Current DNA Analysis News and Events

Current DNA Analysis News and Events, DNA Analysis News Articles.
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Scientists use DNA origami to monitor CRISPR gene targeting
The remarkable genetic scissors called CRISPR/Cas9, the discovery that won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, sometimes cut in places that they are not designed to target. (2021-02-23)

Toxins from one bacterial species contribute to genetic diversity of others
A toxin produced by bacteria as a defence mechanism causes mutations in target bacteria that could help them survive. (2021-02-23)

UIC researchers invent new gene-editing tool
Researchers have discovered a new gene-editing technique that allows for the programming of sequential cuts -- or edits -- over time. (2021-02-23)

A sleep disorder associated with shift work may affect gene function
Going on holiday can affect shift workers on the level of gene function: a new study indicates that resting during a holiday period restored functions associated with DNA regulation in shift workers suffering from sleep deprivation. (2021-02-22)

Dozens of new lichen species discovered in East African mountain forests
The species diversity and relationships of lichens in the genus Leptogium, which are often very difficult to identify to species, were assessed on the basis of DNA analyses using a large dataset collected during more than 10 years from East Africa. (2021-02-22)

First DNA extracted from modern, ancient and fossil tropical shells
The next time you eat seafood, think about the long-term effects. Will consistently eating the biggest fish or the biggest conch, mean that only the smaller individuals will have a chance to reproduce? (2021-02-22)

Scientists develop blood test to predict environmental harms to children
Scientists at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health developed a method using a DNA biomarker to easily screen pregnant women for harmful prenatal environmental contaminants like air pollution linked to childhood illness and developmental disorders. This approach has the potential to prevent childhood developmental disorders and chronic illness through the early identification of children at risk. (2021-02-17)

Proton therapy induces biologic response to attack treatment-resistant cancers
Mayo Clinic researchers have developed a novel proton therapy technique to more specifically target cancer cells that resist other forms of treatment. The technique is called LEAP, an acronym for 'biologically enhanced particle therapy.' The findings are published today in Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2021-02-17)

Fixer-upper: Understanding the DNA repair toolkit to chart cancer evolution
DNA repair pathways exist to correct molecular damage caused by internal and external factors. However, any damage to these pathways can result in the creation of tumors and specific types of cancers. A group of scientists from China have conducted an extensive investigation into the relationship of DNA repair pathways with cancer evolution. Their review, been published in Cancer Biology & Medicine, also shed light on the potential treatment applications of these mechanisms. (2021-02-16)

Capuchin monkey genome reveals clues to its long life and large brain
An international team of scientists has sequenced the genome of a capuchin monkey for the first time, uncovering new genetic clues about the evolution of their long lifespan and large brains. Published in PNAS, the work was led by the University of Calgary in Canada and involved researchers at the University of Liverpool. (2021-02-15)

New discovery could pave the way for improved treatments for diabetes
Monash University researchers have uncovered the barrier to β-cell (beta cell) regeneration that could pave the way for improved treatments for diabetes and diseases that involve organ and tissue damage. (2021-02-12)

Detecting single molecules and diagnosing diseases with a smartphone
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers show that the light emitted by a single molecule can be detected with a low-cost optical setup. Their prototype could facilitate medical diagnostics. (2021-02-12)

Liquid biopsy for colorectal cancer could guide therapy for tumors
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis demonstrates that a liquid biopsy examining blood or urine can help gauge the effectiveness of therapy for colorectal cancer that has just begun to spread beyond the original tumor. Such a biopsy can detect lingering disease and could serve as a guide for deciding whether a patient should undergo further treatments due to some tumor cells evading an initial attempt to eradicate the cancer. (2021-02-12)

Lifestyle changes in pregnant women affected babies' genes
A study led by researchers at Lund University in Sweden showed a connection between lifestyle intervention in pregnant women with obesity and epigenetic alterations in the baby. The study is published in the journal Diabetes. (2021-02-11)

Study identifies never-before-seen dual function in enzyme critical for cancer growth
In developing therapies for hard-to-treat breast and ovarian cancers in patients with BRCA gene mutations, scientists aim to identify ways to keep cancer cells from using DNA break repair pathways. New findings demonstrate a previously-unknown capability for polymerase theta (pol theta) - a key enzyme in this repair function - that shows promise as a new avenue for treatment development. (2021-02-11)

Stirring up conflicts in tumour cells
With two commercially available inhibitors, the cell cycle of the cancer cells in the childhood tumour neuroblastoma can be disrupted at a key point causing tumour cell death. (2021-02-11)

New improved dog reference genome will aid a new generation of investigation
Researchers at Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences have used new methods for DNA sequencing and annotation to build a new, and more complete, dog reference genome. This tool will serve as the foundation for a new era of research, helping scientists to better understand the link between DNA and disease, in dogs and in their human friends. The research is presented in the journal Communications Biology. (2021-02-10)

Unusual DNA folding increases the rates of mutations
DNA sequences that can fold into shapes other than the classic double helix tend to have higher mutation rates than other regions in the human genome. New research shows that the elevated mutation rate in these sequences plays a major role in determining regional variation in mutation rates across the genome. (2021-02-09)

An end to invasive biopsies?
Hebrew Unievrsity researchers have found a less invasive and more accurate options for diagnoses using a simple blood test that detects DNA fragments. (2021-02-08)

AI researchers ask: What's going on inside the black box?
Brain-like artificial networks are often referred to as a ''black box'' because researchers do not know how they learn and make predictions. Researchers at CSHL reported a way to peek inside the box and identify key features on which the computer relies, particularly when trying to identify complex DNA sequences. (2021-02-08)

