Current Cosmic Rays News and Events

Current Cosmic Rays News and Events, Cosmic Rays News Articles.
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AI detects COVID-19 on chest x-rays with accuracy and speed
Northwestern University researchers have developed a new artificial intelligence (A.I.) platform that detects COVID-19 by analyzing X-ray images of the lungs. (2020-11-24)

Prehistoric shark hid its largest teeth
Some, if not all, early sharks that lived 300 to 400 million years ago not only dropped their lower jaws downward but rotated them outwards when opening their mouths. This enabled them to make the best of their largest, sharpest and inward-facing teeth when catching prey, paleontologists at the Universities of Zurich and Chicago have now shown using CT scanning and 3D printing. (2020-11-18)

Does the human brain resemble the Universe?
An astrophysicist of the University of Bologna and a neurosurgeon of the University of Verona compared the network of neuronal cells in the human brain with the cosmic network of galaxies... and surprising similarities emerged (2020-11-16)

History of temperature changes in the Universe revealed
How hot is the Universe today? How hot was it before? A new study by an international team of researchers, including members of the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), suggests that the mean temperature of gas in large structures of the Universe has increased about 3 times in the last 8 billion years, to reach about two million Kelvin today. (2020-11-13)

Tree rings may hold clues to impacts of distant supernovas on Earth
Massive explosions of energy happening thousands of light-years from Earth may have left traces in our planet's biology and geology, according to new research by University of Colorado Boulder geoscientist Robert Brakenridge. (2020-11-11)

Researchers show safer, more targeted way to deliver CRISPR gene therapy
Biomedical researchers have come up with a novel way to use a beam of light to deliver CRISPR gene therapy molecules targeting illnesses. (2020-11-11)

The universe is getting hot, hot, hot, a new study suggests
The universe is getting hotter, a new study has found. The study, published Oct. 13 in the Astrophysical Journal, probed the thermal history of the universe over the last 10 billion years. It found that the mean temperature of gas across the universe has increased more than 10 times over that time period and reached about 2 million degrees Kelvin today -- approximately 4 million degrees Fahrenheit. (2020-11-10)

Radioactive elements may be crucial to the habitability of rocky planets
The amount of long-lived radioactive elements incorporated into a rocky planet as it forms may be a crucial factor in determining its future habitability. That's because internal heating from the radioactive decay of the heavy elements thorium and uranium drives plate tectonics and may be necessary for the planet to generate a magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field protects the planet from solar winds and cosmic rays. (2020-11-10)

New analysis finds lung cancer screening reduces rates of lung cancer-specific death
Low-dose CT screening methods may prevent one death per 250 at-risk adults screened, according to a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled clinical trials of lung cancer screening. Researchers at the University of Georgia analyzed the health outcomes of 90,275 patients, comparing those who were screened versus those who received usual medical care or chest x-rays. (2020-11-10)

Perspectives of tumor treatment: Researchers investigate combination of carbon ion and immunotherapy
It is still a glance into the future: The combination of carbon ion and immune therapy could become an effective tool in the fight against cancer. Promising results for the potential benefit of this treatment combination have now been published in the journal ''International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics'' of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology. The authors are an international team, led by the Biophysics Department at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. (2020-11-09)

Steroid injections do not hasten the need for knee replacement
New research shows that corticosteroid injections for knee OA treatment do not hasten a patient's progression to a total knee replacement when compared with hyaluronic acid injections. Details of this study was presented at ACR Convergence, the American College of Rheumatology's annual meeting. (2020-11-06)

Has the hidden matter of the universe been discovered?
Astrophysicists consider that around 40% of the ordinary matter that makes up stars, planets and galaxies remains undetected, concealed in the form of a hot gas in the complexe cosmic web. Today, scientists at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (CNRS/Université Paris-Saclay) may have detected, for the first time, this hidden matter through an innovative statistical analysis of 20-year-old data. Their findings are published on November 6, 2020 in Astronomy & Astrophysics. (2020-11-06)

Goby fins have fingertip touch sensitivity
Primates are renowned for their delicate sense of touch, but now a series of experiments by scientists from The University of Chicago, USA, published in Journal of Experimental Biology reveal that the fins of round gobies are as touch sensitive as primate fingertips. (2020-11-03)

Measuring the expansion of the universe: Researchers focus on velocity
There seems to be a discrepancy between measurement of the expansion of the Universe using radiation in the early Universe and using nearby objects. Researchers from the Cosmic Dawn Center, at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have now contributed to this debate by focusing on velocity (2020-10-29)

