Current Chromosomes News and Events

Current Chromosomes News and Events, Chromosomes News Articles.
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Cancer cell vulnerability points to potential treatment path for aggressive disease
A new study in Nature Communications describes the discovery of a unique dependence of cancer cells on a particular protein, which could lead to desperately needed treatment for hard-to-treat cancers. (2021-02-22)

Some sperms poison their competitors
A genetic factor helps sperm cells outcompete their peers (2021-02-04)

Glitch in genome architecture may cause B-cell malignancies
Restoring an enzyme that maintains the way chromosomes are packed inside cells may lead to new therapies for some blood cancers, according to a new study by Columbia researchers. (2021-02-01)

A new study reveals an "Achilles heel" of cancer cells
? For the first time, a study shows how an abnormal number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) - a unique characteristic of cancer cells that researchers have known about for decades - can become a vulnerability of these cells. ? The study could lead, in the future, to the development of drugs that will use this trait to eliminate cancer. (2021-01-27)

New Tel Aviv University study reveals 'Achilles' heel' of cancer cells
A new study from Tel Aviv University (TAU) shows, for the first time, how an abnormal number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) -- a unique characteristic of cancer cells that researchers have known about for decades -- could become a weak point for these cells. The study could lead to the development of future drugs that will use this vulnerability to eliminate the cancer cells. (2021-01-27)

Snake sex chromosomes say less about sex and more about survival
A new study looks to snakes to broaden our understanding of what makes a gene able to survive on a sex-specific chromosome. Comparing surviving genes on snake sex-specific chromosomes to those that are lost to the ravages of time can teach scientists about the evolutionary pressures that shaped sex chromosomes as we know them today. (2021-01-21)

What the lungfishes' genome teaches us about the vertebrates' conquest of land
The genome of the Australian lungfish is the largest sequenced animal genome and helps us to better understand the conquest of land by vertebrates - study led by evolutionary biologists from the University of Konstanz (2021-01-18)

Reverse engineering 3D chromosome models for individual cells
A new computational technique that uses heat map data to reverse engineer highly detailed models of chromosomes and researchers have uncovered new information about the close spatial relationships that chromatin folding creates between genes. (2021-01-14)

Genomes reveal insights into much-loved Aussie animals
Researchers have brought together expertise in bioinformatics, cytogenetics, developmental and molecular biology to produce and analyse the first ever echidna genome and a greatly improved, high quality platypus genome sequence. (2021-01-07)

Unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and duck
Three studies uncovered the unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and Peking duck. Platypus have five pairs of sex chromosomes forming an unusual chain shape, while the sex chromosomes of emu and duck are not as different between sexes as those of human. The studies were led or co-led by Qi Zhou's group at the University of Vienna and Zhejiang University of China and are published as research papers in the journals Nature, Genome Research and GigaScience. (2021-01-07)

How Earth's oddest mammal got to be so bizarre
Often considered the world's oddest mammal, Australia's beaver-like, duck-billed platypus exhibits an array of bizarre characteristics: it lays eggs instead of giving birth to live babies, sweats milk, has venomous spurs and is even equipped with 10 sex chromosomes. Now, an international team of researchers led by University of Copenhagen has conducted a unique mapping of the platypus genome and found answers regarding the origins of a few of its stranger features. (2021-01-06)

Wait for me: Cell biologists decipher signal that ensures no chromosome is left behind
UC San Diego cell biologists have found a key clue in the mystery of how chromosomes are inherited correctly every time a cell divides. Using a novel cell probe, they unraveled how a 'matchmaker' molecule stops cell division until components are ready to be split. Precise chromosome duplication is a key factor in proper cell division. If components are altered, even slightly, birth defects and certain cancers can result. (2021-01-06)

Ludwig Cancer Research study reveals how ecDNA forms and drives cancer drug resistance
Researchers led by Ludwig San Diego Member Don Cleveland and Peter Campbell of the Sanger Center have solved the mystery of how free-floating circular DNA fragments, which are almost exclusively found in cancer cells, drive gene amplification to generate drug resistance in cancer. (2020-12-23)

