Current Diffraction Patterns News and Events

Current Diffraction Patterns News and Events, Diffraction Patterns News Articles.
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Researchers grow artificial hairs with clever physics trick
Things just got hairy at Princeton. Researchers found they could coat a liquid elastic on the outside of a disc and spin it to form useful, complex patterns. When spun just right, tiny spindles rise from the material as it cures. The spindles grow as the disc accelerates, forming a soft solid that resembles hairs. Published in PNAS Feb. 22 (2021-02-22)

New crystalline ice form
Three years ago, chemists at the University of Innsbruck found evidence for the existence of a new variety of ice. Until then, 18 types of crystalline ice were known. The team led by Thomas Loerting now reports in Nature Communications on the elucidation of the crystal structure of ice XIX using neutron diffraction. (2021-02-18)

Ultraviolet 'television' for animals helps us better understand them
University of Queensland scientists have developed an ultraviolet 'television' display designed to help researchers better understand how animals see the world. (2021-02-18)

Salk team reveals never-before-seen antibody binding, informing liver cancer, antibody design
In structural biology, some molecules are so unusual they can only be captured with a unique set of tools. That's precisely how a team led by Salk scientists defined how antibodies can recognize a compound called phosphohistidine--a highly unstable molecule that has been found to play a central role in some forms of cancer. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on February 5. (2021-02-17)

Cells use concentration gradients as a compass
Biophysicists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munch have developed a new theory, which accounts for the observation that cells can perceive their own shapes, and use this information to direct the distribution of proteins inside the cell. (2021-02-16)

How comparable different stress tests are
Scientists use many different tests to investigate what happens in the brain in people experiencing stress. It is unclear to what extent the various methods with which subjects are placed under stress are comparable to each other. In a meta-analysis, researchers compared 31 previous studies that had investigated stress using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The team worked out which regions of the brain are activated as standard during stress and which stress tests trigger similar activation patterns. (2021-02-12)

AI researchers ask: What's going on inside the black box?
Brain-like artificial networks are often referred to as a ''black box'' because researchers do not know how they learn and make predictions. Researchers at CSHL reported a way to peek inside the box and identify key features on which the computer relies, particularly when trying to identify complex DNA sequences. (2021-02-08)

Trapping gases better with boron nitride "nanopores"
Porous activated carbon (AC) is well-known for its ability to efficiently trap gases and help in catalyzing chemical reactions on its surface. Lately, boron nitride (BN), with a structure similar to that of carbon, has emerged as an attractive alternative to carbon. Now, in a new study, scientists from Japan reveal superior gas confinement in porous BN compared with that of AC, thereby unveiling a novel material to take high-performance adsorption to the next level. (2021-02-05)

Smartwatch sensors enable remote monitoring & treatment guidance for Parkinson's patients
Scientists have developed a monitoring system based on commercial smartwatches that can detect movement issues and tremors in patients with Parkinson's disease. (2021-02-03)

Synthetic biology reinvents development
The research team have used synthetic biology to develop a new type of genetic design that can reproduce some of the key processes that enable creating structures in natural systems, from termite nests to the development of embryos. (2021-02-01)

Improvements to holographic displays poised to enhance virtual and augmented reality
Researchers have developed a new approach that improves the image quality and contrast for holographic displays. The new technology could help improve near-eye displays used for virtual and augmented reality applications. (2021-01-28)

Ba7Nb4MoO20-based materials with high oxygen-ion conductivity opening sustainable future
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology , Imperial and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) Institute of Materials Structure Science, discover new Ba7Nb4MoO20-based materials with high oxygen-ion (oxide-ion O2-) conductivities--''the hexagonal perovskite-related oxides''--and shed light on the underlying mechanisms responsible for their conductivity. Their findings lead the way to uncovering other similar materials, furthering research on developing low-cost and scalable renewable energy technologies. (2021-01-25)

Biomarkers in mother's plasma predict a type of autism in offspring with 100% accuracy
UC Davis MIND Institute researchers used machine learning to crunch 10,000 autoantibody pattern combinations to identify maternal biomarkers associated with a sub-type of autism. The findings have implications for early diagnosis and intervention. (2021-01-25)

A method for calculating optimal parameters of liquid chrystal displays developed at RUDN University
A professor from RUDN University together with his colleagues from Saratov Chernyshevsky State University and D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia developed a method for calculating the parameters of diffraction optical elements used in LCDs. In particular, the new technology can be used to expand the angle of view while preserving high resolution and color rendition. (2021-01-22)

