Current Cilia News and Events

Current Cilia News and Events, Cilia News Articles.
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Avian insights into human ciliopathies
Ciliopathies are genetic disorders caused by defects in the structure and function of cilia, and present a wide range of clinical symptoms, leading to conditions such as micrognathia (an underdeveloped lower jaw that can impair feeding and breathing). Researchers have now discovered that ciliopathic micrognathia in an animal model results from abnormal skeletal differentiation and remodelling. (2021-02-15)

Scientists create flexible biocompatible cilia that can be controlled by a magnet
Filaments made of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained by exposing the material to a magnetic field under controlled temperature. The applications are myriad and include transporting substances into cells or directing fluids. (2021-02-09)

Scientists identify locations of early prion protein deposition in retina
The earliest eye damage from prion disease takes place in the cone photoreceptor cells, specifically in the cilia and the ribbon synapses, according to a new study of prion protein accumulation in the eye by National Institutes of Health scientists. Prion diseases originate when normally harmless prion protein molecules become abnormal and gather in clusters and filaments in the human body and brain. (2021-01-29)

Keeping sperm cells on track
Researchers point to a new mechanism underlying male infertility. (2021-01-07)

HKUST researchers discover a novel mechanism of recruiting ARF family proteins to specific subcellul
Researchers of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) recently uncovered a novel molecular mechanism that regulates the subcellular localizations of Arf proteins, shedding light on the mechanism underlying various inherited diseases and offering new insight to the treatment of them. (2021-01-05)

Sugars influence cell-to-surface adhesion
An international team of researchers examined how movement and adhesion in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be manipulated. To this end, the researchers altered the sugar modifications in proteins on the cell surface. As a result, the so-called adhesion force was also altered. The results have now been published in the open access scientific journal eLife. (2020-12-29)

Findings about cilia on cells of the vessel wall may be relevant for diabetes treatment
A new study from Karolinska Institutet and the Helmholtz Diabetes Research Center shows that primary cilia, hair-like protrusions on endothelial cells inside vessels, play an important role in the blood supply and delivery of glucose to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets. The findings are published in eLife and may be relevant for transplantation therapies in diabetes, as formation of functional blood vessels is important for the treatment to be successful. (2020-12-04)

UB study identifies new functions in the Machado-Joseph genetic disease
Ataxia is a minority disease with genetic origins, known for its neuromuscular alterations due to the selective loss of neurons in the cerebellum. University of Barcelona researchers have identified new functions in the ataxin 3 gene (ATXN3) -which causes Machado-Joseph disease, the most common type of ataxia- in the development of retina photoreceptors. These results are relevant also to understand other diseases, such as macular degenerations. (2020-11-25)

Scientists discover new mechanism controlling brain size
International research headed by Danish Scientists has led to the discovery of a new mechanism that controls the size of our brains. The finding, which is based on studies on a rare congenital brain disease, delivers an important piece of data in our knowledge about how the human brain is formed during development. (2020-11-16)

Are the movements of tiny hairlike structures a key to our health?
New research from USC scholars identifies the mechanisms in play for cilia to work effectively and productively to push particles and fluid along, which is especially important given their critical role in health and in even ensuring reproduction. (2020-11-12)

Coral larvae movement is paused in reaction to darkness
A new study published in Scientific Reports shows that coral larvae swimming in seawater behave in such a manner so as to temporarily stop swimming due to reduced light, especially blue light. Researchers think that this behavior may play a role in determining where corals settle. (2020-11-04)

Plant-based spray could be used in n95 masks and energy devices
Engineers have invented a way to spray extremely thin wires made of a plant-based material that could be used in N95 mask filters, devices that harvest energy for electricity, and potentially the creation of human organs. The method involves spraying methylcellulose, a renewable plastic material derived from plant cellulose, on 3D-printed and other objects ranging from electronics to plants, according to a Rutgers-led study in the journal Materials Horizons. (2020-10-07)

Laundry lint can cause significant tissue damage within marine mussels
Research by the University of Plymouth showed that ingesting lint caused significant abnormality within the mussels' gills, as well as atrophy or deformities leading to loss of definition in digestive tubules (2020-10-02)