The Grantecan finds the farthest black hole that belongs to a rare family of galaxies
An international team of astronomers has identified one of the rarest known classes of gamma-ray emitting galaxies, called BL Lacertae, within the first 2 billion years of the age of the Universe. The team has used one of the largest optical telescope in the world, Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (Garafía, La Palma). The finding is published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. (2020-10-27)

Exploring the source of stars and planets in a laboratory
New computer simulation aims to verify a widely held but unproven theory of the source of celestial bodies. (2020-10-23)

The Milky Way galaxy has a clumpy halo
Astronomers at the University of Iowa have determined our galaxy is surrounded by a clumpy halo of hot gases that is continually being supplied with material ejected by birthing or dying stars. The halo also may be where matter unaccounted for since the birth of the universe may reside. Results published in the journal Nature Astronomy. (2020-10-19)

How rain can move mountains
Scientists have long thought that rainfall has a dramatic effect on the evolution of mountainous landscapes, but the reasons for how and why have been elusive. This seemingly logical concept has never been quantitatively demonstrated until now, thanks to a new technique that captures precisely how even the mightiest of mountain ranges -- the Himalaya -- bends to the will of raindrops. (2020-10-19)

Zeptoseconds: new world record in short time measurement
In the global race to measure ever shorter time spans, physicists from Goethe University Frankfurt have now taken the lead: together with colleagues at the accelerator facility DESY in Hamburg and the Fritz-Haber-Institute in Berlin, they have measured a process that lies within the realm of zeptoseconds for the first time: the propagation of light within a molecule. A zeptosecond is a trillionth of a billionth of a second (10 exp -21 seconds). (2020-10-16)

Ground-breaking discovery finally proves rain really can move mountains
A pioneering technique which captures precisely how mountains bend to the will of raindrops has helped solve a long-standing scientific enigma. (2020-10-16)

Modelling extreme magnetic fields and temperature variation on distant stars
New research is helping to explain one of the big questions that has perplexed astrophysicists for the past 30 years - what causes the changing brightness of distant stars called magnetars. Magnetars were formed from stellar explosions or supernovae and they have extremely strong magnetic fields, estimated to be around 100 million, million times greater than the magnetic field found on earth. (2020-10-13)

Scientists develop detector for investigating the sun
Researchers from MIPT have developed a prototype detector of solar particles. The device is capable of picking up protons at kinetic energies between 10 and 100 megaelectronvolts, and electrons at 1-10 MeV. This covers most of the high-energy particle flux coming from the sun. The new detector can improve radiation protection for astronauts and spaceships, as well as advancing our understanding of solar flares. (2020-10-13)

UMD astronomers find x-rays lingering years after landmark neutron star collision
It's been three years since the landmark detection of a neutron star merger from gravitational waves. Since that day, an international team of researchers led by University of Maryland astronomer Eleonora Troja has been continuously monitoring the subsequent radiation emissions to provide the most complete picture of such an event. Their analysis provides possible explanations for X-rays that continued to radiate from the collision long after models predicted they would stop. (2020-10-12)

Astronomers turn up the heavy metal to shed light on star formation
Astronomers from The University of Western Australia's node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) have developed a new way to study star formation in galaxies from the dawn of time to today. Using a new algorithm to model the energy and wavelengths of light coming from almost 7000 nearby galaxies, the researchers succeeded in reconstructing when most of the stars in the Universe formed--in agreement with telescope observations for the first time. (2020-10-06)

Timing the life of antimatter particles may lead to better cancer treatment
Experts in Japan have devised a simple way to glean more detailed information out of standard medical imaging scans. A research team made up of atomic physicists and nuclear medicine experts has designed a timer that can enable PET scanners to detect the oxygen concentration of tissues throughout patients' bodies. This upgrade to PET scanners may lead to a future of better cancer treatment by quickly identifying parts of tumors with more aggressive cell growth. (2020-10-01)

Earthquake forecasting clues unearthed in strange precariously balanced rocks
Naturally formed balancing boulders could be used to help scientists to forecast large earthquakes more precisely. (2020-10-01)

Hubble observes spectacular supernova time-lapse
The NASA/ESA's Hubble Space Telescope has tracked the fading light of a supernova in the spiral galaxy NGC 2525, located 70 million light years away. Supernovae like this one can be used as cosmic tape measures, allowing astronomers to calculate the distance to their galaxies. Hubble captured these images as part of one of its major investigations, measuring the expansion rate of the Universe, which can help answer fundamental questions about our Universe's very nature. (2020-10-01)

Stellar explosion in Earth's proximity
When the brightness of the star Betelgeuse dropped dramatically a few months ago, some observers suspected an impending supernova - a stellar explosion that could also cause damage on Earth. While Betelgeuse has returned to normal, physicists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have found evidence of a supernova that exploded near the Earth around 2.5 million years ago. (2020-09-30)

