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Current Brain Regions News and Events, Brain Regions News Articles.
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Artificial snowfall could save the west antarctic ice sheet, but with high costs and risks
By pumping ocean water onto coastal regions surrounding parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet and converting it to snow, it may be possible to prevent the ice sheet from sliding into the ocean and melting, according to a new modeling study. The authors caution that while the findings offer a potentially feasible and less dangerous solution compared to other proposed. (2019-07-17)

Scientists identified the metabolic features specific to the autistic brain
Skoltech scientists looked into the differences in the concentrations of multiple metabolites in healthy humans and individuals suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), gaining a deeper insight into the molecular processes that take place in the brain of autistic individuals. The results of the study were published in Nature's ?ommunications Biology journal. (2019-07-16)

Risk and progression of Alzheimer's disease differ by sex
The abnormal accumulation of proteins in the brain is a biological marker for Alzheimer's disease, but the ways in which these proteins spread may help explain why the prevalence of Alzheimer's is higher in women than in men. (2019-07-16)

Exercise offers protection against Alzheimer's
Higher levels of daily physical activity may protect against the cognitive decline and neurodegeneration (brain tissue loss) from Alzheimer's disease. (2019-07-16)

Researchers describe new ALS biomarkers, potential new drug targets
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have described unique populations of neurons and associated cells in the spinal cords of patients who died of ALS. (2019-07-15)

The brain's pathways to imagination may hold the key to altruistic behavior
Boston College researchers used neuroimaging to identify multiple neural pathways in the brain that explain the relationship between imagination and the willingness to help others. (2019-07-12)

Duke-NUS researchers link ageing with changes in brain networks related to cognition
As people age, the way different areas of their brain communicate with one another change, affecting thought processes and attention span. (2019-07-12)

REM sleep silences the siren of the brain
Something frightening or unpleasant does not go unnoticed. In our brain, the so-called limbic circuit of cells and connections immediately becomes active. First and foremost, such experiences activate the amygdala. In order for the brain to function properly, the siren must also be switched off again. For this, a restful REM sleep, the part of the sleep with the most vivid dreams, turns out to be essential. (2019-07-11)

Area of brain linked to spatial awareness and planning also plays role in decision making
New research by neuroscientists at the University of Chicago shows that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), an area of the brain often associated with planning movements and spatial awareness, also plays a crucial role in making decisions about images in the field of view. (2019-07-11)

Geophysical observations reveal the water distribution and effect in Earth's mantle
Professor Eiji Ohtani from Tohoku University, Japan, summarized the content, distribution and effect of water in the Earth's mantle, published in National Science Review. (2019-07-10)

Insulin nasal spray may boost cognitive function in obese adolescents by improving connectivity
Researchers at the Modern Diet and Physiology Research Center and Department of Pediatrics at Yale School of Medicine are investigating whether insulin delivered directly to the brain by nasal inhalation can enhance communication between brain regions and improve cognition in adolescents with obesity and prediabetes. Led by Dr. Dana Small, preliminary findings from a two-year study suggest that intranasal insulin improves brain and cognitive function in adolescents with obesity. (2019-07-09)

Exercise improves brain function in overweight and obese individuals
New findings out of the University of Tübingen show that, on top of its benefits for metabolism, mood, and general health, exercise also improves brain function. In recent studies, researchers learned that obese and overweight individuals are prone to insulin resistance in the brain, where it provides information about current nutritional status, as well as the rest of the body. So researchers wanted to know whether exercise can improve insulin sensitivity in the brain and improve cognition in overweight individuals. (2019-07-09)

How the brain remembers where you're heading to
The brain appears to implement a GPS system for spatial navigation; however, it is not yet fully understood how it works. In the journal Science Advances, researchers now suggest that rhythmic fluctuations in brain activity, so-called theta oscillations, may play a role in this process. (2019-07-08)

Cancer cells will become vulnerable
Researchers from HSE University (The Higher School of Economics) have used machine learning to discover that the two most widespread DNA structures -- stem-loops and quadruplexes -- cause genome mutations that lead to cancer. The results of the study were published in BMC Cancer. (2019-07-08)