Insight from sports medicine leads to discovery about mussels in acidifying ocean
Feeding rates of blue mussels slow down under ocean acidification conditions, and the cause may be the slowing beat of gill cilia, similar to a known response in human lung cells. (2020-09-29)

UNC researchers publish striking images of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells
The UNC School of Medicine laboratory of Camille Ehre, PhD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, produced striking images in respiratory tract cultures of the infectious form of the SARS-CoV-2 virus produced by infected respiratory epithelial cells. The New England Journal of Medicine featured this work in its 'Images in Medicine' section. (2020-09-10)

Research reveals cilia's role in cardiovascular functions and genetic diseases
Research from Chapman University discover ciliary extracellular-like vesicles (cELVs). Released by fluid-shear, cELVs act as nano-compartments within a cilium. Proteomic identification reveals the role of cELVs in human genetic diseases and cardiovascular functions. (2020-08-20)

Cell antennas lacking in Fragile X syndrome, study finds
Researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio found fewer structures called primary cilia in the brains of mice born with Fragile X syndrome. This provides a clue into possibly treating neurodevelopmental disorders. The research is in Stem Cell Reports. (2020-07-30)

New drug pathway linked with tuberous sclerosis
Researchers in the Translational Neuroscience Center have discovered that the heat shock protein cascade may represent druggable targets for tuberous sclerosis (2020-06-24)

Controlling artificial cilia with magnetic fields and light
Researchers have made artificial cilia, or hair-like structures, that can bend into new shapes in response to a magnetic field, then return to their original shape when exposed to the proper light source. (2020-05-26)

What cells does the novel coronavirus attack?
Scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Thorax Clinic at Heidelberg University Hospital have examined samples from non-virus infected patients to determine which cells of the lungs and bronchi are targets for novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. (2020-04-07)

Hopes for pandemic respite this spring may depend upon what happens indoors
How much spring and summer affect the COVID-19 pandemic may depend not only on the effectiveness of social distancing measures, but also on the environment inside our buildings, according to a review of Yale scientists of their own work and that of colleagues on how respiratory viruses are transmitted. (2020-03-30)

A scaffold at the center of our cellular skeleton
When the cells stop dividing, the centrioles migrate to the plasma membrane and allow the formation of primary and mobile cilia, which are used for the transfer of information and the genesis of movement. While performing these biological functions, centrioles are therefore subjected to many physical forces, which they must resist. Scientists (UNIGE) have discovered an internal structure at the center of these nano-cylinders, a cellular scaffolding that maintains the physical integrity of this organelle. (2020-02-20)

Unraveling mechanisms of ventricular enlargement linked to schizophrenia
Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have implicated two microRNAs in the biological processes that underlie the ventricle enlargement observed in models of schizophrenia. (2020-02-14)

Synchronized swimming: Biology on a micro-scale
Researchers model interactions between unique fluids and tiny structures. (2020-01-29)

How cells learn to 'count'
One of the wonders of cell biology is its symmetry. Mammalian cells have one nucleus and one cell membrane, and most humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. (2019-12-30)

Scientists show how tiny, mutated neuron antennae impair brain connectivity
Axons are the long thread-like extensions of neurons that send electrical signals to other brain cells. Thanks to axonal connectivity, our brains and bodies can do all necessary tasks. Even before we're born, we need axons to grow in tracts throughout gray matter and connect properly as our brains develop. UNC School of Medicine researchers have now found a key reason why connectivity goes awry and leads to rare but debilitating neurodevelopmental conditions. (2019-12-16)

Can a single-celled organism 'change its mind'? New study says yes
More than 100 years ago, zoologist Herbert Spencer Jennings described surprisingly varied avoidance behaviors in the single-celled freshwater protist Stentor roeseli. When later experiments in a related organism failed to reproduce what he'd seen, his claims were discredited. Now, a report publishing in the journal Current Biology on Dec. 5 confirms what Jennings witnessed all those years ago: observations captured by the researchers on video show that S. roeseli varies its response when squirted with a stream of polystyrene beads. (2019-12-05)

