24)

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