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Current Chromatin News and Events, Chromatin News Articles.
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Gene-controlling mechanisms play key role in cancer progression
MIT researchers have analyzed how epigenomic modifications change as tumors evolve. In a study of mouse lung tumors, the researchers identified 11 chromatin states, or epigenomic states, that cancer cells can pass through as they become more aggressive. (2020-07-23)

Simple twist of DNA determines fate of placenta
The development of the mammalian placenta depends upon an unusual twist that separates DNA's classic double helix into a single-stranded form, Yale researchers report July 15 in the journal Nature. (2020-07-15)

Research reveals regulatory features of maize genome during early reproductive development
A team of researchers led by Andrea Eveland, Ph.D., assistant member, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, has mapped out the non-coding, 'functional' genome in maize during an early developmental window critical to formation of pollen-bearing tassels and grain-bearing ears. (2020-07-07)

Epigenetics: What the embryo can teach us about cell reprogramming
Cell reprogramming provides an outstanding opportunity for the artificial generation of stem cells for regenerative medicine approaches in the clinic. As current cell reprogramming methods are low in efficiency, researchers around the globe aim to learn lessons from the early embryo which might lead them to a more efficient and faster generation of high-quality, fully reprogrammed stem cells. (2020-07-06)

UCLA study pinpoints new function for histones
Refuting earlier theories, scientists discovered that histones act as an enzyme that converts copper into a form that can be used by the cells. (2020-07-02)

New genomic atlas of the developing human brain
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF) Weill Institute for Neurosciences have created a comprehensive region-specific atlas of the regulatory regions of the genome linked to human embryonic brain development. (2020-06-30)

Dynamics of DNA replication revealed at the nanoscale
Using super-resolution technology a University of Technology Sydney led team has directly visualised the process of DNA replication in single human cells. (2020-06-25)

Strahl lab decodes another piece of the histone code puzzle
Published in the journal Cell Reports, this research reinforces the notion that the multiple chemical modifications placed on histones by a single enzyme ensures multiple and distinct functions -- an idea that was postulated by Strahl and his former mentor, David Allis, Ph.D., and was called the Histone Code hypothesis. (2020-06-09)

Intestinal health: Dresden research team identifies enzyme essential for stem cell survival
Which pathways govern intestinal epithelial differentiation under constitutive conditions? Epithelial differentiation is largely controlled by the tissue-specific activity of transcription factors. Access to DNA is provided by accessible chromatin (euchromatin), while compacted heterochromatin limits access of transcription factors to DNA. Researchers at the TU Dresden Center for Regenerative Therapies (CRTD) have investigated the significance of the regulation of heterochromatin formation in the intestinal epithelium and published their findings in the renowned international scientific journal Gut. (2020-06-08)

Mothers ensure their offspring's success through epigenetics
Parents pass genes along to their offspring which equip them for their future life. In recent years, research has shown that the reality is much more complex and that parents endow much more than just genes. A new study in Cell by the laboratory of Asifa Akhtar at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics reveals that active epigenetic modifications are also passed from one generation to the next. (2020-06-04)

New image of a cancer-related enzyme in action helps explain gene regulation
New images of an enzyme in action as it interacts with the chromosome could provide important insight into how cells--including cancer cells -- regulate their gene (2020-06-04)

Why developing nerve cells can take a wrong turn
Loss of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme leads to impediment in growth of nerve cells / Link found between cellular machineries of protein degradation and regulation of the epigenetic landscape in human embryonic stem cells (2020-06-03)

FloChiP, a new tool optimizing gene-regulation studies
EPFL scientists have developed FloChip, a new microfluidic take on the widely used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique. By automating and cutting the cost of ChIP and sequential-ChIP, FloChIP has the potential to become a widely used tool for the study of chromatin biology and gene regulation. (2020-06-01)

Pregnancy reprograms breast cells, reducing cancer risk
Women who are pregnant before the age of 25 have a decreased risk of breast cancer throughout their lives. Searching for the mechanism behind this life-saver, CSHL researchers discovered that pregnancy reprograms the breast cells to turn off a cancer gene and turn on a gene that arrests cell growth. (2020-05-27)