New extreme ultraviolet facility opens for use
Researchers have established a novel high-frequency laser facility at the University of Tokyo. The coherent extreme ultraviolet light source can reveal details of biological or physical samples with unprecedented clarity. It also allows for investigation of time-dependent phenomena such as ultrafast chemical reactions. Existing facilities for such investigations necessarily require enormous particle accelerators and are prohibitive to many researchers. This new facility should greatly improve access for a broad range of researchers. (2020-09-28)

Pair of massive baby stars swaddled in salty water vapor
Using ALMA, astronomers spotted a pair of massive baby stars growing in salty cosmic soup. Each star is shrouded by a gaseous disk which includes molecules of sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt, and heated water vapor. Analyzing the radio emissions from the salt and water, the team found that the disks are counter rotating. It is promising that salt is an excellent marker to explore the immediate surroundings of giant baby stars. (2020-09-25)

Atom-Billiards with X-Rays: a new Approach to look inside of Molecules
Since these early days of quantum mechanics, it is known that photons also possess momentum. The photon's ability to transfer momentum was used in a novel approach by scientists of the Max Born Institute, Uppsala University, and the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility to observe a fundamental process in the interaction of x-rays with atoms. The detailed experimental and theoretical results are reported in the journal Science. (2020-09-24)

New materials: A toggle switch for catalysis
A special material made of lanthanum, strontium, iron and oxygen can be switched back and forth between two different states: In one state the material is catalytically extremely active, in the other less so. The reason for this is the behavior of tiny iron nanoparticles on the surface. This finding should now make it possible to develop even better catalysts. (2020-09-23)

Survey reveals popular misconceptions about child marriage
Misconceptions about child marriage (marriage under 18) appear widespread among the American public, potentially hampering efforts to address the practice globally. David Lawson and colleagues at the University of California, Santa Barbara, present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on September 23, 2020. (2020-09-23)

NIST scientists get soft on 3D printing
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a new method of 3D-printing gels and other soft materials. Published in a new paper, it has the potential to create complex structures with nanometer-scale precision. (2020-09-22)

Cosmic X-rays reveal an indubitable signature of black holes
A black hole is an exotic cosmic object, from within which nothing, not even light, can escape. Definitive proof of the existence of such objects is a holy grail of physics and astronomy. An international team of astrophysicists, consisting of Mr. Srimanta Banerjee, Professor Marat Gilfanov, Professor Sudip Bhattacharyya and Professor Rashid Sunyaev, has found by far the strongest steady signature of stellar-mass black holes to date, from the cosmic X-rays observed with a satellite. (2020-09-21)

VLBA makes first direct distance measurement to magnetar
Using the VLBA, astronomers have made the first direct geometric measurement of the distance to a magnetar. This precision measurement to one of the most magnetic objects in the Universe could help scientists determine if such objects are responsible for generating the mysterious Fast Radio Bursts. (2020-09-18)

Who stole the light?
Free electron X-ray lasers deliver intense ultrashort pulses of x-rays, which can be used to image nanometer-scale objects in a single shot. When the x-ray wavelength is tuned to an electronic resonance, magnetization patterns can be made visible. When using increasingly intense pulses, however, the magnetization image fades away. The mechanism responsible for this loss in resonant magnetic scattering intensity has now been clarified. (2020-09-18)

Study shows one quarter of hospitalized young patients aged 18-39 years with COVID-19 developed pneumonia
New research to be presented at the ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, held online from 23-25 September) shows that one quarter of hospitalized younger patients with COVID-19 aged 18-39 years developed pneumonia, underlining the danger the disease represents to young people. (2020-09-17)

Revealing the secrets of high-energy cosmic particles
The ''IceCube'' neutrino observatory deep in the ice of the South Pole has already brought spectacular new insights into cosmic incidents of extremely high energies. In order to investigate the cosmic origins of elementary particles with even higher energies, Prof. Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now started an international initiative to build a neutrino telescope several cubic kilometers in size in the northeastern Pacific. (2020-09-10)

A new kind of liquid scintillator via hybridizing perovskite nanocrystals with organic molecules
Highly-efficient scintillators are playing an essential role in various fundamental science and industrial applications. For enhancing quantum yield, scientists in South Korea demonstrated a new kind of scintillating nanomaterials via hybridizing perovskite nanocrystals with organic molecules, which make it possible to detect X-rays efficiently and to achieve high-quality X-ray images in liquid form. The hybrid nanomaterials will hold substantial promise for advancing the industrial applications of X-ray imaging and producing intriguing scintillation in other hybrid nanomaterial systems. (2020-09-09)

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