A professor from RUDN University developed new liquid crystals
A professor from RUDN University together with his Indian colleagues synthesized and studied new dibenzophenazine-based liquid crystals that could potentially be used in optoelectronics and solar panels. (2021-01-22)

Early breeding reduced harmful mutations in sorghum
A new Cornell University study found that harmful mutations in sorghum landraces - early domesticated crops - decreased compared to their wild relatives through the course of domestication and breeding. (2021-01-20)

Bio-inspired: How lobsters can help make stronger 3D printed concrete
New research addresses some of the technical issues that still need to be solved for 3D printed concrete to be strong enough for use in more free-form structures. Researchers found lobster-inspired printing patterns can make 3DCP stronger and help direct the strength where it's needed. And combining the patterns with a concrete mix enhanced with steel fibres can deliver a material that's stronger than traditionally-made concrete. (2021-01-19)

Eating habits partly down to your genetics, finds new study
Your food intake patterns are partly under genetic control, according to the latest research from researchers at King's College London, published today in the journal Twin Research and Human Genetics. (2021-01-19)

Zebra stripes, leopard spots: frozen metal patterns defy conventional metallurgy
''Stripy zebra, spotty leopard...'' Pattern formation and pattern recognition entertains children and scientists alike. Alan Turing's 1950s model explaining patterns in two-substance systems is used by metallurgists to explain microscopic internal stripes and spots. A study out today explains exotic patterns, counter to Turing's theory, forming on the liquid metal gallium, which melts in the hand. The previously ignored surface-solidification phenomenon improves fundamental understanding of liquid-metal alloys, with a potential patterning tool, and advanced applications in future electronics and optics. (2021-01-18)

Dual-shot dynamics and ultimate frequency of all-optical magnetic recording on GdFeCo
Achieving ultrafast and energy-efficient optical control of magnetism beyond light's 'diffraction limit' could revolutionize information-processing technology. Towards this goal, researchers led by Xiangping Li at Jinan University and Alexey V. Kimel at Radboud University have determined the fastest possible rate of the optical reversal of magnetization of up to 3?GHz, and proposed a method to achieve data recording at scales below light's 'diffraction limit', which is generally believed to restrict the attainable resolution. (2021-01-14)

Scientists find antibody that blocks dengue virus
The research team used the Advanced Photon Source to confirm an effective antibody that prevents the dengue virus from infecting cells in mice, and may lead to treatments for this and similar diseases. (2021-01-13)

The odd structure of ORF8: Mapping the coronavirus protein linked to disease severity
A team of biologists who banded together to support COVID-19 science determined the atomic structure of a coronavirus protein thought to help the pathogen evade and dampen response from human immune cells. The structural map - which is now published in the journal PNAS, but has been open-access for the scientific community since August - has laid the groundwork for new antiviral treatments and enabled further investigations into how the newly emerged virus ravages the human body. (2021-01-12)

New study examines medical practice patterns over time
Variations in medical practice can have serious consequences for the quality, equity and cost of one's health care; however, it's unclear whether these disparities can be attributed to individual differences, from one doctor to another or to changes in your doctor's individual practice over time, perhaps in response to shifts in clinical guidelines or advancements in diagnostic technologists. (2021-01-12)

Researchers speed up analysis of Arctic ice and snow data through AI
Professors at University of Maryland, Baltimore County have developed an artificial intelligence technique to quickly analyze newly collected data based on Arctic ice and snow thickness. Researchers previously analyzed these data manually; this AI will assist them by automating how they detect and analyze patterns in the thickness of the ice. Climate change necessitates a rapid understanding of new developments in the Arctic ice, and this tool provides a faster solution. (2021-01-12)

Imagining a face reactivates face-detecting neurons in humans
Face-sensitive neurons in humans employ distinct activity patterns to encode individual faces; those patterns reactivate when imagining the face, according to research recently published in JNeurosci. (2021-01-11)

Will global warming bring a change in the winds? Dust from the deep sea provides a clue
In a new paper published in Nature, climate researchers from Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory describe a new method of tracking the ancient history of the westerly winds--a proxy for what we may experience in a future warming world. (2021-01-06)

Old silicon learns new tricks
Researchers from Nara Institute of Science and Technology fabricated regular arrays of iron-coated silicon crystals that are atomically smooth. The defect-free pyramidal composition of the crystals impart magnetic properties that will enhance the functionality of 3D spintronics and other technologies. (2021-01-06)

