Current Chemical Signals News and Events

Current Chemical Signals News and Events, Chemical Signals News Articles.
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Discovery of a mechanism by which epithelial tumours cause developmental delays
- Conducted on the fly Drosophila, the study shows that tumours caused by chromosomal instability delay entry into the adult phase. - The tumours produce the Upd3 protein (equivalent to human Interleukin-6) to block the production of developmental steroid hormones. - The work of IRB Barcelona's Growth Control and Development laboratory has been published in the journal Current Biology. (2021-02-22)

Giving oxygen to the question of air quality
Volatile alkanes can rapidly acquire oxygen atoms in a free radical chain reaction, a process significant for fuel combustion and air pollution. (2021-02-18)

On the quest for other Earths
An international research team with members from ETH has developed a new method for directly imaging smaller planets in the habitable zone of a neighbouring star system. This opens up new possibilities in the search for extraterrestrial life. (2021-02-17)

New skin patch brings us closer to wearable, all-in-one health monitor
Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a soft, stretchy skin patch that can be worn on the neck to continuously track blood pressure and heart rate while measuring the wearer's levels of glucose as well as lactate, alcohol or caffeine. It is the first wearable device that monitors cardiovascular signals and multiple biochemical levels in the human body at the same time. (2021-02-15)

The water surface is a fantastic place for chemical reactions
Using an advanced technique, scientists from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research have demonstrated that a chemical reaction powered by light takes place ten thousand times faster at the air-water interface--what we usually call the water surface--than in the bulk of the water, even when the light has equivalent energy. This finding could help our understanding of the many important chemical and biological processes that take place at the water surface. (2021-02-15)

Detecting single molecules and diagnosing diseases with a smartphone
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers show that the light emitted by a single molecule can be detected with a low-cost optical setup. Their prototype could facilitate medical diagnostics. (2021-02-12)

Seismic surveys using fin whale songs
Fin whale song - one of the strongest animal calls in the ocean - can be used as a seismic source for probing the structure of Earth's crust at the seafloor, researchers report. (2021-02-11)

The songs of fin whales offer new avenue for seismic studies of the oceanic crust
The songs of fin whales can be used for seismic imaging of the oceanic crust, providing scientists a novel alternative to conventional surveying. (2021-02-11)

A novel approach to determine how carcinogenic bacteria find their targets
The gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize the stomachs of the majority of the world's population. Although most people may never experience major complications due to the pathogen, H. pylori infections increase the risk of certain types of gastric cancer, as well as other illnesses such as peptic ulcers and gastritis. (2021-02-10)

'Multiplying' light could be key to ultra-powerful optical computers
New type of optical computing could solve highly complex problems that are out of reach for even the most powerful supercomputers. (2021-02-08)

New research reveals drivers of regionally different ozone responses to the COVID-19
Professor Ding Aijun explored global air-quality changes during COVID-19 lockdowns and regional disparities in O3 responses to emission reductions. They integrated multiple observational datasets, including global air quality monitoring network and satellite retrievals, to shed more light on the regional differences in interactions between emissions, atmospheric chemistry, and meteorological conditions. (2021-02-07)

Researchers find a way to increase spatial resolution in brain activity visualization
Researchers from the HSE Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience have proposed a new method to process magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, which helps find cortical activation areas with higher precision. The method can be used in both basic research and clinical practice to diagnose a wide range of neurological disorders and to prepare patients for brain surgery. The paper describing the algorithm was published in the journal NeuroImage. (2021-02-05)

New quantum receiver the first to detect entire radio frequency spectrum
A new quantum sensor can analyze the full spectrum of radio frequency and real-world signals, unleashing new potentials for soldier communications, spectrum awareness and electronic warfare. (2021-02-04)