New study hints at complex decision making in a single-cell organism
In an effort to replicate an experiment conducted over a century ago, researchers at Harvard Medical School present evidence confirming at least one single-cell organism -- the trumpet-shaped Stentor roeselii -- exhibits a hierarchy of avoidance behaviors. Exposed repeatedly to the same stimulation, the organism can in effect 'change its mind' about how to respond, indicating a capacity for relatively complex decision-making processes. (2019-12-05)

Downstream signaling: Cilia release ectosomes to deliver important messages in the kidney
Primary cilia are found on nearly all cell types and serve an important role in sensing external mechanical and chemical signals, likely through extracellular vesicles (EV) called ectosomes. Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina found that disruption of the exocyst, a protein complex required for cilia production, led to short or absent cilia and a concomitant reduction in EV release, likely resulting in changes in intercellular communication. (2019-11-25)

Zooming into cilia sheds light into blinding diseases
A new study reveals an unprecedented close-up view of cilia linked to blindness. (2019-11-05)

Structural protein essential for ciliary harmony in comb jellies
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba and the Japanese National Institute for Basic Biology identified a structural protein that is essential for the coordinated beating of millions of tiny cilia on the surface of comb jellies. When the protein was eliminated, the cilia began beating out of formation, stalling the locomotion of the jellies. These findings will help uncover how various organisms have adapted to life in different aquatic environments. (2019-10-24)

New insights into how to protect premature babies from common brain disorder
Premature babies have delicate brain tissue that is prone to bleeding and can result in post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, a dangerous condition that leads to excess fluid accumulation and brain dysfunction. Now, scientists from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have identified a new disease mechanism and potential molecular drug target that may protect premature newborns from developing the brain disorder. The study was published in Science Advances. (2019-10-09)

Treatment with long term, low dose antibiotic could help people born with chronic lung condition
Taking a low dose of the antibiotic azithromycin for 6 months reduces symptoms for patients with the chronic lung condition primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), according to research presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress. It is the first trial of its kind to demonstrate an effective therapy for PCD. (2019-10-01)

Defective cilia linked to heart valve birth defects
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common heart valve birth defect, is associated with genetic variation in human primary cilia during heart valve development, report Medical University of South Carolina researchers in Circulation. Crucial to cilia development is the exocyst, which shuttles cilia cargo to the cell membrane. Disrupting the exocyst impaired ciliogenesis and caused a spectrum of cardiac defects in zebrafish and BAV in mice. The findings could inspire new therapeutic strategies. (2019-09-16)

New intra-nasal imaging to study airways in patients with cystic fibrosis
Researchers describe minimally invasive new tool for viewing differences in the nasal airways of cystic fibrosis patients in vivo at a cellular level. (2019-08-07)

Laboratory testing suggests human lung tissue unimpacted by blu vapor
A new study by Imperial Brands, owners of leading vape brand blu, contributes to the increasing evidence base substantiating vaping's harm reduction potential compared to smoking. The research, presented at the 58th annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology earlier this year, compared the in-vitro toxicological responses of a 3D model of human lung tissue to myblu vapour and cigarette smoke across a range of biological endpoints. (2019-06-11)

Trap-and-release accelerates study of swimming ciliated cells
J. Mark Meacham and Minji Kim in his lab studied cilia in an acoustic trap that allows them to analyze hundreds of cells in minutes. (2019-06-03)

Defects in cellular antennae can cause a common heart condition
Katelynn Toomer and colleagues have discovered that defects in tiny, hair-like cellular structures can lead to mitral valve prolapse (MVP), a common heart disorder that affects up to one in 40 people worldwide. (2019-05-22)

Defects in heart valve cilia during fetal development cause mitral valve prolapse
Genetic mutations in heart valve cells of the developing fetus lead to mitral valve prolapse, report a global collaborative of researchers, including Medical University of South Carolina investigators, in today's Science Translational Medicine. These mutations or genetic variations cause defects in antenna-like cellular structures called primary cilia. This finding of a developmental cause for the disease highlights the importance of early intervention and may lead to the rethinking of treatment guidelines. (2019-05-22)

Flu virus' best friend: Low humidity
Yale researchers have pinpointed a key reason why people are more likely to get sick and even die from flu during winter months: low humidity. (2019-05-13)

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