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Current Brain Cells News and Events, Brain Cells News Articles.
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Why cigarettes initially feel disgusting and how this could help smokers quit
Scientists have pinpointed the cells responsible for nicotine aversion in the mouse brain in a finding that could help the development of better treatments to help smokers quit. (2019-11-25)

Multifunctional small brains
Researchers from the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience in Amsterdam, discovered that not only the cerebral cortex is responsible for higher perceptual abilities but that the cerebellum also plays a role. This discovery can help understand the consequences of damage to the small brain, since not only motoric impairment will appear, but also social cognition can be altered. The study was published today in the prominent scientific journal Brain. (2019-11-21)

Transplanting human nerve cells into a mouse brain reveals how they wire into brain circuits
A team of researchers led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen and Vincent Bonin (VIB-KU Leuven, Universit├ę libre de Bruxelles and NERF) showed how human nerve cells can develop at their own pace, and form highly precise connections with the surrounding mouse brain cells. These findings shed new light on the unique features of the human brain and open new perspectives for brain repair and the study of brain diseases. (2019-11-21)

Brain biomarker predicts compulsive drinking
Although alcohol use is ubiquitous in modern society, only a portion of individuals develop alcohol use disorders or addiction. Yet, scientists have not understood why some individuals are prone to develop drinking problems, while others are not. Now, Salk Institute researchers have discovered a brain circuit that controls alcohol drinking behavior in mice, and can be used as a biomarker for predicting the development of compulsive drinking later on. (2019-11-21)

Competing signals shrink or grow liver tumor at the margins
Activating the Hippo molecular signaling pathway in liver tumor cells drives tumor growth -- but activating the same pathway in healthy cells surrounding the tumor suppresses tumor growth. (2019-11-21)

Scientists identify underlying molecular mechanisms of Alexander disease
UNC School of Medicine researchers are learning about the differences in the underlying biology of patients with severe and milder forms of Alexander disease, a rare neurodegenerative condition that is often fatal to young children. Led by Natasha Snider, PhD, assistant professor of cell biology, an international group of scientists has discovered that the mutant form of GFAP undergoes different chemical modifications, depending on time of onset of symptoms. (2019-11-21)

The ever-changing brain: Shining a light on synaptic plasticity
Researchers in the Membrane Cooperativity Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) in Japan, in collaboration with researchers from universities across Japan, have found that AMPA receptors form and disintegrate continually, within a fraction of a second, rather than existing as stable entities. The scientists' findings, published in Nature Communications, may help clarify early stages of synaptic plasticity: neural activity that is key for learning and memory. The research may also have pharmacological applications in the treatment of epilepsy. (2019-11-20)

Researchers identify a molecular mechanism involved in Huntington's disease
Researchers from the Institute of Neurosciences of the University of Barcelona (UBNeuro) and the August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS) described a mechanism, the increase of proteinaceous synthesis, which takes part in the degeneration of the type of neurons that are affected in Huntington's disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disease. (2019-11-20)

Inflammatory processes drive progression of Alzheimer's and other brain diseases
Inflammation drives the progression of neurodegenerative brain diseases and plays a major role in the accumulation of tau proteins within neurons. An international research team led by the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the University of Bonn comes to this conclusion in the journal Nature. The results indicate that inflammatory processes represent a potential target for future therapies. (2019-11-20)

Unruly T cells complicate the intended benefits of HIV vaccines
Inducing strong responses from T helper (TH) cells -- long seen as a desirable goal for HIV vaccines -- and using multiple antigens can hamper the effectiveness of vaccine candidates for HIV, according to an analysis of macaque experiments and a multicenter, phase 1 trial. (2019-11-20)

Scientists develop a new method to detect light in the brain
The study marks the first instance of successfully using light to decode the activity of specific neuronal populations as well as manipulation of different brain regions with the use of an optical probe. The optical fibre is capable of capturing light from single neurons along regions as long as 2 millimetres (0.07 inches). The method enriches researchers' methodological repertoire and augments their ability to study the molecular causes of neurological disorders. (2019-11-19)

Complex organ models grown in the lab
Scientists at the University of W├╝rzburg have successfully produced human tissues from stem cells. They have a complexity similar to that of normal tissue and are far superior to previous structures. (2019-11-19)

