Current Chemical Reactions News and Events

Current Chemical Reactions News and Events, Chemical Reactions News Articles.
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Biopolymer-coated nanocatalyst can help realize a hydrogen fuel-driven future
While popular as an eco-friendly fuel, hydrogen is difficult to produce efficiently in an eco-friendly manner (through sunlight-induced decomposition of water) due to stability issues of catalysts (chemical reaction facilitators). In a new study, scientists demonstrate water splitting under sunlight using polydopamine-coated zinc sulfide nanorods as a catalyst. In their paper, they report a remarkably enhanced hydrogen production rate and look into the causes, paving the way for a hydrogen-based future. (2021-02-23)

Researchers find evidence of protein folding at site of intracellular droplets
Researchers at the University of Notre Dame found that elevated concentrations of proteins within the droplets triggered a folding event, increasing the potential for protein aggregation -- or misfolding -- which has been linked to neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (2021-02-19)

Giving oxygen to the question of air quality
Volatile alkanes can rapidly acquire oxygen atoms in a free radical chain reaction, a process significant for fuel combustion and air pollution. (2021-02-18)

Ultrafast electron dynamics in space and time
Often depicted as colourful balloons or clouds, electron orbitals provide information on the whereabouts of electrons in molecules, a bit like fuzzy snapshots. In order to understand the exchange of electrons in chemical reactions, it is not only important to know their spatial distribution but also their motion in time. Scientists from Julich, Marburg, and Graz have now made huge progress in this direction: They successfully recorded orbital images with an extremely high temporal resolution. (2021-02-18)

Scientists able to see how potential cancer treatment reacts in single cell
Using a 185 metre beamline at the Diamond synchrotron, researchers could see how Osmium, a rare precious metal that could be used for cancer treatments, reacts in a single human lung cancer cell. This is a major step forward in discovering new anti-cancer drugs for researchers at the University of Warwick. (2021-02-17)

Quickly identify high-performance multi-element catalysts
Catalysts consisting of at least five chemical elements could be the key to overcoming previous limitations in the production of green hydrogen, fuel cells, batteries or CO2 reduction. However, finding the optimal composition of these multi-element catalysts is like looking for a needle in a haystack: testing thousands to millions of possible combinations cannot be realized. (2021-02-17)

Breakthrough in organic chemistry: Asymmetric syntheses of useful, unique chiral compounds
''N?C axially chiral compounds'' are important chiral molecules with various applications in medicinal chemistry and chiral technology. However, there is a scarcity of research on ways to synthesize them in an enantioselective (asymmetric) manner, to obtain useful forms of the compounds. Researchers at Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan, have rectified this, by developing a catalytic enantioselective method to synthesize various N?C axially chiral compounds. A recent article in Accounts of Chemical Research summarizes their achievements. (2021-02-16)

The water surface is a fantastic place for chemical reactions
Using an advanced technique, scientists from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research have demonstrated that a chemical reaction powered by light takes place ten thousand times faster at the air-water interface--what we usually call the water surface--than in the bulk of the water, even when the light has equivalent energy. This finding could help our understanding of the many important chemical and biological processes that take place at the water surface. (2021-02-15)

Researchers measure temperature effect of plasmon in chemical reactions using organic "sensors"
The researchers of TPU together with their colleagues from Russian and foreign scientific centers have found a way to estimate the temperature of a chemical reaction activated by pseudo-particles - plasmons. Two organic molecules served as ultra-small sensors or thermometers. (2021-02-15)

Researchers have broken the code for cell communication
Knowledge on how cells communicate is an important key to understanding many biological systems and diseases. A research team led by researchers at the University of Gothenburg has now used a unique combination of methods to map the mechanism behind cellular communication. Their findings can potentially improve understanding of the underlying mechanism behind type 2 diabetes. (2021-02-12)

Flowers of St. John's Wort serve as green catalyst
An interdisciplinary team of scientists from the School of Science at TU Dresden has for the first time used dried flowers of St. John's Wort (genus Hypericum) as an active catalyst in various photochemical reactions. This conceptually new and sustainable process was registered as a German patent and presented in the journal 'Green Chemistry'. (2021-02-12)

Combination of pine scent and ozone as super source of particulate emissions
Scientists have managed to figure out why conifer forests produce so many fine particles into the atmosphere. Aerosol particles are particularly abundant when ?-pinene, the molecule responsible for the characteristic pattern of pine trees reacts with atmospheric ozone. (2021-02-11)

Industrial compound gets eco-friendly reaction
Nagoya University scientists have developed a chemical reaction that produces high yields of a compound used in a wide variety of industries, without needing high temperatures or toxic catalysts. The approach offers a practical and sustainable solution for industrial (meth)acrylate (= acrylate or methacrylate) ester synthesis. (2021-02-10)

