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Large-scale COVID-19 vaccine production will require knowledge transfer on manufacturing
Massive, rapid production of vaccines to fight COVID-19 will require firms to share know-how not just about what to make, but how to make it, write Nicholson Price and colleagues in this Policy Forum. (2020-08-13)

Research suggests bias against natural hair limits job opportunities for black women
New research suggests Black women with natural hairstyles, such as curly afros, braids or twists, are often perceived as less professional than Black women with straightened hair. (2020-08-12)

Study: Americans prize party loyalty over democratic principles
It is conventional wisdom that Americans cherish democracy -- but a new study by Yale political scientists reports that only a small fraction of U.S. voters are willing to sacrifice their partisan and policy interests to defend democratic principles. (2020-08-10)

Tech sector job interviews assess anxiety, not software skills
A new study finds that the technical interviews currently used in hiring for many software engineering positions test whether a job candidate has performance anxiety rather than whether the candidate is competent at coding. The interviews may also be used to exclude groups or favor specific job candidates. (2020-07-14)

Cell 'membrane on a chip' could speed up screening of drug candidates for COVID-19
Researchers have developed a human cell 'membrane on a chip' that allows continuous monitoring of how drugs and infectious agents interact with our cells, and may soon be used to test potential drug candidates for COVID-19. (2020-07-06)

Compounds halt SARS-CoV-2 replication by targeting key viral enzyme
University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Morsani College of Medicine scientists recently worked with colleagues at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy to identify several existing compounds that block replication of the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) within human cells grown in the laboratory. The inhibitors all demonstrated potent chemical and structural interactions with a viral protein critical to the virus's ability to proliferate. (2020-07-06)

One million epilepsy patients in China missing out on beneficial surgery
In 2010, Professor Patrick Kwan from Monash University's Department of Neuroscience, led an international team researching the causes and outcomes of epilepsy patients in rural China. A decade later the results indicate that at least one million Chinese people with epilepsy could be candidates for a standard operation that may leave them seizure-free. (2020-07-06)

Spanish language increasingly more relevant to presidential elections
Discourse in and about Spanish was present on both sides of the political spectrum, more so leading up to the 2016 presidential election than in previous cycles, according to research conducted by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York. (2020-07-01)

Spraying ethanol to nanofiber masks makes them reusable
A joint research team from POSTECH and Japan's Shinshu University evaluates the filtration efficiency of nanofiber and melt-blown filters when cleaned with ethanol. (2020-06-28)

Virtually screening antiviral compounds against SARS-CoV-2 structure may speed up drug and vaccine D
Virtually screening antiviral compounds to model their interactions with the SARS-CoV-2 virus may enable scientists to more easily identify antiviral drugs that work against the virus while informing the search for viable vaccine candidates, according to a new study. By screening for interactions with certain (2020-06-24)

Product recommendation systems can help with search of antiviral drugs
Scientists from Skoltech and the Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of RAS checked the ability of artificial intelligence that suggest products to buy, recommend new antiviral compounds. The researchers found that advanced algorithms can effectively suggest both music, movies to buy, and compounds with antiviral activity. (2020-06-22)

'Game changer' for reporters: 2016 US presidential election coverage
The 2016 US presidential election is considered a 'game changer' for journalists covering the US presidential elections by causing them to dramatically reconsider how they view their role -- either as neutral disseminators of information or impassioned advocates for the truth -- according to researchers at the University of Missouri's School of Journalism. (2020-06-22)

Candidates who use humor on Twitter may find the joke is on them
Political candidates' use of humor on social media could sometimes backfire on them with potential supporters, new research suggests. People were more likely to view messages using humor as inappropriate for a political candidate they didn't know, the study found. That led participants to rate a candidate using humor as less credible than one who didn't -- and less likely to get their vote. (2020-06-15)

Black and female principal candidates more likely to experience delayed and denied promotions
Black and female assistant principals are systematically delayed and denied promotion to principal, compared to their White or male counterparts, despite having equivalent qualifications and more experience on average, according to a new study. The findings were published in June in AERA Open, a peer-reviewed, open access journal of the American Educational Research Association. (2020-06-15)

New discovery may lead to effective and natural treatment for Parkinson's disease
McLean Hospital researchers have identified two molecules naturally produced by the body that stimulate the production of dopamine, the molecule that is in short supply in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. (2020-06-04)

Directed protein evolution with CRISPR-Cas9
New area of application for gene scissors: Optimized proteins for biomedical research. (2020-05-26)

Women quotas in politics have unintended consequences
Women continue to be scarce in the halls of power. To rectify this inequality, many countries have imposed female electoral quota systems, or rules designed to increase the representation of women. The catch? Boosting gender may well curtail representation in other respects. (2020-05-21)

Macaques show protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after infection or after vaccine
Two new studies in macaques offer hope that humans could develop protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, either as the result of a natural infection or by way of a vaccine. (2020-05-20)

What if we could design powerful drugs without unwanted side effects?
The paper describes how to minimize or eliminate side effects in drugs that target G protein-coupled receptors. GPCRs are proteins found in all human cells. LSD and other psychedelics are molecules that attach to GPCRs, as are about a third of prescription drugs, including antihistamines, beta blockers and opioids. 'Armed with our results, researchers can begin to imagine new and better ways to design drugs that retain their effectiveness while posing fewer dangers.' (2020-05-19)

Answers to these questions can help #Decision2020 build momentum for Americans as we age
With primary and general elections on the horizon across the US, the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) today released a series of high-priority questions for candidates. The AGS candidate question guide is aimed at helping Americans keep all political leaders -- including and perhaps especially those running for president -- committed to a clear, articulated vision how they will support us all as Americans age. (2020-05-14)