A new pathway to 'reprogram' killer cells
Killer cells of the immune system detect and kill infected cells or cancer cells. Researchers at the Institute of Pathology at the University of Bern have now discovered that the mechanism by which certain immune cells kill their target cells can also be used to control the killer cells themselves. This finding may be relevant to cancer immunotherapy. (2019-11-19)

Cell death or cancer growth: A question of cohesion
Activation of CD95, a receptor found on all cancer cells, triggers programmed cell death -- or does the opposite, namely stimulates cancer cell growth. Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) have now shown that the impact of CD95 activation depends on whether there are isolated cancer cells or three-dimensional structures. Individual cells are programmed to die following CD95 activation. In contrast, CD95 activation stimulates growth in clusters of cancer cells, for example in solid tumors. (2019-11-19)

Brain scans reveal how the human brain compensates when one hemisphere is removed
Researchers studying six adults who had one of their brain hemispheres removed during childhood to reduce epileptic seizures found that the remaining half of the brain formed unusually strong connections between different functional brain networks, which potentially help the body to function as if the brain were intact. The case study, which investigates brain function in these individuals with hemispherectomy, appears Nov. 19, 2019 in the journal Cell Reports. (2019-11-19)

Mechanism connects early binge drinking to adult behaviors
Intermittent exposure to high levels of alcohol in adolescent animals leads to increased levels of microRNA-137 in the brains of adults. Blocking microRNA-137 helps to reverse or the lasting effects of youth drinking, such as increased alcohol use and anxiety. (2019-11-18)

Virtual 'moonwalk' for science reveals distortions in spatial memory
In order to orient ourselves in space, and to find our way around, we form mental maps of our surroundings. But what happens if the coordinate system of our brain, which measures our mental maps, is distorted? Jacob Bellmund and Christian Doeller from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences show in Nature Human Behaviour that under these circumstances there are also distortions in our spatial memory. (2019-11-18)

Many patients with iNPH develop Alzheimer's disease, too
Up to one in five patients treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, iNPH, also develop Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital. The researchers were able to predict the development of Alzheimer's disease by using the Disease State Index, DSI, that combines patient-specific data from various sources. The results were published in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. (2019-11-15)

New cell therapy improves memory and stops seizures following TBI
Researchers from the University of California, Irvine developed a breakthrough cell therapy to improve memory and prevent seizures in mice following traumatic brain injury. The study, titled ''Transplanted interneurons improve memory precision after traumatic brain injury,'' was published today in Nature Communications. (2019-11-15)

Can cells collected from bone marrow repair brain damage in babies with CHD?
An upcoming clinical trial at Children's National Hospital will harness cardiopulmonary bypass as a delivery mechanism for a novel intervention designed to stimulate brain growth and repair in children who undergo cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. (2019-11-14)

Genetic variation in individual brain cell types may predict disease risk
Researchers identified non-coding regions of the human genome that control the development and function of four brain cell types and mapped genetic risk variants for psychiatric diseases. They found that risk variants for Alzheimer's disease were enriched in microglia-specific regulatory elements. (2019-11-14)

How self-reactive immune cells are allowed to develop
A research team at Lund University in Sweden has found the mechanism that controls the growth of B1-cells in mice. The findings, which may lead to a deeper understanding of certain forms of cancer and autoimmune diseases, was recently published in the journal Science Immunology. (2019-11-13)

Slowing the progression of multiple sclerosis
Over 77,000 Canadians are living with multiple sclerosis, a disease whose causes still remain unknown. Presently, they have no hope for a cure. In a study published in Science Translational Medicine, researchers at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) identify a molecule named ALCAM which, once blocked, delays the progression of the disease. Their results, obtained from in vitro human and in vivo mouse studies, could lead to the development of a new generation of therapies to treat this autoimmune disease. (2019-11-13)

Genetics of species-specific birdsong revealed
Researchers have discovered the genetic mechanism that explains how birds sing different songs depending on their species. (2019-11-13)

Protein could offer therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer
A protein that drives growth of pancreatic cancer, and which could be a target for new treatments, has been identified by researchers at the Crick. (2019-11-12)

UTSA researchers discover new pathways in brain's amygdala
The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) researchers are pioneering an innovative brain study that sheds light on how the amygdala portion of the brain functions and could contribute to a better understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and Alzheimer's disease. (2019-11-12)

