Current Colleagues Describe News and Events

Current Colleagues Describe News and Events, Colleagues Describe News Articles.
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Mathematics developed new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions
The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in the interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solutions for a system of Vlasov-Poisson equations in a three-dimensional case. (2021-02-05)

Supersaturation: The barrier between protein folding and misfolding
It's commonly accepted that protein folding/misfolding are alternative reactions of unfolded proteins but the principles governing this remain unknown. Here, researchers from Osaka University describe a general concept that links protein folding and misfolding: protein folding and amyloid formation are separated by the supersaturation barrier of a denatured protein. Breakdown of this supersaturation barrier is required to shift the protein to the amyloid pathway, linking Anfinsen's intramolecular folding universe with the ''outer'' intermolecular misfolding universe. (2021-02-01)

An epidemic of overdiagnosis: Melanoma diagnoses sky rocket
In a Sounding Board article, Welch and colleagues present evidence for why they believe that increased diagnostic scrutiny is the primary driver of the rapid rise in melanoma diagnoses. (2021-01-06)

Theory describes quantum phenomenon in nanomaterials
Theoretical physicists Yoshimichi Teratani and Akira Oguri of Osaka City University, and Rui Sakano of the University of Tokyo have developed mathematical formulas that describe a physical phenomenon happening within quantum dots and other nanosized materials. The formulas, published in the journal Physical Review Letters, could be applied to further theoretical research about the physics of quantum dots, ultra-cold atomic gasses, and quarks. (2020-12-23)

Brains work harder while processing descriptions of motion in other languages
Different languages describe motion differently, according to distinct lexical rules. And though we may not consciously notice those rules, we follow them -- and Georgia State researchers have found they affect how our brains perceive and process descriptions of physical movement. (2020-12-09)

The tree of cortical cell types describes the diversity of neurons in the brain
The tree of cortical cell types provides one of the most detailed and complete characterizations of the diversity of neural types in the brain so far. (2020-12-02)

Simple measurement could transform injury rehabilitation
Researchers from Edith Cowan University in Western Australia have found a simple way to analyse the effectiveness of exercise training that could one day be conducted easily at a local gym or physio. Using vertical jumps as a test activity, the researchers could predict detailed information regarding technique and muscle activation patterns just through a relatively simple analysis of forces produced against the ground during the jump. (2020-11-19)

RUDN University physicist developed software solution to measure the black holes stability
Even if a black hole can be described with a mathematical model, it doesn't mean it exists in reality. Some theoretical models are unstable: though they can be used to run mathematical calculations, from the point of view of physics they make no sense. A physicist from RUDN University developed an approach to finding such instability regions. (2020-11-05)

Nanobodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2
Two separate studies have identified nanobodies - which could be produced less expensively than monoclonal antibodies - that bind tightly to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and efficiently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in cells. (2020-11-05)

Mathematical modeling of processes in neurons to assist the treatment of epilepsy and depression
Researchers study the effect of neural stimulation by ultrasonic waves and analyzing the influence of ultrasonic wave parameters on the excitation of electrical signals in the nerves. The obtained results have a great practical value for further studies related to the issues of human brain modeling. (2020-11-02)

The order of life
A new model that describes the organization of organisms could lead to a better understanding of biological processes (2020-10-30)

Two studies expand insights into Denisovan ancestry and population history in East Asia
In a pair of studies, researchers provide evidence that expands our understanding of modern humans in eastern Asia and their interactions with their most elusive cousins, the Denisovans. (2020-10-29)

Crabs are key to ecology and economy in Oman
The intertidal mudflats of Barr Al Hikman, a nature reserve at the south-east coast of the Sultanate Oman, are crucial nursery grounds for numerous crab species. In return, crabs are a vital element of the ecology, as well as the regional economy, a new publication in Hydrobiologia shows. 'These important functions of the crabs should be considered when looking at the increasing human pressure on this nature reserve', first author and NIOZ-researcher Roeland Bom says. (2020-10-08)

Scientists reconstruct beetles from the Cretaceous
An international research team led by the University of Bonn (Germany) and Palacky University (Czech Republic) has examined four newly found specimens of the Mysteriomorphidae beetle using computer tomography and has been able to reconstruct them. The results allow to draw conclusions about the evolution of the species during the Cretaceous period. The study has been published in the journal ''Scientific Reports''. (2020-10-08)

