Current Decomposition News and Events

Current Decomposition News and Events, Decomposition News Articles.
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Extreme UV laser shows generation of atmospheric pollutant
Hokkaido University scientists show that under laboratory conditions, ultraviolet light reacts with nitrophenol to produce smog-generating nitrous acid. (2021-02-02)

Beetles reveal how to hide the body
A corpse is a home to the burying beetle, and UConn researchers are learning how this specialist critter keeps its home free of unwanted visitors. (2021-01-20)

RUDN University scientist showed global warming effect on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy soils
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied the decomposition of organic matter in rice paddies--the sources of CO2 and methane emissions. Both gases add to the greenhouse effect and affect climate warming in subtropical regions. The emissions increase when the roots of plants influence microbial communities in the soil. This influence, in turn, depends on temperature changes. Therefore, climate warming can lead to more greenhouse gas emissions. (2020-12-24)

Fertilizer runoff in streams and rivers can have cascading effects, analysis shows
Fertilizer pollution can have significant ripple effects in the food webs of streams and rivers, according to a new analysis of global data. (2020-12-17)

Graduate student's BADASS code has astronomical benefits
An astro-statistics course UC Riverside graduate student Remington Sexton took three years ago taught him techniques that led him to develop free, open-source code benefiting astronomers everywhere. Called BADASS, the code is unique in that it provides a way for astronomers to fit the stellar motions of stars simultaneously with many other components, is written in a popular programming language, and is versatile enough to fit not just active galactic nuclei but also normal galaxies. (2020-12-16)

Scientists discover compounds that could have helped to start life on Earth
Scientists from St Petersburg University and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have discovered natural cyclophosphates. These are possible precursors of phosphorus-containing molecules that are believed to have contributed to the emergence of primordial life on Earth. Cyclophosphates could have been formed billions of years ago in regions of elevated geothermal activity or during meteorite bombardments of the Earth. (2020-12-14)

Exploring the relationship between nitrogen and carbon dioxide in greenhouse gas emissions
A University of Oklahoma-led interdisciplinary study on a decade-long experiment (1997-2009) at the University of Minnesota found that lower nitrogen levels in soil promoted release of carbon dioxide from soils under high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and could therefore contribute to furthering rising atmospheric greenhouse gases and climate change. (2020-12-14)

Algorithms and automation: Making new technology faster and cheaper
Additive manufacturing (AM) machinery has advanced over time, however, the necessary software for new machines often lags behind. To help mitigate this issue, Penn State researchers designed an automated process planning software to save money, time and design resources. (2020-12-08)

Russian scientists improve 3D printing technology for aerospace composites using oil waste
Scientists from NUST MISIS have improved the technology of 3D printing from aluminum, having achieved an increase in the hardness of products by 1,5 times. The nanocarbon additive to aluminum powder, which they have developed, obtained from the products of processing associated petroleum gas, will improve the quality of 3D printed aerospace composites. The research results are published in the international scientific journal Composites Communications (2020-11-25)

Warming of 2°C would release billions of tonnes of soil carbon
Global warming of 2°C would lead to about 230 billion tonnes of carbon being released from the world's soil, new research suggests. (2020-11-02)

Researchers prove titanate nanotubes composites enhance photocatalysis of hydrogen
In a paper published in NANO, researchers from National Taiwan University examined the photocatalytic performances of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) against commonly-used titanium dioxide (TiO2) and discovered superior performance of TNTs. (2020-10-27)

Endangered trees in Guam contribute to ecosystem diversity and health
Research at the University of Guam has shown that the decomposition of leaf litter from three threatened tree species releases nitrogen and carbon into the soil for use by other plants. (2020-10-27)

OU-led study aims to use microbial information to inform global climate change models
A study led by researchers from the OU Institute of Environmental Genomics tackles a problem that has challenged scientists for more than a decade. The findings from which may have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate warming. (2020-09-29)