Using wearable activity trackers to distinguish COVID-19 from flu
By analyzing Fitbit data and self-reported symptoms, researchers distinguished trends in heart rate, step count, and symptom duration between patients with flu and those with COVID-19. While both showed similar-looking spikes in resting heart rate and decreases in average step count, COVID-19 symptoms lasted longer and peaked later. The results appear December 12 in the journal Patterns. (2020-12-21)

Seeking answers in ferroelectric patterning
Why do some ferroelectric materials display 'bubble'-shaped patterning, while others display complex, labyrinthine patterns? A FLEET/UNSW study finds the changing patterns in ferroelectric films are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics, with topological defects driving subsequent evolution. Understanding the physics behind ferroelectric material patterns is crucial for designing advanced low-energy ferroelectric electronics, or brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. (2020-12-18)

Change in global precipitation patterns as a result of climate change
The Earth's climate system is largely determined by the differences in temperature between the tropics and the poles. Global warming is likely to cause global atmospheric circulation to change and progressively revert to a situation similar to that of 5,000 to 10,000 years ago. This is the conclusion of a study published in Nature Communications. (2020-12-17)

Fast walking in narrow corridors can increase COVID-19 transmission risk
Simulations have been used to predict droplet dispersal patterns in situations where COVID-19 might be spread and results in Physics of Fluids show the importance of the space shape in modeling how droplets move. The simulations are used to determine flow patterns behind a walking individual in spaces of different shape. The results reveal a higher transmission risk for children in some instances, such as behind quickly moving people in a long narrow hallway. (2020-12-15)

Not so fast!: controlling the speed of light bullets
Researchers from Osaka University accurately and arbitrarily control flying velocities of light bullets, offering new opportunities for optical and physical applications. (2020-12-14)

Oregon researchers find that like adults, children by age 3 prefer seeing fractal patterns
By the time children are 3 years old they already have an adult-like preference for visual fractal patterns commonly seen in nature, according to University of Oregon researchers. (2020-12-11)

Natural three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal
Nonlinear photonic crystals are playing a prominent role in laser and nonlinear optics. Here, Scientists in China presented a natural potassium-tantalate-niobate (KTN) nonlinear photonic crystal with 3D Rubik's domain structures. The composite rotated domains could be useful for different phase-matching conditions with rich reciprocal vectors along arbitrary direction. KTN crystal breaks strict requirements for incident light and crystal direction in nonlinear optics and trigger newfangled optoelectronic applications for perovskite ferroelectrics. (2020-12-02)

Parents shouldn't worry about their baby's inconsistent sleep patterns
New parents often expect their baby to start sleeping through the night around the time they reach six months of age. But according to a new study led by McGill Professor Marie-Helene Pennestri, parents should view sleep consolidation as a process, instead of a milestone to be achieved at a specific age. (2020-12-02)

The making of mysterious mazes: how animals got their complex colorations
A researcher at Osaka University uncovered a simple mechanism underlying the intricate skin patterns of animals through comprehensive analyses of the diversity of fish colorations. (2020-12-02)

Nanoscopic barcodes set a new science limit
The University of Technology Sydney (UTS) led collaboration developed a nanocrystal growth method that controls the growth direction, producing programmable atomic thin layers, arbitrary barcoded nanorods, with morphology uniformity. The result is millions of different kinds of nanobarcodes that can form a 'library' for future nanoscale sensing applications. (2020-11-30)

Using a soft crystal to visualize how absorbed carbon dioxide behaves in liquid
A team of scientists has succeeded in visualizing how carbon dioxide (CO2) behaves in an ionic liquid that selectively absorbs CO2. The finding is expected to help develop more efficient methods to capture CO2 in the atmosphere, one of the major factors causing global warming. (2020-11-25)

Scientists determine the structure of glass-shaping protein in sponges
Researchers from TU Dresden and the Swiss Light Source at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland are the first to determine the three dimensional (3D) structure of a protein responsible for glass formation in sponges. They explain how the earliest and, in fact, the only known natural protein-mineral crystal is formed. The results were published in the journal PNAS. (2020-11-25)

Shining a light on nanoscale dynamics
Watching metamaterials at work in real time using ultrafast electron diffraction: a research team led by University of Konstanz physicist Peter Baum succeeds in using ultrashort electron pulses to measure light-matter interactions in nanophotonic materials and metamaterials. (2020-11-24)

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