A RUDN University physicist simplified the Einstein-lovelock theory for black holes
Allowing for quantum corrections, the Einstein-Lovelock theory describes black holes with an equation that contains an infinite number of terms. However, according to a RUDN University physicist, the geometry of a black hole in this theory can be presented in a compact form, and a limited number of terms can suffice to describe the observed values. This could help scientists study black holes in theories with quantum corrections to Einstein's equations. (2020-10-03)

Study shows SARS-CoV-2 jumped between people and mink, providing strong evidence of zoonotic transmission
A study investigating SARS-CoV-2 infections across 16 mink farms in the Netherlands, being presented at the ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, held online from 23-25 September) shows that the virus likely jumped between people and mink and back, providing strong evidence that animal to human (zoonotic) transmission is possible. (2020-09-17)

How cells solve mazes and traverse great distances through the body
Cells are particularly good at solving mazes, according to a new study, which demonstrates how they are able to navigate long and complicated routes through the body using self-generated chemoattractant gradients. (2020-08-27)

Move over Michaelis-Menten!
Researchers from Aarhus University challenge one of the cornerstones of biochemistry, the Michaelis-Menten equation. They show that many enzymes in signalling pathways are independent of substrate concentration, because the substrate is physically connected to the enzyme. With these results, it may one day be possible to develop drugs that not only target the enzyme, but also affect how it is connected to its substrate. (2020-08-20)

New, pharmacologically available STING agonists promote antitumor immunity in mice
In a pair of studies, researchers report the discovery and molecular pharmacology of stable, synthetic STING (stimulator of interferon genes) agonists that induce anticancer immune responses in mice. (2020-08-20)

Words used to describe alcohol intoxication may give clues to drinking habits
Penn State research suggests the language young adults use to describe the effects they feel from drinking may give insight into their drinking habits. (2020-08-19)

New research reveals mysterious blue whirl flame structure
A recently discovered soot-free flame called a blue whirl - which consumes all fuel it encounters -- actually consists of three different flame structures that swirl together into one otherworldly blue ring, according to the first study to identify how these unique flames form. By revealing the blue whirl's structure, the findings may inform potential applications of the flame for. (2020-08-12)

Surface tension, not gravity, drives viscous bubble collapse
By demonstrating that surface tension -- not gravity -- drives the collapse of surface bubbles in viscous liquids, a new study flips the previous understanding of how viscous bubbles pop on its head. (2020-08-06)

Recently discovered CRISPR enzyme from huge bacteriophages expands genome editing toolbox
A recently discovered hypercompact CRISPR enzyme found only in huge bacteriophages, and known as CRISPR-CasΦ, is functional, a new study by Patrick Pausch, Jennifer Doudna and colleagues reports, and it provides a powerful new tool in the CRISPR genome editing toolbox, including because it can target a wider range of genetic sequences compared to Cas9 and Cas12. (2020-07-16)

How breast cancer cells sneak past local immune defenses
Breast cancer cells grow locally, then metastasize throughout the body. They succeed in establishing tumors by sabotaging local immune cells embedded in tissues, thus evading detection and destruction by the body's roving immune defenses. (2020-07-15)

Running in Tarahumara culture
Running in Tarahumara (Rarámuri) Culture. The Tarahumara (Rarámuri) are a Native American people from Chihuahua, Mexico, who have long been famous for running, but there is widespread incredulity about how and why they run such long distances. Tarahumara, like many Native American peoples, consider running, along with other endurance-based activities, to have important social dimensions, such as a spiritually vital form of prayer. (Current Anthropology) (2020-07-06)

Exploring mass dependence in electron-hole clusters
A study published in EPJ B reveals that the behaviour of one type of three-particle cluster displays a distinct relationship with the ratio between the masses of its particles. (2020-06-18)

Quantum physics: Physicists develop a new theory for Bose-Einstein condensates
Bose-Einstein condensates are often described as the fifth state of matter: At extremely low temperatures, gas atoms behave like a single particle. The exact properties of these systems are notoriously difficult to study. In the journal ''Physical Review Letters'', physicists from Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and Ludwig Maximilian University Munich have proposed a new theory to describe these quantum systems more effectively and comprehensively. (2020-06-17)