Scientists pinpoint molecular cause for severe disorder in children
A team of scientists from the University of Ottawa have opened a window into the cause of a rare genetic disorder that causes mortality in young children. (2020-12-22)

ACE2 protein protects against severe COVID-19: Study
Female COVID-19 patients face less severe disease complications and a lower risk of dying than male patients thanks to hormones and chromosomes that contribute to a stronger immune response, according to new research from a University of Alberta-led team. (2020-12-17)

Aging, diet-induced obesity, and metabolic disease link explored in new research
Unraveling the links among obesity, aging, telomere lengths and metabolic diseases is the subject of the study published today in Nature Metabolism by a collaborative research team at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). (2020-12-14)

Human egg cells are imperfect surprisingly often
More than 7% of human oocytes contain at least one exchangeless chromosome pair, demonstrating a remarkably high level of meiotic recombination failure, finds a study appearing December 10 in the American Journal of Human Genetics. The findings suggest that right from the get-go of human egg cell development, a striking proportion of oocytes are predestined to be chromosomally abnormal. But the frequency of exchangeless chromosomes is not affected by maternal age. (2020-12-10)

Telomere shortening protects against cancer
Researchers have found the first evidence that telomere shortening is not just a sign of aging, but a key component of the body's cancer prevention system. (2020-12-01)

Wheat diversity due to cross-hybridization with wild grasses
Bread wheat can grow in highly diverse regional environments. An important reason for its great genetic variety is the cross-hybridization with many chromosome fragments from wild grasses. This is shown by the genome sequences of 10 wheat varieties from four continents, which an international consortium including researchers from the University of Zurich has now decoded. (2020-11-25)

Barley pan-genome: IPK scientists reach milestone on the way to 'transparent' barley
An international research team led by the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) has reached a milestone on the way to the 'transparent' barley plant. With the complete sequencing of 20 different genotypes, the scientists completed the first step in decoding the genetic information of the entire species 'barley' -- the barley pan-genome. Breeders will greatly benefit from these new findings, which have today been published in the renowned magazine Nature. (2020-11-25)

Researchers uncover the unique way stem cells protect their chromosome ends
Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes which protect our DNA and ensure healthy division of cells. According to a new study from researchers at the Francis Crick Institute published in Nature, the mechanisms of telomere protection are surprisingly unique in stem cells. (2020-11-25)

Giant aquatic bacterium is a master of adaptation
The largest freshwater bacterium, Achromatium oxaliferum, is highly flexible in its requirements, as researchers led by the IGB have now discovered: It lives in places that differ extremely in environmental conditions such as hot springs and ice water. The adaptation is probably achieved by a process which is unique to these bacteria: only relevant genes are enriched in the genomes and transcribed, while others are archived in cell compartments. (2020-11-19)

A gel for dosage compensation
Researchers at the MPI of Immunobiology and Epigenetics have discovered how the MSL complex responsible for dosage compensation can distinguish the X chromosome from autosomes in flies. The Akhtar lab used a unique research approach to determine the minimal molecular components essential for recognizing the X chromosome. The study, now published in Nature, shows that the MSL2 protein and the roX RNA form a gel which ''attaches'' the MSL complex to the X chromosome. (2020-11-18)

The bull Y chromosome has evolved to bully its way into gametes
In a new study, published Nov. 18 in the journal Genome Research, scientists in the lab of Whitehead Institute Member David Page present the first ever full, high-resolution sequence of the Y chromosome of a Hereford bull. The research, more than a decade in the making, suggests that bulls' Y chromosomes have evolved dozens of copies of the same genes in a selfish attempt to make more males -- a move that is countered in the female-determining X chromosome. (2020-11-18)

Picture this: Chromosomes look different than you think
A new method to capture high-resolution, 3D images of human chromosomes in single cells reveals how DNA structure might influence its function (or malfunction). (2020-11-18)

