Current Cell Types News and Events

Current Cell Types News and Events, Cell Types News Articles.
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Cancer research: Targeted elimination of leukemic stem cells
Cancer research in Bern has discovered a further mechanism to combat leukemia: a research team at Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and the University of Bern has succeeded in identifying an important signaling pathway for regulating leukemic stem cells. With this discovery, the researchers are expanding the arsenal of potentially highly effective drugs against leukemia. (2021-02-16)

Oncotarget: Cancer stem cells and macrophages against cancer
The aim of this Oncotarget review is to define the complex crosstalk between these two cell types and to highlight potential future anti-cancer strategies (2021-02-15)

Bone marrow 'map' opens path to organoid-like blood stem cell production
A study led by experts at Cincinnati Children's published Feb. 10, 2021, in Nature provides powerful new insights into how bone marrow tissue works. The study, (2021-02-10)

Scientists uncover four new facts about early SARS-CoV-2 infections
University of Minnesota Medical School researchers studied SARS-CoV-2 infections at individual cellular levels and made four major discoveries about the virus, including one that validates the effectiveness of remdesivir - an FDA-approved antiviral drug - as a form of treatment for severe COVID-19 disease. (2021-02-10)

How cells recycle the machinery that drives their motility?
Research groups at University of Helsinki and Institut Jacques Monod, Paris, discovered a new molecular mechanism that promotes cell migration. The discovery sheds light on the mechanisms that drive uncontrolled movement of cancer cells, and also revises the 'text book view' of cell migration. (2021-02-09)

New clues to how SARS-CoV-2 infects cells
The molecular details of how SARS-CoV-2 enters cells and infects them are still not clear. Researchers at Uppsala University have tested the bioinformatic predictions made by another research group and have identified receptors that could be important players in the process. The results are presented in the journal Science Signaling and at the AAAS Annual Meeting held this week. (2021-02-08)

Molecular sleuthing identifies and corrects major flaws in blood-brain barrier model
A type of cell derived from human stem cells that has been widely used for brain research and drug development may have been leading researchers astray for years, according to a study from scientists at Weill Cornell Medicine and Columbia University Irving Medical Center. (2021-02-08)

Technion researchers discover new pathway for attacking cancer cells
The folate cycle is a process essential to DNA and RNA production. As a result, it is highly important to both cancer cells and healthy cells. Because DNA production is a critical stage in cell division, and thus in tumor growth, the folate cycle is a common target for chemotherapy. However, for the very same reason, there are significant side effects to attacking it. (2021-02-05)

New stem cell therapy in dogs -- a breakthrough in veterinary medicine
A team of scientists in Japan has developed a novel method to induce stem cell generation from the blood samples of dogs. Through this technique, the scientists hope to advance regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine. This would mean that, in the near future, veterinarians might be able to reverse conditions in dogs that were previously thought incurable. (2021-02-03)

Moffitt researchers discover mechanism that regulates anti-tumor activity of immune cells
In a new article published in Nature, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers demonstrate why some ovarian cancer patients evolve better than others and suggest possible approaches to improve patient outcomes. (2021-02-03)

Genetics study finds ancestral background can affect Alzheimer's disease risk
Genetics contributes to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and the APOE gene is the strongest genetic risk factor, specifically the APOE4 allele. However, it has been known for a while that the risk due to the APOE4 allele differs considerably across populations, with Europeans having a greater risk from the APOE4 allele than Africans and African Americans. (2021-02-03)

Stem cell study illuminates the cause of a devastating inherited heart disorder
Penn Medicine scientists have uncovered the molecular causes of a congenital form of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)-- one of multiple congenital disorders caused by inherited mutations in a gene called LMNA. The scientists used stem cell techniques to grow human heart muscle cells containing DCM-causing mutations in LMNA. They found that these mutations severely disrupt the structural organization of DNA in the nucleus of heart muscle cells. (2021-02-01)

'You say tomato, I say genomics': Genome sequences for two wild tomato ancestors
A research team led by University of Tsukuba has produced genome sequences for two wild species of tomato from South America, ancestors of the cultivated tomato. The ancestral species contain thousands of genes that are not present in modern types. The novel genes will help plant breeders produce new tomatoes with features like improved disease resistance, increased tolerance for the changing climate, and improved flavor and shelf-life. (2021-01-27)