Structure of brain networks is not fixed, study finds
The shape and connectivity of brain networks -- discrete areas of the brain that work together to perform complex cognitive tasks -- can change in fundamental and recurring ways over time, according to a study led by Georgia State University. (2019-07-08)

Semi-arid land in China has expanded in recent decades and probably continues to expand
Semi-arid regions in China have undergone continuous expansion and a significant drying trend in recent decades. In the 21st century, semi-arid regions in China are projected to continuously expand, which will increase the challenges in dealing with desertification, food security and water supply. (2019-07-08)

Cave secrets unlocked to show past drought and rainfall patterns
Global trends in cave waters identify how stalagmites reveal past rainfall and drought patterns. (2019-07-07)

Brain network evaluates robot likeability
Researchers have identified a network of brain regions that work together to determine if a robot is a worthy social partner, according to a new study published in JNeurosci. (2019-07-01)

Scientists track the source of the 'Uncanny Valley' in the brain
Scientists have identified mechanisms in the human brain that could help explain the phenomenon of the 'Uncanny Valley' -- the unsettling feeling we get from robots and virtual agents that are too human-like. They have also shown that some people respond more adversely to human-like agents than others. (2019-07-01)

Glowing brain cells illuminate stroke recovery research
A promising strategy for helping stroke patients recover, transplanting neural progenitor cells to restore lost functions, asks a lot of those cells. To help them to integrate into the brain, the cells get help from 'optochemogenetics.' (2019-07-01)

New imaging molecule captures brain changes tied to progressive multiple sclerosis
'There's more to multiple sclerosis than white matter lesions,' said corresponding author Tarun Singhal, M.D., a neurologist at the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at the Brigham. 'There's evidence of inflammation in the brain's grey matter, not just the white matter. Here we have a technique to detect it and a path to develop this technique for use in the clinic in looking for early signs of progression and the effects of treatments.' (2019-07-01)

CCNY experts in lateralization of speech publish discovery
City College of New York-led researchers have published a breakthrough in understanding previously unknown inner workings related to the lateralization of speech processing in the brain. Their study, headed by biologist Hysell V. Oviedo of CCNY's Division of Science and published in the journal 'Nature Communications,' could shine a light on miswiring of brain circuits in neurodevelopmental communication disorders. (2019-07-01)

Global agriculture: Impending threats to biodiversity
A new study compares the effects of expansion vs. intensification of cropland use on global agricultural markets and biodiversity, and finds that the expansion strategy poses a particularly serious threat to biodiversity in the tropics. (2019-06-28)

Researchers look to unlock post-traumatic stress disorder puzzle
A team of Penn State and University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine researchers is attempting to answer a question that has long puzzled experts: Why do some individuals suffer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after experiencing trauma, and others do not? (2019-06-28)

Brain structure determines individual differences regarding music sensitivity
The white matter structure in the brain reflects music sensitivity, according to a study by the research group on Cognition and Brain Plasticity of the Institute of Neurosciences of the University of Barcelona (UB) and the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (UB-IDIBELL). (2019-06-27)

Technology allows researchers to see patients' real-time pain while in the clinic
Many patients, especially those who are anesthetized or emotionally challenged, cannot communicate precisely about their pain. (2019-06-27)

Boosting amino acid derivative may be a treatment for schizophrenia
Many psychiatric drugs act on the receptors or transporters of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. However, there is a great need for alternatives, and research is looking at other targets along the brain's metabolic pathways. Lack of glycine betaine contributes to brain pathology in schizophrenia, and new research from the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) shows that betaine supplementation can counteract psychiatric symptoms in mice. (2019-06-26)

What made humans 'the fat primate'?
How did humans get to be so much fatter than our closest primate relatives, despite sharing 99% of the same DNA? A new study suggests that part of the answer may have to do with an ancient molecular shift in how DNA is packaged inside fat cells, which curbed our body's ability to turn 'bad' white fat into 'good' brown fat. (2019-06-26)