SSRgenotyper: A new tool to digitally genotype simple sequence repeats
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are common components of genomic DNA that are widely used in genetic studies at the level of populations and individuals. However, the process of genotyping SSRs -- determining which individuals have which alleles -- still relies on time-consuming and potentially hazardous lab-based methods. SSRgenotyper is a new software tool that automates the process of genotyping entirely from sequenced reads and generates multiple file types for further downstream analysis. (2021-02-05)

NUI Galway demonstrate the promise of precision genomics in cancer treatment
Researchers at NUI Galway have identified genomic signatures in women developing the most common type of breast cancer that can be associated with long-term survival. The NUI Galway team analysed the genomes of breast cancer patients to look for associations with survival rates using advanced statistical techniques. (2021-02-04)

A single-molecule guide to understanding chemical reactions better
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) report measurement of electrical conductivity of single DNA molecules as a way of monitoring the formation of double-stranded DNA on a gold surface. In their latest paper, they investigate the time evolution of the reaction and report findings not observed previously, demonstrating the suitability of the single-molecule approach in elucidating reaction pathways and exploring novel chemical processes. (2021-02-04)

The underestimated mutation potential of retrogenes
mRNA molecules from retrogenes are reverse transcribed to DNA and incorporated into the genome. (2021-02-02)

Origami with DNA
To study the behaviour of T-cells, an unusual method was used at TU Wien: DNA molecules were folded in an ingenious way, similar to the paper folding art origami. In this way, not just a double helix is created, but a rectangular ''molecular raft'' that floats across a cell membrane and serves as a tool for novel measurements. (2021-02-01)

Constructing the first version of the Japanese reference genome
The Japanese now have their own reference genome thanks to researchers at Tohoku University who completed and released the first Japanese reference genome (JG1). (2021-01-29)

Understanding how genetic motifs conduct "the music of life"
Our genetic codes control not only which proteins our cells produce, but also - to a great extent - in what quantity. This ground-breaking discovery, applicable to all biological life, was recently made by systems biologists at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, using supercomputers and artificial intelligence. Their research, which could also shed new light on the mysteries of cancer, was recently published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. (2021-01-28)

NUS scientists discover a new pathway essential for blood formation
Scientists from the National University of Singapore have discovered how a protein called Tip60 plays a vital role in the renewal of blood cells in the body. Without it, the stem cells that make new blood suffer catastrophic damage. This discovery could lead to better treatments for life-threatening blood-related diseases like leukemia. (2021-01-28)

Rules of resistance against transgene silencing
A new protocol brings the precise standards of engineering to the realm of synthetic biology. (2021-01-28)

'You say tomato, I say genomics': Genome sequences for two wild tomato ancestors
A research team led by University of Tsukuba has produced genome sequences for two wild species of tomato from South America, ancestors of the cultivated tomato. The ancestral species contain thousands of genes that are not present in modern types. The novel genes will help plant breeders produce new tomatoes with features like improved disease resistance, increased tolerance for the changing climate, and improved flavor and shelf-life. (2021-01-27)

Humanizing yeast ORC sheds light on cancer therapy and human development
Researchers from the HKSUST and the HKU recently demonstrated that the selectivity determinant of Origin Recognition Complex for DNA binding lies in a 19-amino acid insertion helix in the Orc4 subunit, which is present in yeast but absent in human. (2021-01-27)

VCU technology could upend DNA sequencing for diagnosing certain DNA mutations
Doctors are increasingly using genetic signatures to diagnose diseases and determine the best course of care, but using DNA sequencing and other techniques to detect genomic rearrangements remains costly or limited in capabilities. However, an innovative breakthrough developed by researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center and the VCU Department of Physics promises to diagnose DNA rearrangement mutations at a fraction of the cost with improved accuracy. (2021-01-27)

Oncotarget: Prognostic biomarker for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
Reduced expression of TBX15 in tumor tissue represents a potential biomarker for predicting poor survival of patients with HCC (2021-01-25)

Identification of Oligo-DNA that promotes skeletal muscle differentiation
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and is responsible not only for locomotion but for energy metabolism and heat production. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle homeostasis, but it has been reported that the differentiation ability of myoblasts decreases with age and disease and this will be one of the causes of muscle atrophy. To prevent muscle atrophy, researchers of Shinshu University studied molecules that promote myoblast differentiation. (2021-01-25)

Biologists unravel full sequence of DNA repair mechanism
Researchers led by the University of Iowa have observed the entire sequence in break-induced replication, a method by which organisms from viruses to humans repair breaks in DNA that cannot be fixed otherwise but can introduce or cause genomic rearrangements and mutations contributing to cancer development. (2021-01-25)

Proteins unspool DNA so cells can take on unique properties
New research reveals how proteins, called 'pioneer transcription factors,' help turn on key genes that give cell types their unique properties and functions. (2021-01-22)

Regulating the ribosomal RNA production line
The enzyme that makes RNA from a DNA template is altered to slow the production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the most abundant type of RNA within cells, when resources are scarce and the bacteria Escherichia coli needs to slow its growth. (2021-01-22)

Antibiotic resistance may spread even more easily than expected
Pathogenic bacteria in humans are developing resistance to antibiotics much faster than expected. Now, computational research at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, shows that one reason could be significant genetic transfer between bacteria in our ecosystems and to humans. This work has also led to new tools for resistance researchers. (2021-01-21)

Pioneering new technique could revolutionise super-resolution imaging systems
Scientists have developed a pioneering new technique that could revolutionise the accuracy, precision and clarity of super-resolution imaging systems. (2021-01-21)

Scientists make pivotal discovery on mechanism of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection
Wistar Researchers have discovered a new enzymatic function of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) protein EBNA1, a critical factor in EBV's ability to transform human cells and cause cancer. Study provides new indications for inhibiting EBNA1 function, opening up fresh avenues for development of therapies to treat EBV-associated cancers. (2021-01-21)

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