Current Chemical Weathering News and Events

Current Chemical Weathering News and Events, Chemical Weathering News Articles.
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Study: Effects of past ice ages more widespread than previously thought
A study by University of Arkansas researchers suggests that cold temperatures in unglaciated North America during the last ice age shaped past and modern landscape as far south as Texas and Arkansas. (2021-02-22)

Giving oxygen to the question of air quality
Volatile alkanes can rapidly acquire oxygen atoms in a free radical chain reaction, a process significant for fuel combustion and air pollution. (2021-02-18)

The water surface is a fantastic place for chemical reactions
Using an advanced technique, scientists from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research have demonstrated that a chemical reaction powered by light takes place ten thousand times faster at the air-water interface--what we usually call the water surface--than in the bulk of the water, even when the light has equivalent energy. This finding could help our understanding of the many important chemical and biological processes that take place at the water surface. (2021-02-15)

A single-molecule guide to understanding chemical reactions better
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) report measurement of electrical conductivity of single DNA molecules as a way of monitoring the formation of double-stranded DNA on a gold surface. In their latest paper, they investigate the time evolution of the reaction and report findings not observed previously, demonstrating the suitability of the single-molecule approach in elucidating reaction pathways and exploring novel chemical processes. (2021-02-04)

Climate and carbon cycle trends of the past 50 million years reconciled
In a study published today in Science Advances, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa oceanographers fully reconciled climate and carbon cycle trends of the past 50 million years--solving a controversy debated in the scientific literature for decades. (2021-01-22)

Rocks show Mars once felt like Iceland
A comparison of chemical and climate weathering of sedimentary rock in Mars' Gale Crater indicate the region's mean temperature billions of years ago was akin to current conditions on Iceland. (2021-01-20)

Decoding breast milk to make better baby formula (video)
What makes breast milk so good for babies? In this episode of Reactions, our host, Sam, chats with chemist Steven Townsend, Ph.D., who's trying to figure out which sugar molecules in breast milk make it so unique and difficult to mimic. (2021-01-19)

Male butterflies mark their mates with repulsive smell during sex to 'turn off' other suitors
Butterflies have evolved to produce a strongly scented chemical in their genitals that they leave behind after sex to deter other males from pursuing their women - scientists have found. Researchers discovered a chemical made in the sex glands of the males of one species of tropical butterfly is identical to a chemical produced by flowers to attract butterflies. The study published in PLOS Biology today (19 January 2021) identified a gene for the first time. (2021-01-19)

Study find physical weathering of rock breakdown more important than previously recognized
Anisovolumetric weathering is much more common than previously thought, and variations in this process can be explained by climate and erosion. (2021-01-13)

New analysis highlights importance of groundwater discharge into oceans
An invisible flow of groundwater seeps into the ocean along coastlines all over the world. Scientists have tended to disregard its contributions to ocean chemistry, focusing on the far greater volumes of water and dissolved material entering the sea from rivers and streams, but a new study finds groundwater discharge plays a more significant role than had been thought. (2021-01-08)

Immune cells discovered in the lungs improve virus defense
A research team at the University of Basel has discovered immune cells resident in the lungs that persist long after a bout of flu. Experiments with mice have shown that these helper cells improve the immune response to reinfection by a different strain of the flu virus. The discovery could yield approaches to developing longer-lasting vaccinations against quickly-mutating viruses. (2021-01-08)

Eavesdropping on the pH levels inside the brain
Researchers at Tohoku University have developed the first all-in-one miniature pH probe for real-time investigations of intrinsic extracellular pH dynamics in the deep brain structures. (2020-12-23)

Will it kombucha? (video)
Kombucha is a bubbly, fermented tea that has gained popularity in the health and wellness scene over the last decade -- but what is it exactly? This week, the Reactions team breaks down kombucha's chemistry and investigates which ordinary beverages they can turn into kombucha. (2020-12-17)

Fractured bedrock in forests is overlooked source of natural CO2
According to a study led by The University of Texas at Austin, CO2 is being produced deep underground in bedrock fractures. This source could account for up to 29% of the daily average CO2 emitted by the land. (2020-12-14)

