Current Chromatin News and Events

Current Chromatin News and Events, Chromatin News Articles.
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Silencing by crosstalk
Researchers at IMBA -- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences -- unveil functional and mechanistic details in small RNA-mediated co-transcriptional gene silencing. The results are published in the journal Genes & Development. (2021-02-16)

Inhibition of the BAF complex causes rapid loss of DNA accessibility
When human cells have to adapt, the BAF complex plays a central role because it controls the accessibility of the DNA and thus the information stored in it. In every fifth human cancer, a mutation is found in one of the BAF complex genes. Scientists at CeMM have investigated this complex in more detail and were able to show how quickly changes in the BAF complex genes influence the accessibility of DNA. (2021-02-09)

MSK scientists learn how genes and environment conspire in pancreatic cancer development
Both genes and environment are necessary to trigger pancreatic cancer development. A new study from Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers explains why. (2021-02-03)

Brain 3D genome study uncovers human-specific regulatory changes during development
A team led by Prof. SU Bing from the Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Prof. LI Cheng from Peking University, and Prof. ZHANG Shihua from the Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science of CAS has reported the highest resolution by far of the 3D genome of the primate brain, and demonstrated the molecular regulatory mechanisms of human brain evolution through cross-species multi-omics analysis and experimental validation. (2021-01-28)

First ever 'pioneer' factor found in plants enables cells to change their fate
To start the process of unpacking tightly bundled genetic material, plants depend on the LEAFY pioneer protein, according to work led by University of Pennsylvania biologist Doris Wagner. (2021-01-27)

NIH researchers identify new genetic disorder that affects brain, craniofacial skeleton
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have discovered a new genetic disorder characterized by developmental delays and malformations of the brain, heart, and facial features. (2021-01-20)

Reverse engineering 3D chromosome models for individual cells
A new computational technique that uses heat map data to reverse engineer highly detailed models of chromosomes and researchers have uncovered new information about the close spatial relationships that chromatin folding creates between genes. (2021-01-14)

'Bespoke' analysis of DNA packaging sheds light on intricacies of the fundamental process
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues have optimized data analysis for a common method of studying the 3D structure of DNA in single cells of a Drosophila fly. The new approach allows the scientists to peek with greater confidence into individual cells to study the unique ways DNA is packaged there and get closer to understanding this crucial process's underlying mechanisms. (2021-01-12)

How the circadian clock regulates liver genes in time and space
EPFL scientists have carried out the first comprehensive study of how genes in the liver perform their metabolic functions in both space and time of day. Monitoring almost 5000 genes at the level of the individual cell across a 24-hour period, the researchers have modelled how the circadian clock and liver functions crosstalk throughout the day in sync with the feeding-fasting cycle. (2021-01-11)

Changing the perspective on the 'Cinderella of the cytoskeleton'
SETD2, known for its involvement on gene expression, also can affect functions controlled by the cytoskeleton, such as movement, metastasis and migration, which are very important for cancer cells. (2020-12-23)

Discovery finds a cellular building block acts as a gel, not liquid as previously believed
University of Alberta researchers have found an answer to a fundamental question in genomic biology that has eluded scientists since the discovery of DNA: Within the nucleus of our cells, is the complex package of DNA and proteins called chromatin a solid or a liquid? The team found that chromatin is actually more like a gel. This new understanding could lead to a more accurate understanding of how the genome is encoded and decoded. (2020-12-18)

Quantitative approach on understanding how epigenetic switches control gene expression
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology decipher how to quantitatively assess the effects of specific epigenetic changes on the rate of transcription by developing a mathematical model. For this, they successfully generated reconstituted chromatin bearing histone modifications in vitro. Their study published in Nucleic Acids Research provides an accurate quantitative approach for understanding how site-specific changes to histone proteins impact the accessibility of chromatin and gene expression levels. (2020-12-10)

New method to boost supply of life-saving stem cells
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona and Columbia University in New York City have found a new method for growing a large quantity of life-saving blood stem cells. The scarcity of these cells is one of the greatest limitations for their use in a variety of medical procedures, from treatment of blood cancers to inherited blood disorders that require a bone marrow transplantation. (2020-12-08)