Metabolism: Researchers first to shed light on structure of huge enzyme complex
A new method has enabled the natural structure of particularly large and complex enzymes to be revealed. Scientists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and TU Berlin have published their findings in the journal Cell Reports. They investigated a multi-enzyme complex that plays an essential role in metabolism and have discovered that it functions differently than previously thought. This will help scientists better understand certain diseases. (2021-02-10)

Peanut allergy affects even more U.S. adults than children
Peanut allergy affects at least 4.5 million adults in the U.S., many of whom report developing their first allergy symptoms during adulthood. Although three out of four Americans with peanut allergy are over 17 years old, peanut allergy is often considered a predominantly pediatric concern. There are currently no FDA-approved therapies for patients with adult-onset food allergy. (2021-02-09)

New method for asymmetric N,N-acetal synthesis promises advances in drug development
Chiral N,N-acetals are an important component of several bioactive drugs and medicines. Owing to this, chemical reactions that lead to high-purity yield of the desired 'enantiomeric' form are highly sought after. In a new study, scientists from Japan demonstrate high selectivity formation of N,N-acetals from reactions between 2-aminobenzamide and various diketones in presence of bis(imidazoline)-phosphoric acid catalyst and look into the possible mechanism, opening doors to facile synthesis of novel pharmaceutical drugs. (2021-02-09)

Researchers identify a new molecular mechanism related to severe anaphylaxis
In a study led by researchers of the University of Barcelona and IDIBAPS, researchers analyzed the mutation of a gen detected in a patient who suffered from recurrent anaphylactic shocks caused by the allergy to paper wasp venom (Polistes dominula). The results, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, revealed a new molecular mechanism that can control the degree of severity in an anaphylactic reaction. (2021-02-09)

Chemists developed a simplified method for pharmaceutical compounds synthesizing
A team of chemists from Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and Saint Petersburg State University developed a simple and efficient method to synthesize tetrahydroisoquinolines--important organic molecules for drug discovery. The method consists of just three steps. (2021-02-09)

'Defective' carbon simplifies hydrogen peroxide production
Rice University scientists introduce a new catalyst to reduce oxygen to widely used hydrogen peroxide. The process sidesteps complex and expensive processes that generate toxic organic byproducts and large amounts of wastewater. (2021-02-09)

Researchers produce tiny nanoparticles and reveal their inner structure for the first time
Tiny nanoparticles can be furnished with dyes and could be used for new imaging techniques, as chemists and physicists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) show in a recent study. The researchers have also been the first to fully determine the particles' internal structure. Their results were published in the renowned journal Angewandte Chemie. (2021-02-08)

Understanding catalytic couplings: not all synergies are simple
Negishi cross-coupling reactions have been widely used to form C-C bonds since the 1970s and are often perceived as the result of two metals (i.e zinc and palladium/nickel) working in synergy. Researchers from the Martin group at ICIQ have delved into the Negishi cross-coupling of aryl esters using nickel catalysis to understand how this reaction works at the molecular level and how to improve it. The results have been published in Nature Catalysis. (2021-02-08)

How rocks rusted on Earth and turned red
How did rocks rust on Earth and turn red? A Rutgers-led study has shed new light on the important phenomenon and will help address questions about the Late Triassic climate more than 200 million years ago, when greenhouse gas levels were high enough to be a model for what our planet may be like in the future. (2021-02-08)

New research reveals drivers of regionally different ozone responses to the COVID-19
Professor Ding Aijun explored global air-quality changes during COVID-19 lockdowns and regional disparities in O3 responses to emission reductions. They integrated multiple observational datasets, including global air quality monitoring network and satellite retrievals, to shed more light on the regional differences in interactions between emissions, atmospheric chemistry, and meteorological conditions. (2021-02-07)

Mast cells: Sentinels and high-speed messengers of the immune defense
A team of scientists at the Institute for Molecular and Clinical Immunology at the Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg unravels a crucial mechanism of cell-cell-communication during the defense against pathogens. (2021-02-04)

A single-molecule guide to understanding chemical reactions better
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) report measurement of electrical conductivity of single DNA molecules as a way of monitoring the formation of double-stranded DNA on a gold surface. In their latest paper, they investigate the time evolution of the reaction and report findings not observed previously, demonstrating the suitability of the single-molecule approach in elucidating reaction pathways and exploring novel chemical processes. (2021-02-04)

Mysterious organic scum boosts chemical reaction efficiency, may reduce chemical waste
Chemical manufacturers frequently use toxic solvents such as alcohols and benzene to make products like pharmaceuticals and plastics. Researchers are examining a previously overlooked and misunderstood phenomenon in the chemical reactions used to make these products. This discovery brings a new fundamental understanding of catalytic chemistry and a steppingstone to practical applications that could someday make chemical manufacturing less wasteful and more environmentally sound. (2021-02-04)