Seeing the universe through new lenses
A new study by an international team of scientists revealed hundreds of new strong gravitational lensing candidates based on a deep dive into data collected for a US Department of Energy-supported telescope project in Arizona called the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument. The study, published in The Astrophysical Journal, benefited from the winning machine-learning algorithm in an international science competition. (2020-05-14)

Twin antibodies show neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2
Scientists have identified a pair of neutralizing antibodies - isolated from a patient who recovered from COVID-19 - that bind to the glycoprotein spike of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, blocking the spike's ability to bind to the human ACE2 receptor and mediate viral entry into host cells. (2020-05-13)

SARS-CoV-2: A new song recalls an old melody
Important lessons learned from the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak of 2002-2003 could inform and guide vaccine design for COVID-19 according to University of Melbourne Professor Kanta Subbarao, Director of the WHO Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza at the Doherty Institute. (2020-05-13)

NIH experts: Coordinated strategy to accelerate COVID-19 vaccine candidates is key
A harmonized and collaborative approach to the clinical testing, scale-up and distribution of candidate vaccines to prevent COVID-19 is essential, scientific leaders write in a perspective published today in Science. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, government, industry and academia have introduced a variety of vaccine candidates. The authors note that more than one effective vaccine approach likely will be required to successfully protect the global community from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (2020-05-11)

Addressing the ethical considerations of SARS-CoV-2 human challenge trials
While an effective vaccine for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is likely many months away, development could be accelerated by conducting controlled human infection (CHI) studies -- which are increasingly being considered by the scientific community due to the urgent need. (2020-05-07)

Study examines factors affecting racial disparities before kidney transplantation
Among adults with kidney failure who were referred for transplantation, 60% of black and 66% of white patients were waitlisted within the first year. Differences in socioeconomic status and comorbidities between black and white patients could explain up to 58% of the disparity in listing. Fewer black patients on transplant wait lists received transplants compared with white patients, but differences in socioeconomic status and comorbidities did not explain this disparity. (2020-05-07)

Delaying bariatric and metabolic surgery during COVID-19 pandemic puts patients at risk, experts warn
New guidance identifies patients with the greatest need for bariatric and metabolic surgery as experts warn delaying treatment could put them at a greater risk of complications from their disease as well as from COVID-19. (2020-05-07)

Supercomputer simulations present potential active substances against coronavirus
Several drugs approved for treating hepatitis C viral infection were identified as potential candidates against COVID-19, a new disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. This is the result of research based on extensive calculations using the MOGON II supercomputer at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU). (2020-05-05)

2016 presidential campaign emails reveal strategy, surprises
Notably, Trump campaign e-mails were more participatory, fitting the populist theme of the campaign, and the Clinton campaign made the surprising strategic decision to stop direct e-mail communication to passive e-mail subscribers more than two months before Election Day. (2020-05-04)

COVID-19 drug lead treatments identified
An international team of researchers has tested more than 10,000 compounds to identify six drug candidates that may help treat COVID-19. The research, involving University of Queensland scientist Professor Luke Guddat, tested the efficacy of approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials and other compounds. (2020-04-09)

Machine learning reveals new candidate materials for biocompatible electronics
Machine learning tools developed by Andrew Ferguson, Associate Professor of Molecular Engineering at the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, and his collaborators are able to screen self-assembling peptides to find the best candidates for electronic, biocompatible materials. (2020-04-09)

Researchers help expand search for new state of matter
Scientists have been striving to establish the existence of quantum spin liquids, a new state of matter, since the 1970s. A recent discovery by University of Arkansas physicists could help researchers solve the mystery and result in the next generation of computing. (2020-04-06)

Neural networks facilitate optimization in the search for new materials
Sorting through millions of possibilities, a search for battery materials delivered results in five weeks instead of 50 years. (2020-03-26)

UC research: Women tend to run more sophisticated political campaigns
Women run more sophisticated campaigns for office than men, says David Niven, a leading political researcher and associate professor of political science at theĀ University of Cincinnati. (2020-03-18)

Researchers find new minor planets beyond Neptune
Using data from the Dark Energy Survey, researchers have found and cataloged more than 300 minor planets beyond Neptune, including more than 100 new discoveries. This updated catalog of trans-Neptunian objects, and the methods used to find them, could aid in future searches for undiscovered planets in the far reaches of the solar system. (2020-03-11)

Existing drugs may offer a first-line treatment for coronavirus outbreak
Developing new drugs and vaccines for diseases like the COVID-19 coronavirus can take years. A survey of existing drugs shows a number of candidates in different phases of clinical testing that might offer hope. (2020-02-27)

New tool aids patients in selecting a transplant center
A new website developed by researchers at Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute (HHRI) and the University of Minnesota (UMN) is making it easier for organ transplant candidates to choose which transplant center is right for them. The website, transplantcentersearch.org, was developed for candidates seeking kidney, liver, heart and lung transplants. Data for liver centers is currently live. Data for other organs will soon be available. (2020-02-24)

Essential oil components can be tested as drug candidates
A research team at the VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology and the KU Leuven Department of Biology showed that, contrary to generally held belief, most components of essential oils could meet the criteria set for drug candidates. Essential oil components are the constituents of essential oils, which are complex mixtures of plant metabolites obtained by dry or steam distillation, or by citrus peel pressing. (2020-02-21)

Design approach may help fix bias in artificial intelligence
Bias in artificial intelligence is well established. Researchers are now proposing that developers incorporate the concept of 'feminist design thinking' into their process as a way of improving equity -- particularly in the development of software used in hiring. (2020-02-06)

Social media content matters for job candidates, researchers find
According to researchers at Penn State, job recruiters are less likely to select candidates who appear to be too self-involved or opinionated in their social media posts. The team also found that recruiters are less likely to hire employees who post content suggestive of drug or alcohol use. (2020-02-05)

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