New activity found for CHD7, a protein factor vital in embryonic development
Research has yielded fundamental insights into the causes of severe birth defects known as CHARGE syndrome cases. These congenital birth defects include severe and life-threatening heart malformations. Researchers successfully inactivated the gene for CHD7 in the neural crest cells of mouse embryos, and then rigorously probed how this change in developing cardiac neural crest cells caused severe defects in the outflow tract and great arteries, leading to perinatal lethality. (2020-12-02)

Mapping out the mystery of blood stem cells
Princess Margaret scientists have revealed how stem cells are able to generate new blood cells throughout our life by looking at vast, uncharted regions of our genetic material that hold important clues to subtle biological changes in these cells. (2020-11-25)

Scientists discover roles for a cellular motor in cancer
Utah scientists have discovered new functions of a key cellular machine that regulates gene packaging and is mutated in 20% of human cancers. The study was published in print today in the journal Molecular Cell. (2020-11-19)

Picture this: Chromosomes look different than you think
A new method to capture high-resolution, 3D images of human chromosomes in single cells reveals how DNA structure might influence its function (or malfunction). (2020-11-18)

Drug discovery: First highly scalable method to monitor protein levels and localizations
Researchers at CeMM, the Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, have developed a highly scalable method which allows for the study of hundreds of proteins in parallel in order to monitor the changes of their levels and localization in the cell. This novel strategy is a notable contribution, not only to drug development for future treatments against diseases such as cancer, but also to our general understanding and knowledge of proteome dynamics. (2020-11-17)

Neurons stripped of their identity are hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, study finds
Researchers at the University of California San Diego have identified new mechanisms in neurons that cause Alzheimer's disease. In particular, they discovered that changes in the structure of chromatin, the tightly coiled form of DNA, trigger neurons to lose their specialized function and revert to an earlier cell state. This results in the loss of synaptic connections, an effect associated with memory loss and dementia. (2020-11-13)

New molecular atlases reveal how human cells grow and develop
Two cell atlases have been created that track gene expression and chromatin accessibility during the development of human cell types and tissues. The atlases provide a fundamental resource for understanding gene expression and chromatin accessibility in human development that is unprecedented in scale. One maps gene expression within individual cells across 15 fetal tissues. The other maps chromatin accessibility of individual genes within cells. (2020-11-12)

Sugar work: U-M study finds sugar remodels molecular memory in fruit flies
A high-sugar diet reprograms the taste cells in fruit flies, dulling their sensitivity to sugar and leaving a ''molecular memory'' on their tongues, according to a University of Michigan study. (2020-11-11)

A novel finding on Kabuki syndrome, a rare genetic disease
It has a long time since the cause of the disease has been identified: mutations of KMT2D gene codify for MLL4, a protein involved in the regulation of chromatin, which is the complex of proteins and nucleic acids contained in the nucleus of cells. However, research still has a long way to go to identify therapeutic approaches. An Italian team, coordinated by the University of Trento, has taken a step forward in this direction (2020-11-09)

At our cores, we're all strengthened by 'dumbbells'
Scientists at Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics detail the structure of dumbbell-like sequences in DNA during interphase that suggest several unseen aspects of chromosome configuration and function. (2020-10-21)

New 3-D model of a DNA-regulating complex in human cells provides cancer clues
Scientists have created an unprecedented 3-dimensional structural model of a key molecular ''machine'' known as the BAF complex, which modifies DNA architecture and is frequently mutated in cancer and some other diseases. (2020-10-13)

Research team discovers mechanism that restores cell function after genome damage
Researchers at the University of Cologne have found out how cells can recover their development and longevity after damage by UV / discovery may enable therapy against premature aging (2020-10-13)

A dance of histones silences transposable elements in pluripotent stem cells
A study lead by SciLifeLab Fellow Simon Elsässer elucidates the mechanism of a peculiar type of heterochromatin, used by embryonic stem cells to silence 'parasitic' DNA-elements within the context of their highly dynamic pluripotent chromatin. (2020-10-09)

