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Current Chemokines News and Events, Chemokines News Articles.
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Researchers identify immune component up-regulated in brain after viral infection
A new study of infection by a virus that causes brain inflammation and seizures in a mouse model has shown increased levels of complement component C3. The C3 was produced by immune cells in the brain called microglia within the first few days after infection. (2017-06-08)

Immunology: How ancestry shapes our immune cells
A genetic variant that is particularly prevalent in people of African ancestry confers protection against malaria. LMU researchers have now shown how it modulates the properties of white blood cells that play a major role in immune defenses and inflammation. (2017-06-01)

Viral protein may help chickenpox virus spread within the body
The virus that causes chickenpox -- varicella zoster virus (VZV) -- possesses a protein that could enhance its ability to hijack white blood cells and spread throughout the body, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens. (2017-05-25)

Monash researchers find piece in inflammatory disease puzzle
Inflammation is the process by which the body responds to injury or infection but when this process becomes out of control it can cause disease. Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute researchers, in collaboration with the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, have shed light on a key aspect of the process. Their findings may help guide the development of new treatments of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attack or stroke, and type 2 diabetes. (2017-05-23)

New biomarkers of multiple sclerosis pathogenesis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease targeting the brain. The pathogenesis of MS remains largely unknown. It is believed that brain tissue damage is due to immune cells targeting and breaking up the myelin basic protein (MBP), which is essential for nerve cells function. (2017-05-19)

Brain fights West Nile Virus in unexpected way
A biochemical self-destruct trigger found in many types of cells takes on a different role in brain cells infected with West Nile virus. In a turnabout, it guards the lives of these cells and calls up the body's defenses. Neurons might be protected by this otherwise self-demise mechanism because they are non-renewable and too important to kill off. (2017-05-18)

Inflammation: It takes two to tango
Signal molecules called chemokines often work in tandem to recruit specific sets of immune cells to sites of tissue damage. A systematic analysis of their interactions by researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich pinpoints potential targets for new therapies. (2017-04-06)

Scientists discover biological evidence of 'atypical' chronic fatigue syndrome
Scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health are the first to report immune signatures differentiating two subgroups of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS): 'classical' and 'atypical.' This complex, debilitating disease is characterized by symptoms ranging from extreme fatigue after exertion to difficulty concentrating, headaches, and muscle pain. (2017-04-04)

Tracking movement of immune cells identifies key first steps in inflammatory arthritis
Using a novel approach for imaging the movement of immune cells in living animals, researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases have identified what appear to be the initial steps leading to joint inflammation in a model of inflammatory arthritis. (2017-01-20)

Structure of atypical cancer protein paves way for drug development
A team of researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine has helped uncover the elusive structure of a cancer cell receptor protein that can be leveraged to fight disease progression. (2017-01-18)

Oral bacterium related esophageal cancer prognosis in Japanese patients
A type of bacterium usually found in the human mouth, Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), has been found to be related to the prognosis of esophageal cancer in Japanese patients by researchers from Kumamoto University, Japan. The bacteria are a causative agent of periodontal disease and though it can be found among the intestinal flora, it hasn't been the focus of much research until now. (2016-12-08)

Researchers reveal 3-D structure of cell's inflammation sensor and its inhibitors
Researchers at the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of California San Diego have now determined the 3-D structure of CCR2 simultaneously bound to two inhibitors. Understanding how these molecules fit together may better enable pharmaceutical companies to develop anti-inflammatory drugs that bind and inhibit CCR2 in a similar manner. The study is published Dec. 7 by Nature. (2016-12-07)

Mechanism of probiotic health promotion revealed
In several clinical trials, the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei DG has been shown to promote health, but until now, the mechanism has remained a black box. New research now suggests that the health benefits arise from communication between the probiotic bacteria and the human host. That communication involves bacterial secretion of a novel polysaccharide that tells the immune system to release certain immunity-stimulating chemicals. (2016-12-02)

Study shows low-dose chemotherapy regimens could prevent tumor recurrence in some cancers
Conventional, high-dose chemotherapy treatments can cause the fibroblast cells surrounding tumors to secrete proteins that promote the tumors' recurrence in more aggressive forms, researchers have discovered. Frequent, low-dose chemotherapy regimens avoid this effect and may therefore be more effective at treating certain types of breast and pancreatic cancer, according to the murine study 'Metronomic chemotherapy prevents therapy-induced stromal activation and induction of tumor-initiating cells,' which will be published online Nov. 23 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine. (2016-11-23)