A single-molecule guide to understanding chemical reactions better
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) report measurement of electrical conductivity of single DNA molecules as a way of monitoring the formation of double-stranded DNA on a gold surface. In their latest paper, they investigate the time evolution of the reaction and report findings not observed previously, demonstrating the suitability of the single-molecule approach in elucidating reaction pathways and exploring novel chemical processes. (2021-02-04)

Some sperms poison their competitors
A genetic factor helps sperm cells outcompete their peers (2021-02-04)

Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology
Super-dense anions together with cations intercalation into the surface region of graphite electrode has been visualized by applying operando surface science methodology over an Al/HOPG planar model device. The observed unusual electrochemical behavior in surface region can be described as the intercalation pseudocapacitor in contrast with the battery process in the bulk. Guided by this distinct surface effect, the capacity can be doubled by using surface-dominant nano-thick graphite electrode. (2021-02-04)

On the dot: Novel quantum sensor provides new approach to early diagnosis via imaging
A phenomenon called 'oxidative stress' is seen in affected organs during the early stages of certain difficult-to-treat diseases like cancer and kidney dysfunction. Detecting oxidative stress could thus enable early diagnosis and preventive treatments. But, the in vivo measurement of oxidative stress caused by both oxidation and reduction has historically been difficult. Now, scientists have developed an advanced quantum sensor technology that can detect 'oxidative stress' non-invasively throughout the body using fluorescent imaging and MRI. (2021-02-03)

Scientists propose new way to detect emotions using wireless signals
A novel artificial intelligence (AI) approach based on wireless signals could help to reveal our inner emotions, according to new research from Queen Mary University of London. (2021-02-03)

Venus flytraps found to produce magnetic fields
The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is a carnivorous plant that encloses its prey using modified leaves as a trap. During this process, electrical signals known as action potentials trigger the closure of the leaf lobes. An interdisciplinary team of scientists has now shown that these electrical signals generate measurable magnetic fields. (2021-02-02)

Modeling the brain during pain processing
Through new research published in EPJ B, researchers show that inhibitory interneurons, which prevent chemical messages from passing between different regions of the brain, make up 20% of the circuitry in the brain required for pain processing. The discovery represents a significant advance in researchers' understanding of how our bodies and brains respond to pain. (2021-02-02)

Chinese spice helps unravel the mysteries of human touch
New insight into how human brains detect and perceive different types of touch, such as fluttery vibrations and steady pressures, has been revealed by UCL scientists with the help of the ancient Chinese cooking ingredient, Szechuan pepper. (2021-01-28)

With new design, stretchable electronics perform better under strain
Researchers have created stretchable electronics that are less compromised by deformation. They also created several circuit elements with the design, which could lead to even more types of stretchable electronics. (2021-01-25)

Record-breaking laser link could help us test whether Einstein was right
Scientists from Australia have set a world record for the most stable transmission of a laser signal through the atmosphere. The team combined Aussie 'phase stabilisation' technology with advanced self-guiding optical terminals to 'effectively eliminate atmospheric turbulence,' an advance which could help test Einstein's theory of general relativity. (2021-01-22)

Pioneering new technique could revolutionise super-resolution imaging systems
Scientists have developed a pioneering new technique that could revolutionise the accuracy, precision and clarity of super-resolution imaging systems. (2021-01-21)

COVID-19 model reveals key role for innate immunity in controlling viral load
Since SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019, researchers have worked feverishly to study the novel coronavirus. Although much knowledge has been gained, scientists still have a lot to learn about how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human body, and how the immune system fights it. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science have developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that reveals a key role for the innate immune system in controlling viral load. (2021-01-20)

Curtin find could slash energy use and cost in making silicon
Curtin University researchers have uncovered a method of making silicon, found commonly in electronics such as phones, cameras and computers, at room temperature. (2021-01-20)

Decoding breast milk to make better baby formula (video)
What makes breast milk so good for babies? In this episode of Reactions, our host, Sam, chats with chemist Steven Townsend, Ph.D., who's trying to figure out which sugar molecules in breast milk make it so unique and difficult to mimic. (2021-01-19)