Continents prone to destruction in their infancy, study finds
Monash University geologists have shed new light on the early history of the Earth through their discovery that continents were weak and prone to destruction in their infancy. (2020-12-02)

Laboratory experiments unravelling the mystery of the Mars moon Phobos
There is no weather in space - but there is weathering: Celestial bodies are bombarded by high energy particles. On the Mars moon Phobos, the situation is complicated: It is hit by particles from the sun, but it is partly shielded by Mars. New experiments explain what is going on, in 2024 a space mission will reach Phobos and check the results. (2020-11-30)

New procedure will reduce the need for rare metals in chemical synthesis
Researchers from Kanazawa University performed an important type of tertiary alkylative cross-coupling reaction without using a rare-metal catalyst. Such efforts are needed to improve the long-term sustainability of important chemical syntheses and minimize supply chain disruptions caused by pandemics and other crises. (2020-11-27)

A rich source of nutrients under the Earth's ice sheets
Trace elements such as iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for all kinds of organisms. Below ice sheets, which cover around ten percent of the Earth's land surface, larger quantities of these substances are mobilised than previously assumed. This is shown by new data from Greenland and Antarctica, which were collected and analysed by an international research team led by Jon Hawkings from the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and Florida State University (USA). (2020-11-23)

Insights in the search for new antibiotics
A collaborative research team from the University of Oklahoma, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Merck & Co. published an opinion article in the journal, Nature Chemical Biology, that addresses the gap in the discovery of new antibiotics. (2020-11-19)

Green chemistry: Politecnico di Milano publishes in Chem
The prestigious journal Chem (Cell Press, impact factor: 19.735) publishes the first mechanosynthesis of a molecular crystal with a Borromean topology. The results obtained by the Politecnico di Milano group have shown that mechanosynthesis can be applied to the self-assembly of complex multi-component supramolecular structures such as the Borromean rings, demonstrating, in detail, the mechanism of formation of this complex topology. (2020-11-18)

Electrochemical oxygen evolution on Hf2B2Ir5 electrode material
Electrochemical oxygen evolution on Hf2B2Ir5 electrode material. (2020-11-11)

Russian scientists created a chemical space mapping method and cracked the mystery of Mendeleev number
Scientists from Skoltech puzzled out the physical meaning of the mysterious Mendeleev Numbers and suggested calculating them based on the fundamental properties of atoms. They showed that both MNs and the chemical space built around them were more effective than empirical solutions proposed until then. (2020-11-10)

UMass Amherst research compares sensitivity of all genes to chemical exposure
A University of Massachusetts Amherst environmental health scientist has used an unprecedented objective approach to identify which molecular mechanisms in mammals are the most sensitive to chemical exposures. (2020-10-29)

SwRI study offers more complete view of massive asteroid Psyche
A new study authored by Southwest Research Institute planetary scientist Dr. Tracy Becker discusses several new views of the asteroid 16 Psyche, including the first ultra-violet observations. The study, which was published today in The Planetary Science Journal and presented at the virtual meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences, paints a clearer view of the asteroid than was previous-ly available. (2020-10-26)

Why is fertilizer used in explosives? (video)
Over the last century, the compound ammonium nitrate has been involved in at least 30 disasters and terrorist attacks. Under normal circumstances, it's totally harmless and used in things like fertilizer, so what makes ammonium nitrate turn deadly?: https://youtu.be/-SeT3N3A19c. (2020-10-22)

New method for upcycling polyethylene creates value from plastic waste
Using a unique catalyst to molecularly deconstruct polyethylene, the most commonly used form of plastic, researchers present a solvent-free way to transform it into higher-value, widely used chemical compounds. (2020-10-22)

Driver of the largest mass extinction in the history of the Earth identified
252 million years ago, at the transition from the Permian to the Triassic epoch, most of the life forms existing on Earth became extinct. Using latest analytical methods and detailed model calculations, scientists from the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, in cooperation with the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and international partners, have now succeeded for the first time to provide a conclusive reconstruction of the geochemical processes that led to this unprecedented biotic crisis. (2020-10-19)