Biodiversity increases plant decomposition rate; should be factored into climate models, study finds
An international team of researchers published a meta-analysis of 176 studies investigating the effect of diverse leaf litter decay on ecosystems around the world on Sept. 11 in Nature Communications. (2020-09-28)

Soil bogging caused by climate change adds to the greenhouse effect, says a RUDN University soil sci
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied soil samples collected at the Tibetan Plateau and discovered that high soil moisture content (caused by the melting of permafrost and glaciers) leads to further temperature increase. Therefore, the rate of soil bogging should be held back in order to slow down global warming. (2020-09-19)

Freshwater biology: Turtle scavenging critical to freshwater ecosystem health
Freshwater turtles may have a role in regulating water quality in river systems by scavenging fish carcasses, suggests a study of Emydura macquarii, a vulnerable freshwater turtle species found in Australia. The findings are published in Scientific Reports. (2020-09-17)

How to harness the power of biosolids to make hydrogen
New technology uses biosolids to drive the chemical reactions needed to produce hydrogen from biogas. The circular economy approach means all the materials needed for hydrogen production could be sourced on-site at a wastewater treatment plant, without the need for expensive catalysts. (2020-09-14)

Iron is to blame for carbon dioxide emissions from soil, says a soil scientists from RUDN
Iron minerals and bacteria can be the main agents of carbon dioxide emissions from the soil. A soil scientist from RUDN University made this conclusion after studying the process of organic plant waste decomposition of the micro-level. Iron and hydrogen peroxide enter into a reaction, as a result of which active oxygen forms (oxygen radicals) are formed. The radicals destroy plant waste in the soil and promote carbon dioxide emissions. (2020-09-09)

Could plants help us find dead bodies? Forensic botanists want to know
Search teams looking for human remains are often slowed by painstaking on-foot pursuits or aerial searches that are obscured by forest cover. In a Science & Society article appearing September 3 in the journal Trends in Plant Science, the authors discuss utilizing tree cover in body recovery missions to our advantage, by detecting changes in the plant's chemistry as signals of nearby human remains. (2020-09-03)

New approach soft material flow may yield way to new materials, disaster prediction
How does toothpaste stay in its tube and not ooze out when we remove the cap? What causes seemingly solid ground to suddenly break free into a landslide? Defining exactly how soft materials flow and seize has eluded researchers for years, but a new study explains this complex motion using relatively simple experiments. The ability to define - and eventually predict - soft material flow will benefit people dealing with everything from spreadable cheese to avalanches. (2020-08-24)

Cyclohexyl phenyl sulfide cleavage studied for degradation of sulfur-containing heavy oil
So far, the KFU team has proven copper compounds are the most effective in producing catalysts for heavy oil extraction. (2020-08-20)

Hydrogen economy with mass production of high-purity hydrogen from ammonia
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) has made an announcement about the technology to extract high-purity hydrogen from ammonia and generate electric power in conjunction with a fuel cell developed by a team led by Young Suk Jo and Chang Won Yoon from the Center for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research. This confirms the possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier to transport large amounts of hydrogen over long distances. (2020-08-19)

Researchers identify human influence as key agent of ocean warming patterns in the future
Scientists from the Department of Physics at Oxford University have discovered that the influence of circulation changes on shaping ocean warming will diminish in the future. This is despite having been identified and modelled as a key factor over the past 60 years. (2020-08-12)

Warming threat to tropical forests risks release of carbon from soil
Billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide risk being lost into the atmosphere due to tropical forest soils being significantly more sensitive to climate change than previously thought. (2020-08-12)

Studies shed new light on how biodiversity influences plant decay
Scientists have provided new insights on the relationship between plant diversity in forests and the diversity of organisms involved in their decay, such as bacteria and fungi. (2020-08-04)

Novel theory of climate dynamics: Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation
Due to the lack of a complete theoretical system for climate prediction, the forecasting of drought and flood in summer of China has always been a major scientific problem for meteorologists. A recent study has made up for this very shortage and has offered new opportunities in improving the prediction accuracy of major climate events in China and even in the world. This work was published in SCIENCE CHINA: Earth Sciences. (2020-07-23)