Male butterflies mark their mates with repulsive smell during sex to 'turn off' other suitors
Butterflies have evolved to produce a strongly scented chemical in their genitals that they leave behind after sex to deter other males from pursuing their women - scientists have found. Researchers discovered a chemical made in the sex glands of the males of one species of tropical butterfly is identical to a chemical produced by flowers to attract butterflies. The study published in PLOS Biology today (19 January 2021) identified a gene for the first time. (2021-01-19)

Lasers & molecular tethers create perfectly patterned platforms for tissue engineering
Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a technique to modify naturally occurring biological polymers with protein-based biochemical messages that affect cell behavior. Their approach, published the week of Jan. 18, 2021 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, uses a near-infrared laser to trigger chemical adhesion of protein messages to a scaffold made from biological polymers such as collagen, a connective tissue found throughout our bodies. (2021-01-18)

Newly developed GaN based MEMS resonator operates stably even at high temperature
JST PRESTO researcher developed a MEMS resonator that stably operates even under high temperatures by regulating the strain caused by the heat from gallium nitride (GaN). This device is small, highly sensitive and can be integrated with CMOS technology promising for the application to 5G communication, IoT timing device, on-vehicle applications, and advanced driver assistance system. (2021-01-15)

Acute itching in eczema patients linked to environmental allergens
New research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis indicates that allergens in the environment often are to blame for episodes of acute itch in eczema patients, and that the itching often doesn't respond to antihistamines because the itch signals are being carried to the brain along a previously unrecognized pathway that current drugs don't target. (2021-01-14)

Eavesdropping on the pH levels inside the brain
Researchers at Tohoku University have developed the first all-in-one miniature pH probe for real-time investigations of intrinsic extracellular pH dynamics in the deep brain structures. (2020-12-23)

Global study on bird song frequency
Competition for mates leads to a deeper voice than expected based on size (2020-12-22)

Diseased cell fragments burst from pockets in immune cells to activate response
Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute have uncovered an important process in how our immune system detects signs of disease and activates a protective response. This understanding could improve efforts to find new and effective immunotherapy treatments for diseases like cancer. (2020-12-21)

High-five or thumbs-up? New device detects which hand gesture you want to make
A new device developed by engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, can recognize hand gestures based on electrical signals detected in the forearm. The system, which couples wearable biosensors with artificial intelligence (AI), could one day be used to control prosthetics or to interact with almost any type of electronic device. (2020-12-21)

New discovery brings analogue spintronic devices closer
The observation of nonlinearity in electron spin-related processes in graphene makes it easier to transport, manipulate and detect spins, as well as spin-to-charge conversion. It also allows analogue operations such as amplitude modulation and spin amplification. This brings spintronics to the point where regular electronics was after the introduction of the first transistors. These results by University of Groningen physicists were published in the journal Physical Review Applied on 17 December. (2020-12-18)

In liver, a stressed cell can be bad news for its neighbors
When a stressed liver cell starts communicating with its neighbors, it can send stress signals to neighboring cells, causing significant problems that can lead to fatty liver disease and metabolic disease. (2020-12-18)

Will it kombucha? (video)
Kombucha is a bubbly, fermented tea that has gained popularity in the health and wellness scene over the last decade -- but what is it exactly? This week, the Reactions team breaks down kombucha's chemistry and investigates which ordinary beverages they can turn into kombucha. (2020-12-17)

Combined observations of neutron stars constrain their equation of state and the Hubble constant
Combining signals from multiple observations of neutron stars has allowed researchers to better understand the properties of ultra-dense matter and constrain the Hubble constant, which describes how fast the Universe is expanding, according to a new study. (2020-12-17)

Multi-messenger astronomy offers new estimates of neutron star size and universe expansion
Multi-messenger astronomy allows researchers to put new constraints on the radius of a typical neutron star and provide a novel calculation of the Hubble constant. (2020-12-17)

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