New method reveals where DNA is at risk in the cell
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a new sequencing method that makes it possible to map how DNA is spatially organised in the cell nucleus -- revealing which genomic regions are at higher risk of mutation and DNA damage. The technique is described in an article published in the scientific journal Nature Biotechnology. (2020-05-26)

How a male fly knows when to make a move on a mate
Like people, fruit flies must decide when conditions are right to make a move on a mate. Males use age and odors to gauge their chances of success, but how they do that on a molecular level was a mystery. The answer lies, in part, in their DNA. Researchers find that the scent of other flies and internal hormones alter the activity of a gene that controls how turned on male flies are by pheromones. (2020-05-22)

At the crossroads
In the bone marrow, blood stem cells via precursor cells give rise to a variety of blood cell types with various functions: white blood cells, red blood cells, or blood platelets. In which cell type a cell develops depends on various factors. The correct dosage of the enzyme MOF at the right time triggers developmental programs in blood stem cells and precursor cells, and the cells differentiate into red blood cells. (2020-05-20)

New technology will show how RNA regulates gene activity
An international team of researchers has developed a reliable method for assessing the role of such RNAs. The new technique and the data obtained with it allow generating important hypotheses on how chromatin is composed and regulated, as well as identifying the specific functions of lncRNAs. (2020-05-15)

Dock and harbor: A novel mechanism for controlling genes
In a recent study published in Molecular Cell, researchers at Kanazawa University report the role of cellular structures called PML bodies in regulating gene function. (2020-05-12)

Clinical implications of chromatin accessibility in human cancers
Volume 11, Issue 18 of @Oncotarget Clinical implications of chromatin accessibility assessed by ATAC-seq profiling in human cancers especially in a large patient cohort is largely unknown. (2020-05-05)

Finding genetic ripple effects in a single-cell environment
Researchers report in Nature developing a molecular workflow that leverages single-cell methods to understand the molecular pathways associated with specific patient gene mutations. The study creates a new platform for researchers and clinicians to study the single-cell genomics of a variety of different diseases, which potentially could make genetic-based diagnoses in the clinic more precise and effective. (2020-04-22)

Destroying DNA to save the genome -- study offers new insights into sepsis and its treatment
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that kills millions annually; it is poorly understood and has no specific treatment. Now, researchers from Tata Memorial Centre, India, led by Prof. Dr Indraneel Mittra, have uncovered an important molecular mechanism underlying different aspects of sepsis--chromatin released by dying host cells after infection or injury. The scientists also put forth a novel treatment strategy for sepsis, which targets cell-free chromatin. (2020-03-26)

Oncotarget: hPCL3S promotes proliferation and migration of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells
The cover for issue 12 of Oncotarget features Figure 11, 'Global analyses of the RNA-Seq data of LNCaP empty vector and LNCaP cells overexpressing hPCL3S (Clone 12)' by Abdelfettah, et al. (2020-03-25)

Combination creates powerful central memory T cells for cellular therapy
MD Anderson researchers find that treating T cells with panobinostat and IL-21 re-programs them to a powerful central memory T cell type that persists longer. (2020-03-25)

A protein that helps trap bacteria may contribute to metastasis in breast cancer
The protein peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), which enables some immune cells to trap bacteria, promoted breast cancer metastasis in mice when expressed in cancer cells, according to data published in Molecular Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2020-03-19)

How 'pioneer' protein turns stem cells into organs
Early on in each cell, a critical protein known as FoxA2 simultaneously binds to both the chromosomal proteins and the DNA, opening the flood gates for gene activation, according to a new study led by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The discovery, published in Nature Genetics, helps untangle mysteries of how embryonic stem cells develop into organs. (2020-03-18)

Once overlooked cellular messengers could combat antibiotic resistance
Children's National Hospital researchers for the first time have isolated bacterial extracellular vesicles from the blood of healthy donors, a critical step to better understanding the way gut bacteria communicate with the rest of the body via the bloodstream. (2020-03-18)