Plant roots increase carbon emission from permafrost soils
A key uncertainty in climate projections is the amount of carbon emitted by thawing permafrost in the Arctic. Plant roots in soil stimulate microbial decomposition, a mechanism called the priming effect. An international research team co-lead by Frida Keuper from INRAE and Umeå University and Birgit Wild from Stockholm University shows that the priming effect alone can cause emission of 40 billion tonnes carbon from permafrost by 2100. The study was published today in Nature Geoscience. (2020-07-20)

Arctic plants may not provide predicted carbon sequestration potential
The environmental benefits of taller, shrubbier tundra plants in the Arctic may be overstated, according to new research involving the University of Stirling. (2020-07-02)

Hydrated eutectic electrolytes help improve performance of aqueous zn batteries
A research team led by Prof. CUI Guanglei from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has proposed a new class of aqueous electrolytes, called hydrated eutectic electrolytes, to ensure better performance of aqueous Zn batteries. (2020-07-01)

A continental-scale prediction on the functional diversity of stream microbes
Climate mediates continental scale patterns of stream microbial functional diversity. (2020-06-15)

Nitrogen in permafrost soils may exert great feedbacks on climate change
A new Sino-German scientific collaboration investigating nitrogen in the soils of China's melting permafrost aims to get to the bottom of why emissions of nitrous oxide -- an often overlooked greenhouse gas -- are greater than they are supposed to be. (2020-06-12)

New findings help design highly efficient metal oxide catalyst for ozone removal
A research team led by Prof. CHEN Yunfa from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences demonstrated the electron generation, compensation and transfer between ZnO and O3 through tuning crystal defects in ZnO. The findings may help design and synthesize highly efficient metal oxide catalytic materials for air cleaning. (2020-06-11)

Novel computer-assisted chemical synthesis method cuts research time and cost
Hokkaido University scientists have succeeded in synthesizing an α,α-difluoroglycine derivative, a type of α-amino acid, based on a reaction path predicted by quantum chemical calculations. This novel method, combining experimental chemistry and computational chemistry, could innovate the development of new chemical reactions. (2020-06-08)

Tillage and cover cropping effects on grain production
Soybean yields decreased when planted after cereal rye. (2020-06-04)

Solving the mysteries of water and air underground
The mysterious capillary fringe has huge effects on the soil, and new research tells us how it works. (2020-06-03)

Skoltech scientists get a sneak peek of a key process in battery 'life'
Researchers from the Skoltech Center for Energy Science and Technology (CEST) visualized the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on battery-grade carbonaceous electrode materials using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). This will help researchers design and build batteries with higher performance and durability. (2020-05-27)

Next-generation solar cells pass strict international tests
A cost-effective method to stabilise perovskite solar cells could soon see them become commercially viable. (2020-05-21)

How does an increase in nitrogen application affect grasslands?
The 'PaNDiv' experiment, established by researchers of the University of Bern on a 3000 m2 field site, is the largest biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiment in Switzerland and aims to better understand how increases in nitrogen affect grasslands. The first article from this experiment has just been published in the scientific journal Functional Ecology after more than four years of work. (2020-05-19)

Water loss in northern peatlands threatens to intensify fires, global warming
A group of 59 international scientists, led by researchers at Canada's McMaster University, has uncovered new information about the distinct effects of climate change on boreal forests and peatlands, which threaten to worsen wildfires and accelerate global warming. (2020-05-11)

Breaking down wood decomposition by fungi
Through a combination of lab and field experiments, researchers have developed a better understanding of the factors accounting for different wood decomposition rates among fungi. The new findings reveal how an understanding of fungal trait variation can improve the predictive ability of early and mid-stage wood decay, a critical driver of the global carbon cycle. (2020-05-11)

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