New findings show promise for treatment of Graves' disease and other ocular disorders
A new class of therapies may be on the horizon for thyroid eye disease (TED) and other destructive scarring conditions. A new study published in The American Journal of Pathology found that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway by its ligands blocks collagen production and myofibroblast proliferation in TED. (2016-11-11)

Key protein implicated in negative side effects of senescence
Researchers at The Wistar Institute have identified a protein that plays a critical role in the expression of cytokines and chemokines, and that decreasing this protein suppresses the expression of these secreted factors. This suggests that there may be ways of promoting the positive effects of senescence while suppressing its negative effects. (2016-10-31)

Novel biomarkers increase power to predict therapeutic response in lupus
Medical University of South Carolina investigators report preclinical research showing that prognostic models for lupus nephritis that include novel biomarkers have significantly improved predictive power over models using only traditional markers, in the Aug. 2016 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatology. Data reveal that chemokines, cytokines, and markers of cellular damage were most predictive of patients' therapeutic response. This is a critical first step to developing clinically meaningful, decision-support tools in lupus nephritis. (2016-10-11)

Tumor microenvironment acts as a mechanism of resistance to chemotherapy
Researchers from IDIBELL have published a new Oncotarget paper that highlights the importance of tumor environment as a source of resistance to treatment in colorectal cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. (2016-09-06)

Can anti-inflammatory therapies be effective against epilepsy?
In epileptic patients, seizures lead to an increased level of inflammation-related proteins called chemokines in the brain, and systemic inflammation likely helps trigger and promote the recurrence of seizures, making inflammation a promising new target for anticonvulsant therapy. The latest evidence on one particular chemokine of interest, CCL2, and its potential role in human epilepsy are the focus of an article in DNA and Cell Biology. (2016-07-06)

Myocardial infarction: Rush-hour for neutrophils
Researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have shown that circadian oscillations in the influx of immune cells into the damaged tissue play a crucial role in exacerbating the effects of an acute heart attack in the early morning hours. (2016-06-08)

Autism with intellectual disability linked to mother's immune dysfunction during pregnancy
Pregnant women with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, proteins that control communication between cells of the immune system, may be at significantly greater risk of having a child with autism combined with intellectual disability, researchers with the UC Davis MIND Institute have found. (2016-06-07)

Novel role for spleen B cells in inflammatory response to bacterial toxins
University of Tsukuba-led researchers have identified a new role for marginal zone B lymphocytes in enhancing inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Marginal zone B cells were shown to produce pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Interleukin-6 production requires TLR4 signaling in relation to the antibody receptor Fcα/μR. These findings broaden understanding of marginal zone B cell function and interleukin-6 signaling in the immune system, which could be exploited to treat sepsis. (2016-05-09)

Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance immunotherapy in lung cancer models, say Moffitt researchers
Several new immunotherapeutic antibodies that inhibit checkpoint receptors on T cells to restimulate the immune system to target tumors have been approved to treat advanced stage lung cancer and melanoma; however, only 20 percent of lung cancer patients show a response to these agents. Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have identified a class of drugs that improve the activity of immunotherapeutic antibodies by stimulating the movement of T cells into a tumor and enhancing their activity. (2016-03-31)

Uric acid, gout and kidney disease: The chicken or the egg?
The increasing prevalence of both gout and chronic kidney disease has led to a growing interest in the association between hyperuricemia (an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood) and kidney disease. (2016-03-28)

Progress toward creating broad-spectrum antiviral
UW researchers working in collaboration with Kineta Inc. and the University of Texas at Galveston have shown that making a drug-like molecule to turn on innate immunity can induce genes to control infection in several -known viruses. The findings published in the Journal of Virology show promising evidence for creating a broad spectrum antiviral that can suppress a range of RNA viruses, including West Nile, dengue virus, hepatitis C, influenza A, respiratory syncytial, Nipah, Lassa and Ebola. (2015-12-17)

Male and female mice respond differently to inflammation
New research published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology shows that male and female mice respond differently to inflammation at the cellular level. (2015-11-02)

Research explains limits of cancer immunotherapy drugs
A new study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center reveals molecular changes within a tumor that are preventing immunotherapy drugs from killing off the cancer. (2015-10-26)

Vaccine with virus-like nanoparticles effective treatment for RSV, study finds
A vaccine containing virus-like nanoparticles, or microscopic, genetically engineered particles, is an effective treatment for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), according to researchers at Georgia State University. (2015-08-03)