Age itself appears to increase the spread of Alzheimer's-associated tau in the brain
A study by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital finds evidence that spread through the brain of the Alzheimer's-disease-associated protein tau is facilitated by factors within the aging brain itself and not by how long the protein has been expressed by neurons. (2019-06-26)

Is multiple sclerosis linked to childhood viral infections?
The exact causes of multiple sclerosis still remain unknown. In a mouse model of the disease, researchers (UNIGE) studied the potential link between transient cerebral viral infections in childhood and the development of this cerebral autoimmune disease later in life. Indeed, the brain area affected by viral infection during childhood undergoes a change that can call, a long time later, on the immune system to turn against itself at this precise location, triggering autoimmune lesions. (2019-06-26)

How to help patients recover after a stroke
The existing approach to brain stimulation for rehabilitation after a stroke does not take into account the diversity of lesions and the individual characteristics of patients' brains. This was the conclusion made by researchers of the Higher School of Economics (HSE University) and the Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Sciences in their article, 'Predicting the Response to Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke'. (2019-06-26)

Distinct clinical profiles of Huntington's disease can be associated with two specific neural signature
Researchers from the Cognition and Brain plasticity group of Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the Institute of Neurosciences of the University of Barcelona (UBNeuro), with the collaboration of Radboud University in the Netherlands, have identified two specific patterns of cerebral disorders underlying two clinical profiles of Huntington's disease. The study, published in 'Neuroimage: Clinical', can help develop specific biomarkers and personalized treatments for each profile of this rare disease. (2019-06-25)

How the brain helps us make good decisions -- and bad ones
A prevailing theory in neuroscience holds that people make decisions based on integrated global calculations that occur within the frontal cortex of the brain. However, Yale researchers have found that three distinct circuits connecting to different brain regions are involved in making good decisions, bad ones and determining which of those past choices to store in memory, they report June 25 in the journal Neuron. (2019-06-25)

These neurons affect how much you do, or don't, want to eat
University of Arizona researchers have identified a network of neurons that coordinate with other brain regions to influence eating behaviors. These findings could help those suffering from disease-induced appetite loss or over-eating. (2019-06-25)

Settling the debate on serotonin's role in sleep
New research finds that serotonin is necessary for sleep, settling a long-standing controversy. (2019-06-24)

Certain cells secrete a substance in the brain that protects neurons, USC study finds
USC researchers have discovered a secret sauce in the brain's vascular system that preserves the neurons needed to keep dementia and other diseases at bay. (2019-06-24)

Does stimulation of the brain's dorsal anterior insula trigger ecstasy?
The epileptic 'aura' is a subjective phenomenon that sometimes precedes the visible clinical features of a seizure. Investigators tested three epileptic patients prior to potential surgery to try to determine where their seizures originate. They observed that these patients reported an ecstatic aura only when the dorsal anterior insula of the brain was stimulated. Their findings in the journal Brain Stimulation, published by Elsevier, provide additional support of a major role played by the dorsal anterior insula in ecstatic experiences. (2019-06-24)

Understanding brain activity when you name what you see
Using complex statistical methods and fast measurement techniques, researchers found how the brain network comes up with the right word and enables us to say it. (2019-06-24)

New therapy promotes vascular repair following stroke
Following a stroke, antibodies that inhibit the signaling molecule Nogo-A can help repair blood vessels in the affected brain regions. This also promotes the regaining of motor functions, researchers at the University of Zurich have shown in a mouse model. The study opens up new avenues for treatment. (2019-06-24)

Discovery of the cell fate switch from neurons to astrocytes in the developing brain
During mammalian brain development, neural precursor cells first generate neurons and later astrocytes. This cell fate change is a key process generating proper numbers of neurons and astrocytes. Here we discovered that FGF regulates the cell fate switch from neurons to astrocytes in the developing cerebral cortex using mice. FGF is a critical extracellular regulator of the cell fate switch, necessary and sufficient, in the mammalian cerebral cortex. (2019-06-21)

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