Current Crystalline News and Events

Current Crystalline News and Events, Crystalline News Articles.
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Testing the waters: Analyzing different solid states of water on other planets and moons
Aside from regular ice, water can exist in the form of peculiar solids called clathrate hydrates, which trap small gaseous molecules. They play a large role in the evolution of atmospheres, but predicting their presence in cryogenic temperatures is difficult. In a recent study, scientists from Okayama University developed statistical mechanics theory to determine their presence in Pluto and some of Jupiter's and Saturn's satellites, providing valuable information to revise existing interpretations. (2021-01-19)

Purely organic hole transporter
Durable, high-performing perovskite solar cells also require durable, high-performing charge-transporting layers. Scientists have developed the first organic hole transporter that does not need a dopant to attain high charge mobility and stability. According to the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie, this novel hole-transporting layer outperforms reference materials and protects the perovskite organic cell from air humidity. (2021-01-18)

What stops flows in glassy materials?
Researchers from the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology recently conducted experimental studies for the first time on glassy systems composed of nonspherical particles. (2021-01-17)

Newly developed GaN based MEMS resonator operates stably even at high temperature
JST PRESTO researcher developed a MEMS resonator that stably operates even under high temperatures by regulating the strain caused by the heat from gallium nitride (GaN). This device is small, highly sensitive and can be integrated with CMOS technology promising for the application to 5G communication, IoT timing device, on-vehicle applications, and advanced driver assistance system. (2021-01-15)

UCI scientists measure local vibrational modes at individual crystalline faults
Employing newly developed electron microscopy techniques, researchers at the University of California, Irvine and other institutions have, for the first time, measured the spectra of phonons - quantum mechanical vibrations in a lattice - at individual crystalline faults, and they discovered the propagation of phonons near the flaws. The team's findings are the subject of a study published recently in Nature. (2021-01-12)

Scientists make sustainable polymer from sugars in wood
Scientists from the University of Bath have made a sustainable polymer using the second most abundant sugar in nature, xylose. (2021-01-11)

Chemists invent shape-shifting nanomaterial with biomedical potential
Made of synthetic collagen, the new nanomaterial may have a range of biomedical applications, from controlled-release drug delivery to tissue engineering. (2021-01-07)

Researcher cracks the hidden strengthening mechanism in biological ceramics
In addition to adding strength, this design allows the structure to use its crack patterns to minimize damage into the inner shell. (2021-01-06)

Scrambled supersolids
Supersolids are fluid and solid at the same time. Physicists from Innsbruck and Geneva have for the first time investigated what happens when such a state is brought out of balance. They discovered a soft form of a solid of high interest for science. As the researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino and Thierry Giamarchi report in Nature Physics, they were also able to reverse the process and restore supersolidity. (2021-01-04)

Microfabricated elastic diamonds improve material's electronic properties
Overcoming a key obstacle in achieving diamond-based electronic and optoelectronic devices, researchers have presented a new way to fabricate micrometer-sized diamonds that can elastically stretch. (2020-12-31)

Stretching diamond for next-generation microelectronics
Diamond is the hardest material in nature. But out of many expectations, it also has great potential as an excellent electronic material. A joint research team led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has demonstrated for the first time the large, uniform tensile elastic straining of microfabricated diamond arrays through the nanomechanical approach. Their findings have shown the potential of strained diamonds as prime candidates for advanced functional devices in microelectronics, photonics, and quantum information technologies. (2020-12-31)

Atomic-scale nanowires can now be produced at scale
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have discovered a way to make self-assembled nanowires of transition metal chalcogenides at scale using chemical vapor deposition. By changing the substrate where the wires form, they can tune how these wires are arranged, from aligned configurations of atomically thin sheets to random networks of bundles. This paves the way to industrial deployment in next-gen industrial electronics, including energy harvesting, and transparent, efficient, even flexible devices. (2020-12-24)

Novel crystalline oxide may solve the problem of overheating in composite materials
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology recently synthesized a novel material that displays unique thermal expansion properties. The method used by the scientists enables the production of a unique crystalline oxide containing zirconium, sulfur, and phosphorus, that exhibits two distinct mechanisms of negative thermal expansion. This is the first known material to show this property and its application may help avoid damage to composite materials, such as computer chip components, facing unexpected temperature changes. (2020-12-18)

Scientists: Xenon improves properties of maxillofacial and orthopedic implants
Scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) jointly with the colleagues from Siberian State Medical University (SSMU) and Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (IKBFU) studied the properties of calcium phosphate coatings deposited on titanium implants in various inert gases environment. The researchers managed to discover that the use of xenon positively affects the physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of the coatings used in oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthopedics and traumatology. (2020-12-15)