Novel photocatalyst effectively turns carbon dioxide into methane fuel with light
Decarbonising has become a prioritised mission in many countries and the science community is working on the ''carbon capture'' technologies. If the captured carbon dioxide could be converted into energy, then it would be killing two birds with one stone. A joint research team led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has developed a new photocatalyst which can produce methane gas (CH4) selectively and effectively from carbon dioxide using sunlight and mimicking photosynthesis. (2021-02-02)

A show of force: Novel polymer that toughens up and changes color upon mechanical stress
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) developed a polymer whose properties change markedly after being exposed to mechanical stress. In bulk form, the mechano-responsive polymer shows color changing, fluorescence, and self-strengthening abilities even under simple compression or extension. These fundamental findings are unprecedented in the field of mechanochemistry and could pave the way for numerous applications in materials science. (2021-02-02)

Extreme UV laser shows generation of atmospheric pollutant
Hokkaido University scientists show that under laboratory conditions, ultraviolet light reacts with nitrophenol to produce smog-generating nitrous acid. (2021-02-02)

Brightening the future of semiconductor-based photocatalytic processes
A collaboration between the Pericàs group with Prof. Timothy Noël and Dr. Paola Riente at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e, The Netherlands), has crystallised in a Nature Communications paper where they provide key insight into the chemical nature of the true photocatalyst involved in the Bi2O3-driven atom-transfer radical addition (ATRA) reaction. (2021-02-01)

Well connected through amides
Linking molecular components through amide bonds is one of the most important reactions in research and the chemical industry. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, scientists have now introduced a new type of reaction for making amide bonds. Called an ASHA ligation, this reaction is fast, efficient, works under mild aqueous conditions, and is broadly applicable. (2021-01-27)

Efficient solid-state depolymerization of waste PET
Despite significant methodological and technological advancements in chemical recycling of synthetic polymers, an effective mechanochemical PET degradation has not yet been described in the scientific literature, until now! Vjekoslav Štrukil from the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia, found that the challenging breakdown of waste PET under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure can be achieved by mechanochemical ball milling or vapor-assisted aging. (2021-01-25)

Bioorthogonally catalyzed lethality strategy generates targeting drugs within tumor
Selectively killing tumor while not causing damage to normal cells still remains a challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Professor Hongke Liu from Nanjing Normal University together with Professor Jing Zhao and Professor Zijian Guo from Nanjing University developed a novel strategy---bioorthogonally-catalyzed lethality to generate efficient anticancer species between two non-toxic components only within cancer cells and tumors without external catalysts, realizing the precise and efficient anticancer chemotherapy. (2021-01-25)

Boosting the efficiency of carbon capture and conversion systems
Researchers at MIT have developed a method to boost the performance of carbon capture systems that use catalytic surfaces to enhance the rates of carbon-sequestering electrochemical reactions. (2021-01-25)

ACSL1 as a main catalyst of CoA conjugation of propionic acid-class NSAIDs in liver
Researchers from Kanazawa University have found that propionic acid-class nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen, form ''conjugates'' with coenzyme A (CoA) by one of the acyl-CoA synthetases, ACSL1, in liver. These conjugates have the covalent binding ability to cellular proteins that may lead to liver injury, a rare severe side effect of NSAID treatment. This knowledge could help pharmaceutical companies to generate pain control options with fewer risks of severe side effects. (2021-01-22)

Cargo delivery by polymers
Degradable, bio-based polymers offer options for chemical recycling, and they can be a tool to store and release useful molecules. Scientists have developed a class of sugar-based polymers that are degradable through acid hydrolysis. The researchers also integrated ''cargo'' molecules in the polymer, which are designed to split off after polymer degradation. Degradable, cargo-bearing polymers are important for medical and sensor applications, says the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2021-01-22)

Single atoms as a catalyst: Surprising effects ensue
Catalysts are getting smaller - ''single-atom'' catalysts are the logical end point of this downsizing. However, individual atoms can no longer be described using the rules developed from larger pieces of metal, so the rules used to predict which metals will be good catalysts must be revamped - this has now been achieved at TU Wien. As it turns out, single atom catalysts based on much cheaper materials might be even more effective. (2021-01-22)

Immunology - Functionality of immune cells in early life
A study by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers shows that putatively immature dendritic cells found in young children are able to induce robust immune responses. The results could lead to improved vaccination protocols. (2021-01-21)

Teamwork in a molecule
Chemists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena have demonstrated the value of 'teamwork' by successfully harnessing the interaction between two gallium atoms in a novel compound to split the particularly strong bond between fluorine and carbon. The gallium compound is also cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional alternatives. (2021-01-21)

Curtin find could slash energy use and cost in making silicon
Curtin University researchers have uncovered a method of making silicon, found commonly in electronics such as phones, cameras and computers, at room temperature. (2021-01-20)

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