Sanford Burnham Prebys wins $8.5 million in NIH Transformative Research grants
Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute today announced that two faculty members, Peter Adams, Ph.D., and Jerold Chun, M.D., Ph.D., have received National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director's Transformative Research Awards. The awards, which total $8.5 million and are two of only nine granted in 2020, come from the NIH Common Fund's High-Risk, High-Reward Program. (2020-10-06)

Neuroscientists discover a molecular mechanism that allows memories to form
Encoding memories in engram cells is controlled by large-scale remodeling of the proteins and DNA that make up cells' chromatin, according to an MIT study. This chromatin remodeling, which allows specific genes involved in storing memories to become more active, takes place in multiple stages spread out over several days. (2020-10-05)

Latent lineage potential in neural stem cells enables spinal cord repair in mice
Spinal stem cells in mice can be reprogrammed to generate protective oligodendrocytes after spinal cord injury, enhancing neural repair, according to a new study. (2020-10-01)

Penn researchers uncover epigenetic drivers for Alzheimer's disease
New findings suggest that late-onset Alzheimer's Disease is driven by epigenetic changes -- how and when certain genes are turned on and off -- in the brain. Results were published today in Nature Genetics. (2020-09-28)

Divide and enlarge
Researchers discover a mechanism that causes cell nuclei to grow. (2020-09-22)

Why some cancers may respond poorly to key drugs discovered
Scientists have identified a driver of drug resistance in breast, ovarian and prostate cancers that may help doctors predict which patients will become resistant to a class of drugs frequently used to treat BRCA 1/2-deficient tumors. (2020-09-22)

Building bridges: PARP enzymes bring broken DNA together
St. Jude researchers capture the structure of PARP enzymes at work, leading to a new understanding of DNA repair that may aid cancer treatments targeting the process. (2020-09-16)

Heroin-addicted individuals have unique brain disturbances resembling those of Alzheimer's
Herion-addicted individuals have alterations in the expression a gene called FYN - a gene known to regulate the production of Tau, a protein that is highly elevated and implicated in neurocognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease. The study emphasizes that opioid use can affect the brain in a way that might increase vulnerability of neural systems that trigger neurodegeneration later in life; however, since these changes are epigenetic (alterations in gene function that are influenced by environmental factors and not alterations of the DNA itself), they are reversible and medications that have already been developed to target FYN for neurodegenerative disorders may be studied as a novel treatment for opioid addiction. (2020-09-14)

Innate immune system -- How cGAS is kept bottled up
In higher organisms, detection of DNA in the cytoplasm triggers an immune reaction. The enzyme that senses 'misplaced' DNA is also found in the nucleus, but nuclear DNA has no such effect. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers now report why that is so. (2020-09-10)

Finding cortisone alternatives with fewer side effects
Many people use cortisone of a regular basis. It is used for treating rheumatism, asthma, multiple sclerosis, or even COVID-19. Steroidal medication such as cortisone is highly effective but also possesses severe side effects. Henriette Uhlenhaut, professor at Technical University of Munich (TUM), and her team are examining the beneficial effects of cortisone in order to lay the groundwork for the development of similar drugs with fewer side effects. (2020-09-02)

Dana-Farber study advances understanding of rare sarcoma
In this study, scientists discover how abnormal protein disrupts gene expression in synovial sarcoma. For the first time, scientists discover the molecular basis for the cancer-specific targeting properties of the culprit fusion protein found in synovial sarcoma (2020-08-03)

Allelic imbalance of chromatin openness is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders
New study finds single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect chromatin accessibility, which in turn affects whether or not a gene can be expressed (2020-08-03)

UMMS scientists lead effort to annotate human genome
UMass Medical School scientists Jill Moore, PhD, Zhiping Weng, PhD, and MD/PhD students Michael Purcaro and Henry Pratt are lead authors on the latest publication of data from the ambitious ENCODE project to annotate the human genome. (2020-07-29)

Identified a new regulatory mechanism of response to metabolic stress
The Chromatin Biology group, led by Dr. Alex Vaquero has identified a new enzymatic activity in SIRT7, involved in stress response, aging and hematopoiesis, which plays a key role in metabolic stress and aging. (2020-07-27)

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