RUDN University biologist found sex differences in inflammatory reactions in rat pups
A biologist from RUDN University studied the development of the immune response in prepubertal male and female animals. According to her, the severity and mortality of infectious and inflammatory diseases at this age depend not on the sex hormones, but mainly on the chromosome set or karyotype. (2020-11-09)

Stem cells: new insights for future regenerative medicine approaches
The study published in Open Biology unravels important data for a better understanding of the process of division in stem cells and for the development of safer ways to use them in medicine. (2020-10-28)

Cancer's dangerous renovations to our chromosomes revealed
Cancer remodels the architecture of our chromosomes so the disease can take hold and spread, new research reveals. (2020-10-27)

At our cores, we're all strengthened by 'dumbbells'
Scientists at Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics detail the structure of dumbbell-like sequences in DNA during interphase that suggest several unseen aspects of chromosome configuration and function. (2020-10-21)

Scientists home in on the mechanism that protects cells from premature aging
A new study by EPFL researchers shows how RNA species called TERRA muster at the tip of chromosomes, where they help to prevent telomere shortening and premature cell aging. (2020-10-14)

New study highlights links between inflammation and Parkinson's disease
An international collaboration involving researchers from the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biology (LCSB) at the University of Luxembourg established an association between inflammation and specific genetic mutations in Parkinson's patients. The study, recently published in the scientific journal Brain, highlights two biomarkers that could be used to assess Parkinson's disease state and progression. The results also suggest that targeting the immune system with anti-inflammatory medication holds the potential to influence the disease course, at least in a subset of patients. (2020-10-14)

Statins may reduce cancer risk through mechanisms separate to cholesterol
Cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins may reduce cancer risk in humans through a pathway unrelated to cholesterol, says a study published today in eLife. (2020-10-13)

Chromosome defects seen from over-exchange of DNA in sperm and eggs
The exchange of DNA between chromosomes during the early formation of sperm and egg cells normally is limited to assure fertility. But when there are too many of these genetic exchanges, called crossover events, the segregation of chromosomes into eggs is flawed, say biologists who combined on a basic science project done across three labs at the University of Oregon and Northwestern University. (2020-10-07)

Evolution in action: New Plant species in the Swiss Alps
A new plant species named Cardamine insueta appeared in the region of Urnerboden in the Swiss alps, after the land has changed from forest to grassland over the last 150 years. The inheritance of two key traits from its parent plants enabled the newly emerged species to grow in a distinct environmental niche, as researches from the University of Zurich now show. (2020-10-06)

Evolution of the Y chromosome in great apes deciphered
New analysis of the DNA sequence of the male-specific Y chromosomes from all living species of the great ape family helps to clarify our understanding of how this enigmatic chromosome evolved. (2020-10-06)

Carbon storage from the lab
Researchers at the University of Freiburg established the world's largest collection of moss species for the peat industry and science (2020-10-05)

Study finds cancer mutations accumulate in distinct regions based on structure of genome and mutation
A study finds that cancer mutations occur in distinct patterns based on the 3D structure of the genome and the underlying cause of the mutation. This helps us to understand cancer better and may lead to new treatment approaches. (2020-10-05)

The ancient Neanderthal hand in severe COVID-19
Genetic variants that leave their carrier more susceptible to severe COVID-19 are inherited from Neanderthals, finds a new study published in Nature. (2020-09-30)

The male Y chromosome does more than we thought
While the Y chromosome's role was believed to be limited to the functions of the sexual organs, an University of Montreal's scientist has shown that it impacts the functions of other organs as well. (2020-09-25)

Early admixture with humans led to Y chromosome replacement in late Neanderthals
In one of the first studies to comprehensively analyze Y chromosomes of humans' two closest relatives, Denisovans and Neanderthals, researchers report what prior studies have suggested: early gene flow events between archaic and modern humans led to the eventual replacement of archaic Neanderthal Y chromosomes by introgressed Homo sapiens Y chromosomes. (2020-09-24)

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