How a greenhouse catastrophe killed nearly all life
252 million years ago at the boundary between the Permian and Triassic epochs, Earth witnessed a mass extinction event that extinguished about three-quarters of all species on land and some 95 percent of all species in the ocean. Volcanic activity in today's Siberia has long been debated as a likely trigger of this event. Now, an international team of researchers provides for the first time a conclusive reconstruction of the key events that led to the mega-catastrophe. (2020-10-19)

Australian valley a 'natural laboratory' to test carbon sequestration theory
An idea to enhance natural carbon capture from olivine weathering has never been tested at scale. University of Sydney geoscientists have proposed the Tweed Valley as a laboratory and gained some interesting initial results. (2020-10-12)

New findings from OSIRIS-REx detail complex history of Asteroid Bennu
Six new studies in Science and Science Advances present results from the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and reveal insights about the near-Earth asteroid Bennu. (2020-10-08)

Who is driving whom? Climate and carbon cycle in perpetual interaction
The current climate crisis underlines that carbon cycle perturbations can cause significant climate change. New research reveals how carbon cycle and global climate have been interacting throughout the last 35 million years of geologic history, under natural circumstances. The study, led by David De Vleeschouwer from MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen, was now published in Nature Communications. (2020-10-06)

Lessons from a cooling climate
Usually, talk of carbon sequestration focuses on plants: forests storing carbon in the trunks of massive trees, algae blooming and sinking to the seabed, or perhaps peatlands locking carbon away for tens of thousands of years. (2020-09-29)

How does this blue flower tea change color? (video)
Maybe you've seen a beautiful, color-changing tea on social media. Chances are, it's butterfly pea flower tea. This week, we're investigating what allows it to shift from one vibrant color to the next, and Sam and George play around to see how many different colors they can get. (2020-09-28)

Island-building in Southeast Asia created Earth's northern ice sheets
Tectonic processes are thought to have triggered past ice ages, but how? A new analysis of mountain building in the maritime tropics of Southeast Asia attributes the last ice age, which reached a maximum 15,000 years ago, to increasing rock weathering in the rising island arc from Sumatra to New Guinea over the past 15 million years, with the first ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere appearing about 3 million years ago. (2020-09-23)

Dust may have controlled ancient human civilization
When early humans began to travel out of Africa and spread into Eurasia over a hundred thousand years ago, a fertile region around the eastern Mediterranean Sea called the Levant served as a critical gateway between northern Africa and Eurasia. A new study, published in Geology, shows that the existence of that oasis depended almost entirely on something we almost never think about: dust. (2020-09-15)

Trapping of acetylene
Ethylene, a key feedstock in the chemical industry, often includes traces of acetylene contaminants, which need to be removed. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, researchers describe a robust and regenerable porous metal-organic framework that captures acetylene with extraordinary efficiency and selectively. Its synergistic combination of tailor-made pore sizes and chemical docking sites makes the material especially efficient, the study says. (2020-08-27)

Older adults with existing depression show resilience during the pandemic
Older adults with existing depression are showing resilience during the pandemic, research shows. (2020-08-19)

Ancient mountains recorded in Antarctic sandstones reveal potential links to global events
A new analysis of sandstones from Antarctica indicates there may be important links between the generation of mountain belts and major transitions in Earth's atmosphere and oceans. A team of researchers analyzed the chemistry of tiny zircon grains commonly found in the Earth's continental rock record to determine their ages and chemical compositions. The study was published recently in the international peer-reviewed journal Terra Nova. (2020-08-04)

Mathematical modeling revealed how chitinase, a molecular monorail, obeys a one-way sign
A novel mathematical modeling method has been developed to estimate operation models of biomolecular motors from single-molecule imaging data of motion with the Bayesian inference framework. The operation mechanism of a linear molecular motor ''chitinase'', which moves one-way on a chitin chain with degrading the chain passed by, was elucidated by mathematical modeling of experimental imaging data with the method. (2020-08-03)

Light shines on chemical production method
A team of researchers from Japan has demonstrated a light-based reaction that yields high numbers of the base chemical component required to produce bioactive compounds used in common industry products. They published their results on June 11, 2020 in Organic Letters. (2020-08-03)

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