Elucidation of mechanisms that coordinate cell memory inheritance with DNA replication
Why normal cells turn into cancer cells? One of the factors is deeply related to the failure of the cell differentiation mechanism called DNA methylation. The joint research groups of The Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo, Yokohama City University, and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM) have clarified new mechanism for controlling DNA methylation in cells. Ubiquitination of a protein called PAF15 is an important factor for the inheritance of DNA methylation, according to the new research. (2020-03-16)

New study unveils the mechanism of DNA high-order structure formation
A recent study, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has unveiled the structure and mechanism of proteins that are highly overexpressed in various cancers and associated with poor patient prognoses. (2020-03-09)

Scientists create tool to detect genes associated with psychiatric, brain diseases
Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine and colleagues created a new computational tool called H-MAGMA to study the genetic underpinnings of nine brain disorders, including the identification of new genes associated with each disorder. (2020-03-09)

New RNA mapping technique shows how RNA interacts with chromatin in the genome
A group led by scientists from the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) in Japan have developed a new method, RADICL-seq, which allows scientists to better understand how RNA interacts with the genome through chromatin--the structure in which the genome is organized. (2020-02-25)

A deep dive into cellular aging
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys and Harvard University have discovered that mitochondria trigger senescence, the sleep-like state of aged cells, through communication with the cell's nucleus--and identified an FDA-approved drug that helped suppress the damaging effects of the condition in cells and mice. The discovery, published in Genes & Development, could lead to treatments that promote healthy aging or prevent age-associated diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease and more. (2020-02-20)

In killifish: Diapause protects life from normal consequences of aging
Studying the African turquoise killifish, which enters into a suspended state called 'diapause' during dry and unfavorable growing seasons, researchers uncovered mechanisms that allow the arrested fish to be maintained for long periods while being protected from the normal consequences of aging. (2020-02-20)

Researchers identify novel potential combination therapy for childhood brain tumors
Brazilian researchers working in collaboration with Canadian scientists demonstrated that all medulloblastoma tumor subtypes express two stem cell markers: BMI1 and CD133. When they induced DNA chromatin relaxation, tumor cell viability was reduced with down-regulation of BMI1 and CD133. These anti-tumor effects could be potentiated by concurrent inhibition of MAPK/ERK signaling. (2020-02-20)

Computer simulations visualize how DNA is recognized to convert cells into stem cells
Researchers of the Hubrecht Institute (KNAW - The Netherlands) and the Max Planck Institute in M√ľnster (Germany) have revealed how an essential protein helps to activate genomic DNA during the conversion of regular adult human cells into stem cells. Their findings are published in the Biophysical Journal. (2020-02-14)

Epigenetics: Inheritance of epigenetic marks
A study undertaken by an international team led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich molecular biologist Axel Imhof sheds new light on the mechanisms that control the establishment of epigenetic modifications on newly synthesized histones following cell division. (2020-02-10)

Epigenetics: Inheritance of epigenetic markers
A study undertaken by an international team led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich molecular biologist Axel Imhof sheds new light on the mechanisms that control the establishment of epigenetic modifications on newly synthesized histones following cell division. (2020-02-07)

New roles for DNA-packaging proteins
IBS scientists made a significant advancement in our understanding of the organization of genomic DNA within the nucleus. The study describes a new function of histones, which are proteins responsible for packaging genomic DNA and are involved in gene regulation. (2020-02-04)

Unique centromere type discovered in the European dodder
Commonly, the presence of histone variant CENH3 epigenetically determines the positioning of centromeres. In monocentric chromosomes, CENH3 occurs in a single region, whilst in holocentrics, CENH3 is distributed along the entire chromosome. Scientists have discovered a new type of centromere in the plant Cuscuta europae. Centromere activity is distributed in holocentric fashion, despite CENH3 only occurring on 1 to 3 distinct regions on the chromosome. The findings were published in Frontiers in Plant Sciences. (2020-01-27)

Organoids open window into development of human forebrain
Brain region-specific organoids have allowed researchers to peer inside the complex programming of human forebrain development, a process once inaccessible to molecular study. (2020-01-23)

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