Good noise, bad noise: White noise improves hearing
Noise is not the same as noise -- and even a quiet environment does not have the same effect as white noise. With a background of continuous white noise, hearing pure sounds becomes even more precise, as researchers from the University of Basel have shown in a study in Cell Reports. Their findings could be applied to the further development of cochlear implants. (2019-11-12)

Getting cancer drugs to the brain is difficult -- but a new 'road map' might make it easie
Purdue University scientists have provided the first comprehensive characterization of both the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers in brain metastases of lung cancer, which will serve as a road map for treatment development. The work was recently published in Oncotarget. (2019-11-12)

Better biosensor technology created for stem cells
A Rutgers-led team has created better biosensor technology that may help lead to safe stem cell therapies for treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and other neurological disorders. The technology, which features a unique graphene and gold-based platform and high-tech imaging, monitors the fate of stem cells by detecting genetic material (RNA) involved in turning such cells into brain cells (neurons), according to a study in the journal Nano Letters. (2019-11-11)

Identifying the efficacy of treating encephalitis in leukemia therapy
Revealing the mechanism of glial cell activity...expected to be used for treatment of dementia (2019-11-11)

UC research finds potential target for tumor-causing condition
University of Cincinnati researchers have found additional ways to target the molecular processes involved in activating a certain protein complex to potentially develop new therapies for a tumor-causing disorder. (2019-11-11)

The pathway to Parkinson's takes a surprising twist
A new study finds that neurons affected in Parkinson's disease can shut down without fully dying, allowing them to also switch off neighboring cells. The findings might give scientists a better understanding of how the condition wrecks havoc in the brain, as well as ideas for new treatments. (2019-11-11)

The gut may be the ticket to reducing chemo's side effects
In a new study, scientists observed several simultaneous reactions in mice given a common chemotherapy drug: Their gut bacteria and tissue changed, their blood and brains showed signs of inflammation, and their behaviors suggested they were fatigued and cognitively impaired. (2019-11-11)

LSU Health research discovers potential new Rx target for AMD and Alzheimer's
Research led by Nicolas Bazan, M.D., Ph.D., Boyd Professor and Director of the Neuroscience Center of Excellence at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, found a new mechanism by which a class of molecules his lab discovered may protect brain and retinal cells against neurodegenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration and Alzheimer's. (2019-11-11)

What your friends' brains look like when they think of you
If you ever wondered what's going on in your friends' brains when they think about you, new research may provide a clue. It turns out that the brain activity patterns found in your friends' brains when they consider your personality traits may be remarkably similar to what is found in your brain when you think of yourself, the study suggests. (2019-11-07)

Can our thoughts alter our brains?
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) can measure changes in electrical brain activity that just by thinking about performing a task. These changes can be converted into signals via machine learning, which can operate a computer or a prosthesis. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences and TU Berlin demonstrated that after just one hour's training with a BCI there were significant changes in the brain's structure and function. (2019-11-07)

Where does Parkinson's disease start? In the brain or gut? Or both?
Does Parkinson's disease (PD) start in the brain or the gut? In a new contribution published in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease, scientists hypothesize that PD can be divided into two subtypes: gut-first, originating in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of the gut and spreading to the brain; and brain-first, originating in the brain, or entering the brain via the olfactory system, and spreading to the brainstem and peripheral nervous system. (2019-11-07)

Imagined movements can alter our brains
Brain-computer interfaces have a structural impact on brain substance. (2019-11-07)

Tiny transporters could deliver treatment to stroke patients
Swarms of nanoparticles which are 15,000 times smaller than a pinhead may be able to deliver vital drugs to the brain, offering new hope to patients in the early stages of a stroke. The research, carried out at The University of Manchester, shows that tiny vesicles called liposomes, just 100 nanometres in diameter can translocate through the damaged blood brain barrier following stroke. (2019-11-06)

Scientists identify new puberty-promoting genes
A team of neuroscientists led by Professor Christiana Ruhrberg (UCL, UK) and Professor Anna Cariboni (University of Milan, Italy) have found two molecules that work together to help set up the sense of smell and pave the way to puberty in mice. These findings, reported in the journal Development, may help our understanding of why patients with the inherited condition Kallmann syndrome cannot smell properly and cannot start puberty without hormone treatment. (2019-11-05)

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