Type 1 diabetes patients have lower blood levels of 4 proteins that protect against immune attack
Patients with type 1 diabetes have significantly lower blood levels of four proteins that help protect their tissue from attack by their immune system, scientists report. (2015-07-29)

Why West Nile virus is more dangerous in the elderly
West Nile virus (WNV) is particularly dangerous in older people, who account for a large number of severe cases and deaths caused by the virus. WNV infection turns serious when the virus crosses the blood-brain-barrier and wreaks havoc among nerve cells in the brain. A study published on July 23 in PLOS Pathogens suggests that several critical components of the early immune response to the virus are impaired in elderly individuals, and that this can explain their vulnerability. (2015-07-23)

UTMB study uncovers mechanism responsible for pollen-induced allergies
A new study from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston has uncovered a mechanism that is central to becoming allergic to ragweed pollen and developing allergic asthma or seasonal nasal allergies. The findings are currently available online in the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. (2015-07-22)

Restoring natural immunity against cancers
Scientists at the Institut Pasteur and Inserm have successfully increased the infiltration of immune cells into tumors, thus inducing the immune system to block tumor growth. In an article published in Nature Immunology, the scientists show that, in combination with existing immunotherapies, this process efficiently destroys cancer cells. (2015-06-17)

Breast cancer study raises hope of therapy to stop tumor spread
Scientists have discovered a trigger that allows breast cancer cells to spread to the lungs. The findings could lead to new therapies that stop the progression of breast cancer, the researchers at the University of Edinburgh say. (2015-06-08)

Panel predicts whether rare leukemia will respond to treatment
Patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia have limited treatment options, and those that exist are effective only in fewer than half of patients. Now, a new study identifies a panel of genetic markers that predicted which tumor samples would likely respond to treatment. (2015-03-30)

New lead against HIV could finally hobble the virus's edge
Since HIV emerged in the '80s, drug 'cocktails' transformed the deadly disease into a manageable one. But the virus is adept at developing resistance to drugs, and treatment regimens require tweaking that can be costly. Now scientists at the 249th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society are announcing new progress toward affordable drugs that could potentially thwart the virus's ability to resist them. (2015-03-19)

Mother's own immune system may cause pregnancy complications
Preclinical research demonstrates for the first time that refocusing an expectant mother's immune cells to prevent them from attacking the fetus may be a therapeutic strategy for preventing pregnancy complications like stillbirth or prematurity. Scientists at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center report their findings March 9 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. They suggest restricting the pregnant mother's immune cells from the placenta -- the maternal-fetal interface -- can protect against pregnancy complications. (2015-03-09)

Dartmouth researchers reprogram tumor's cells to attack itself
Inserting a specific strain of bacteria into the microenvironment of aggressive ovarian cancer transforms the behavior of tumor cells from suppression to immunostimulation, Dartmouth researchers have found. The findings demonstrate a new approach in immunotherapy that can be applied in a variety of cancer types. (2015-02-03)

Cell's recycling team helps sound alarm on pathogens
Autophagy recycles materials in the cell and is also an efficient method of eliminating viruses, bacteria, and parasites. However, for fungal invaders, Duke researchers have found that the cleanup crew takes a less straightforward approach. Rather than killing fungal invaders directly, autophagy is used to chew up a molecule that would otherwise hold back the immune response. It's sort of like breaking the glass on an alarm to allow the button to be pushed. (2015-01-22)

Pictured together for the first time: A chemokine and its receptor
Researchers at University of California, San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Bridge Institute at the University of Southern California report the first crystal structure of the cellular receptor CXCR4 bound to an immune signaling protein called a chemokine. The structure, published Jan. 22 in Science, answers longstanding questions about a molecular interaction that plays an important role in human development, immune responses, cancer metastasis and HIV infections. (2015-01-22)

New whole blood assay may help overcome roadblocks to TB eradication
One of the roadblocks to the eradication of tuberculosis (TB) is the difficulty in identifying patients with latent TB infections (LTBI). Neither the tuberculin skin test (TST) nor interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are capable of distinguishing active from latent infection or predicting the chance of reactivation. A new multiple-target, real-time reverse transcription-PCR (real-time RT-PCR) TaqMan assay targeting eight human immune markers can differentiate active pulmonary TB from LTBI, according to a study in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. (2015-01-06)

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