Titanium atom that exists in two places at once in crystal to blame for unusual phenomenon
Bombarding a crystal with neutrons reveals a quantum quirk that frustrates heat transfer. (2020-12-03)

Study shows promising material can store solar energy for months or years
Lancaster University researchers studying a crystalline material have discovered it has properties that allow it to capture energy from the sun. The energy can be stored for several months at room temperature, and it can be released on demand in the form of heat. With further development, these kinds of materials could offer exciting potential as a way of capturing solar energy during the summer months, and storing it for use in winter - where less solar energy is available. (2020-12-02)

RUDN University physicists described a new type of amorphous solid bodies
Many substances with different chemical and physical properties, from diamonds to graphite, are made up of carbon atoms. Amorphous forms of solid carbon do not have a fixed crystal structure and consist of structural units--nanosized graphene particles. A team of physicists from RUDN University studied the structure of amorphous carbon and suggested classifying it as a separate type of amorphous solid bodies: a molecular amorphic with enforced fragmentation. (2020-12-02)

A new beat in quantum matter
Oscillatory behaviors are ubiquitous in Nature, ranging from the orbits of planets to the periodic motion of a swing. In pure crystalline systems, presenting a perfect spatially-periodic structure, the fundamental laws of quantum physics predict a remarkable and counter-intuitive oscillatory behavior: when subjected to a weak electric force, the electrons in the material do not undergo a net drift, but rather oscillate in space, a phenomenon known as Bloch oscillations. (2020-11-23)

From lab to industry? Ideally ordered porous titania films, made at scale
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have realized high-throughput production of thin, ordered through-hole membranes of titanium dioxide. Titania layers were grown using anodization on mask-etched titanium before being crystallized. Applying a second anodization, they converted part of the layer back to an amorphous state. The amorphous portion was then selectively dissolved to free the film while leaving the template intact. This paves the way for industrial production of ordered titania membranes for photonics. (2020-11-21)

Metal-organic frameworks become flexible
Materials consisting of inorganic and organic components can combine the best of two worlds: under certain circumstances, the so-called MOFs - short for metal-organic frameworks - are structured in the same order as crystals and are at the same time porous and deformable. This opens up the prospect of intelligent materials for energy-saving technical applications. However, so far only a few flexible MOFs have been identified. (2020-11-17)

Highly sensitive detection of circularly polarized light without a filter
Japanese scientists developed a photodiode using a crystalline film composed of lead perovskite compounds with organic chiral molecules to detect circularly polarized light without a filter. It is expected as a technology for visualization of the invisible change of object surfaces such as stress intensity and distribution. (2020-11-16)

Interlayer ligand engineering of β-Ni(OH)2 for oxygen evolution reaction
Alkoxyl substitution strategy is proposed to enlarge the interlayer distances and tune the interface environments of β-Ni(OH)2. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies combined with ex-situ analyses revealed that the critical active species of NiEt is formed via hydroxylation and subsequent de-protonation, with high valent Niδ+(3<δ?3.66). The corresponding catalytic reaction pathway and mechanism are proposed. (2020-11-11)

Germanium telluride's hidden properties at the nanoscale revealed
Germanium Telluride is an interesting candidate material for spintronic devices. In a comprehensive study at BESSY II, a Helmholtz-RSF Joint Research Group has now revealed how the spin texture switches by ferroelectric polarization within individual nanodomains. (2020-11-06)

USTC develops single crystalline quaternary sulfide nanobelts
USTC has designed a simple colloidal method to synthesize single crystalline wurtzite CZIS nanobelts, as well as the single crystalline wurtzite CZGS nanobelts assisted with oleylamine and 1-dodecanethiol. (2020-10-27)

Ancient Maya built sophisticated water filters
Ancient Maya in the once-bustling city of Tikal built sophisticated water filters using natural materials they imported from miles away, according to the University of Cincinnati. A multidisciplinary team of UC anthropologists, geographers and biologists identified quartz and zeolite, a crystalline compound consisting of silicon and aluminum, that created a natural molecular sieve. Both minerals are used in modern water filtration. (2020-10-22)

Scientists got one step closer to solving a major problem of hydrogen energy
A team of scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) together with their colleagues from Austria, Turkey, Slovakia, Russia (MISIS, MSU), and the UK found a way to hydrogenate thin metallic glass layers at room temperature. This technology can considerably expand the range of cheap, energy-efficient, and high-performance materials and methods that can be used in the field of hydrogen energy. An article about the study was published in the Journal of Power Sources. (2020-09-29)