The first intuitive programming language for quantum computers
Several technical advances have been achieved recently in the pursuit of powerful quantum computers. Now, Computer scientists from ETH Zurich have made an important breakthrough in the field of programming languages: their quantum language is the first of its kind that is as elegant, simple and safe as classical computer languages. (2020-06-15)

New model predicts the peaks of the COVID-19 pandemic
This week in the journal Frontiers, researchers describe a single function that accurately describes all existing available data on active COVID-19 cases and deaths -- and predicts forthcoming peaks. (2020-05-29)

Written WhatsApps work like a spontaneous informal conversation
The emergence of new means of communication via the Internet has brought about new genres of discourse, understood as socially situated communication practices that did not previously exist, and which require studying from the linguistic standpoint. (2020-05-15)

Controlling quantumness: Simulations reveal details about how particles interact
A recent study at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University has described new states that can be found in super-cold atom experiments, which could have applications for quantum technology. (2020-05-07)

Water molecules dance in three
An international team of scientists has been able to shed new light on the properties of water at the molecular level. In particular, they were able to describe accurately the interactions between three water molecules, which contribute significantly to the energy landscape of water. The research could pave the way to better understand and predict water behavior at different conditions, even under extreme ones. (2020-04-24)

Questionnaire survey identifies potential separation-related problems in cats
The first questionnaire survey to identify possible separation-related problems in cats found 13.5 percent of all sampled cats displayed potential issues during their owner's absence, according to a study published April 15, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Daiana de Souza Machado, from the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, and colleagues. (2020-04-15)

In South Africa, three hominins, including earliest Homo erectus, lived during same period
Nearly 2 million years ago, three hominin genera -- Australopithecus, Paranthropus and the earliest Homo erectus lineage -- lived as contemporaries in the karst landscape of what is now South Africa, according to a new geochronological evaluation of the hominin fossil-rich Drimolen Paleocave complex. (2020-04-02)

New type of immunotherapy hinders the spread of ovarian cancer
Malignant ovarian cancer is insidious: Known and feared for vague and uncharacteristic symptoms that often mean the disease is discovered so late that on average only four out of six patients are still alive after five years. Researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark, are hoping to change this situation in the future together with research colleagues from France and the UK. (2020-03-26)

'Toxic,' but still successful professionally?
Toxic personality is a term used to describe people who behave greedily, immodestly and unfairly and take the truth very lightly. Dr. Mareike Kholin, Bastian Kückelhaus and Prof. Dr. Gerhard Blickle from the Department of Psychology at the University of Bonn found out why such people can still succeed in their careers. The trick that leads to the top is social skill. The results are presented online in advance in ''Personality and Individual Differences''. (2020-03-16)

Sensing infection, suppressing regeneration
UIC researchers describe an enzyme that blocks the ability of blood vessel cells to self-heal. By studying mice with sepsis they found that removal of the enzyme allows cells to fully regenerate. (2020-03-11)

Neither nature nor nurture: Behavioral individuality in fruit flies' neurodevelopmental origin
While some fruit flies wander, others prefer to walk the straight and narrow; the origin of these behavioral quirks in individual flies may be a product of random variation in how neural circuits are wired during brain development, a new study of fruit flies given 'lines to walk' finds. (2020-03-05)

A novel formulation to explain heat propagation
Researchers at EPFL and MARVEL have developed a novel formulation that describes how heat spreads within crystalline materials. This can explain why and under which conditions heat propagation becomes fluid-like rather than diffusive. Their equations will make it easier to design next-generation electronic devices at the nanoscale, in which these phenomena can become prevalent. (2020-02-11)

Human textiles to repair blood vessels
As the leading cause of mortality worldwide, cardiovascular diseases claim over 17 million lives each year, according to World Health Organization estimates. To open up new research avenues into this serious public health problem, Inserm researcher Nicolas L'Heureux and his team at the Tissue Bioengineering unit (Inserm/Université de Bordeaux) are developing ''human textiles'' from collagen in order to repair damaged blood vessels. This innovation is now described in the journal Acta Biomaterialia. (2020-02-10)

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