New technique to fast-track pain research
Scientists have for the first time established a sensory neuron model able to mass-reproduce two key sensory neuron types involved in pain sensation, enabling the easy generation of large numbers of the cells to fast-track chronic pain research. Using a new technique, researchers at Flinders University have found a way to reproduce millions of the cells, providing ample resources for the simultaneous testing of thousands of samples or potential drug libraries. (2021-01-21)

How cells move and don't get stuck
Theoretical physicists from Berlin teamed up with experimental physicists from Munich to determine the precise mechanics involved in cell motility. The findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). (2021-01-18)

Not as simple as thought: How bacteria form membrane vesicles
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified a novel mechanism by which bacteria form membrane vesicles, which bacteria employ to communicate with each other or to defend themselves against antibiotics. By studying mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MCB), which also includes tuberculosis-causing bacteria, the researchers demonstrated that environmental stimuli dictate the route by which the MCB form membrane vesicles. Further, their observations were consistent among various MCB. This study has implications for vaccine development as well as novel therapies. (2021-01-14)

Cancer research reveals how mutations in a specific gene cause different types of disease
Leading cancer expert solve long-standing question of how various types of mutations in just one gene cause different types of diseases (2021-01-14)

The role of T cells in fighting cancer
Why do some hosts' immune systems reject tumors easily, while others have a harder time doing so? It depends on the types of the immune cells known as CD8 T cells and how a host's specific T cells match up with the neoantigens present in the tumor. (2021-01-14)

Comprehensive characterization of vascular structure in plants
With funding from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, two teams of plant researchers and bioinformatics researchers under the leadership of Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) have succeeded for the first time in identifying the functions of the different cell types in the leaf vasculature of plants. They present their fundamental findings in the current edition of the journal ''The Plant Cell''. (2021-01-12)

New technology reveals fast and slow twitch muscle fibers respond differently to exercise
Scientists at the University of Copenhagen have performed the most in-depth analysis of fast and slow twitch muscle fibers and the different ways they respond to exercise. Their novel approach uses large scale protein analysis of freeze-dried muscle samples, which opens the door for new analyses of muscle samples that are located in freezers around the world. (2021-01-12)

Uncovering basic mechanisms of intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation
The gut plays a central role in the regulation of the body's metabolism and its dysfunction is associated with a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, colitis and colorectal cancer that affect millions of people worldwide. Targeting endocrine dysfunction by stimulating the formation of specific enteroendocrine cells from intestinal stem cells could be a promising regenerative approach for diabetes therapy. For this, a detailed understanding of the intestinal stem cell lineage and the signals regulating the recruitment of intestinal cell types is critical. (2021-01-11)

Oncotarget: Targeted lymphodepletion with a CD45-directed antibody radioconjugate
''Here the Oncotarget authors describe the results of preclinical studies with an anti-mouse CD45 antibody 30F11'' (2021-01-11)

Antibiotic resistance from random DNA sequences
An important and still unanswered question is how new genes that cause antibiotic resistance arise. In a new study, Swedish and American researchers have shown how new genes that produce resistance can arise from completely random DNA sequences. The results have been published in the journal PLOS Genetics. (2021-01-08)

Scientists paint multi-color atlas of the brain
Columbia scientists have engineered a coloring technique, known as NeuroPAL (a Neuronal Polychromatic Atlas of Landmarks), which makes it possible to identify every single neuron in the mind of a worm. (2021-01-08)

Possible explanation for more efficient maize growth
Plant researchers at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) have investigated the transport of compounds in maize. They focused on the mechanism used to transport the products of photosynthesis for further distribution in the plant through its phloem loading pathways. In the current edition of the journal ''The Plant Cell'', they describe how this mechanism has potentially created a special evolutionary advantage for maize. (2021-01-08)

Tracking the formation of the early heart, cell by cell
Richard Tyser and colleagues have mapped the origins of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution, helping to define the cell types that make up the heart in the earliest days of development. (2021-01-07)

Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 immune response several months post-infection hints at protective immunity
Researchers who studied antibody and immune cell responses in more than 180 men and women who had recovered from COVID-19 report these patients' immune memory to the virus - across all immune cell types studied - was measurable for up to 8 months after symptoms appeared. (2021-01-06)

UCLA scientists develop high-throughput mitochondria transfer device
Scientists from the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer have developed a simple, high-throughput method for transferring isolated mitochondria and their associated mitochondrial DNA into mammalian cells. (2020-12-29)

Tracing the many paths of vision
New study decodes the molecular diversity of neurons in the zebrafish retina. (2020-12-23)

Anti-diarrhoea drug drives cancer cells to cell death
In cell culture, loperamide, a drug commonly used against diarrhoea, proves effective against glioblastoma cells. A research team at Goethe University has now unravelled the drug's mechanisms of action of cell death induction and - in doing so - has shown how this compound could help attack brain tumours that otherwise are difficult to treat. (2020-12-21)

Modulating cells' chloride channels
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) researchers gain deeper insight into a cell membrane channel, with potential implications for drug development. (2020-12-16)

New screening platform leads to discovery of next-generation prodrugs for type 1 diabetes
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Broad Institute teamed up to design next-generation β-cell-targeting proliferators: zinc-binding prodrugs (ZnPD). To achieve this, the researchers engineered a new screening platform, the Disque Platform, to better represent β-cells in the lab. Utilizing the Disque Platform, researchers identified a ZnPD drug which exhibited a 2.4-fold increase in β-cell numbers in culture, out-performing its native drug, harmine, and avoiding off-target effects. (2020-12-16)

Muscle cell secrets
A muscle fiber consists of just one cell, but many nuclei. A team at the MDC led by Professor Carmen Birchmeier has now shown just how varied these nuclei are. The study, which has been published in Nature Communications, can help us better understand muscle diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (2020-12-11)

A matter of balance: asymmetric divisions are crucial to form a functional retina
Researchers at the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência and the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, Germany, have discovered that in the developing retina, and important part of the central nervous system, the divisions leading to the first differentiating neurons are asymmetric and that this asymmetry is necessary to generate the correct types of neurons in the right numbers and proportions. (2020-12-11)

New blended solar cells yield high power conversion efficiencies
Researchers at Hiroshima University in Japan have blended together various polymer and molecular semiconductors as photo-absorbers to create a solar cell with increased power efficiencies and electricity generation. (2020-12-09)

Weathered microplastic particles, readily internalized by mouse cells, may pose a greater risk than pristine ones
Microplastic particles exposed to freshwater or saltwater environments for several weeks are about 10 times more likely than pristine particles to be absorbed by mouse cells, due to a crust of microorganisms and biomolecules that forms on the particles' surfaces, according to a new study. The results indicate that this crust acts as a biomolecular 'Trojan horse.' (2020-12-09)

Gut research identifies key cellular changes associated with childhood-onset Crohn's Disease
Scientists have tracked the very early stages of human foetal gut development in incredible detail, and found specific cell functions that appear to be reactivated in the gut of children with Crohn's Disease. The results are an important step towards better management and treatment of this devastating condition. (2020-12-07)

New fundamental knowledge of the 'abdominal brain'
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have succeeded in mapping the neuron types comprising the enteric nervous system in the intestine of mice. The study, which is published today in the scientific journal Nature Neuroscience, also describes how the different neurons form during fetal development, a process that follows different principles to brain neurons. (2020-12-07)

Genetically engineered T cells could lead to therapies for autoimmune diseases
University of Arizona Health Sciences immunobiologists have created a five-module chimeric antigen receptor T cell that is showing early potential to fight Type 1 diabetes. (2020-12-03)

β-AR agonist therapy puts the brakes on oral cancer progression
Oral cancer has a high mortality rate that is mainly attributed to metastasis. Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) screened a panel of small chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit metastasis in oral cancer, identifying β2?AR-agonist isoxsuprine as a potential candidate. Treatment of various oral cancer cells with isoxsuprine suppressed their motility, while tumor size was significantly decreased in isoxsuprine-treated mice, suggesting that β-AR-agonist therapy could be an effective new treatment for oral cancer. (2020-12-03)

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