LSU physicists develop a method to improve gravitational wave detector sensitivity
Gravitational wave detectors opened a new window to the universe by measuring the ripples in spacetime produced by colliding black holes and neutron stars, but they are ultimately limited by quantum fluctuations induced by light reflecting off of mirrors. LSU Ph.D. physics alumnus Jonathan Cripe and his team of LSU researchers have conducted a new experiment with scientists from Caltech and Thorlabs to explore a way to cancel this quantum backaction and improve detector sensitivity. (2020-09-25)

FSU researchers help develop sustainable polymers
Researchers at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering have made new discoveries on the effects of temperature on sustainable polymers. Their findings may help the industry to produce plastics that are better for the environment. (2020-09-25)

Shining a light on disordered and fractal systems
A research team led by the University of Tsukuba investigated the acoustic properties of disordered lysozyme proteins by using terahertz spectroscopy. They found that the fractal nature of the proteins is responsible for its unusually large vibrations at low frequencies, which may lead to a better theory for disordered materials. (2020-09-14)

Mineral undergoes self-healing of irradiation damage
Several minerals suffer radioactive self-irradiation and hence experience long-term changes of their properties. The mineral monazite virtually behaves ''just alike Camembert cheese in which holes are drilled'': Existing radiation damage heals itself. An international research team led by Lutz Nasdala, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, University of Vienna, conducted an ion-irradiation study that has unravelled the causes of the self-healing of monazite. Results were published in ''Scientific Reports''. (2020-09-09)

Editors' Choice in Science: an unusual superconductor
Professor Wang Jian at Peking University and collaborators observed the experimental evidence of anomalous metallic state and detected type-II Ising superconductivity existing in centrosymmetric systems. (2020-09-02)

Structural colors from cellulose-based polymers
A surface displays structural colors when light is reflected by tiny, regular structural elements in a transparent material. Researchers have now developed a method to make structural colors from cellulose-based polymers by using coated droplets that exist in a surrounding fluid--so-called liquid marbles. The system readily responds to environmental changes, which makes it interesting for applications in bio-based sensors and soft photonic elements, according to the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2020-08-28)

Topological superconducting phase protected by 1D local magnetic symmetries
Scientists from China and USA classified 1D gapped topological superconducting quantum wires with local magnetic symmetries (LMSs), in which the time-reversal symmetry is broken but its combinations with certain crystalline symmetries, such as MxT, C2zT, C4zT, and C6zT, are preserved. Two new types of topological superconducting phases with multiple Majorana Kramer pairs and multiple Majorana zero modes are presented. And the minimal models preserving C4zT symmetry are constructed to illustrate their novel topological properties. (2020-08-27)

Meteorite strikes may create unexpected form of silica
When a meteorite hurtles through the atmosphere and crashes to Earth, how does its violent impact alter the minerals found at the landing site? What can the short-lived chemical phases created by these extreme impacts teach scientists about the minerals existing at the high-temperature and pressure conditions found deep inside the planet? New work examining the crystal structure of the silica mineral quartz under shock compression is challenging longstanding assumptions about this ubiquitous material. (2020-08-26)

A colorful detector
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba introduced a new type of porous crystal that can indicate the presence of moisture based on a reversible change in color. This research may open the way for many new gas sensors in industrial applications. (2020-08-25)

From biopaste to bioplastic
Forest scientists develop innovative wood-based materials for 3D printing. (2020-08-21)

Rare glassy metal discovered during quest to improve battery performance
Materials scientists studying recharging fundamentals made an astonishing discovery that could open the door to better batteries, faster catalysts and other materials science leaps. (2020-08-11)

Discovery of massless electrons in phase-change materials provides next step for future electronics
Researchers have found electrons that behave as if they have no mass, called Dirac electrons, in a compound used in rewritable discs, such as CDs and DVDs. The discovery of ''massless'' electrons in this phase-change material could lead to faster electronic devices. (2020-08-10)

Space invaders as MOFs act as liquids
Modified metal organic frameworks that can behave as porous liquids offer new possibilities for gas separation technologies. (2020-08-10)

For solar boom, scrap silicon for this promising mineral
Cornell University engineers have found that photovoltaic wafers in solar panels with all-perovskite structures outperform photovoltaic cells made from state-of-the-art crystalline silicon, as well as perovskite-silicon tandem cells, which are stacked pancake-style cells that absorb light better. (2020-08-03)

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