Current Ecosystems News and Events

Current Ecosystems News and Events, Ecosystems News Articles.
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Mangroves threatened by plastic pollution from rivers, new study finds
Mangrove ecosystems are at particular risk of being polluted by plastic carried from rivers to the sea. Fifty-four per cent of mangrove habitat is within 20 km of a river that discharges more than a tonne of plastic waste a year into the ocean, according to a new paper published in the journal Science of the Total Environment. Mangroves in southeast Asia are especially threatened by river-borne plastic pollution, the researchers found. (2021-01-26)

Invasive mussels now control a key nutrient in the American Great Lakes
The spread of quagga mussels across the American Great Lakes has transformed the supply of phosphorus - a key biological nutrient - to the ecosystem, according to research published this week in PNAS. (2021-01-26)

Climate change increases coastal blue carbon sequestration
Coastal wetlands are important ecosystems, especially in mitigating climate change. Prof. Faming Wang from South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Prof. Sanders from Southern Cross University,Australia worked together with several colleagues around the globe to examine coastal blue carbon burial rates. They showed that climate change will increase the carbon sequestration capacity of these systems around the world during this century. (2021-01-25)

Fish sex organs boosted under high-CO2
Research from Australia has found that some species of fish will have higher reproductive capacity because of larger sex organs, under the more acidic oceans of the future. (2021-01-21)

New management approach can help avoid species vulnerability or extinction
Research focuses on transient nature of species' and ecosystem stability; illustrates how prepare for possible flips. (2021-01-18)

New classification marks paradigm shift in how conservationists tackle climate change
A new study co-authored by researchers from the Wildlife Conservation Society's (WCS) Global Conservation Program and the University of British Columbia (UBC) Faculty of Forestry introduces a classification called Resistance-Resilience-Transformation (RRT) that enables the assessment of whether and to what extent a management shift toward transformative action is occurring in conservation. (2021-01-14)

Earth to reach temperature tipping point in next 20 to 30 years, new NAU study finds
Postdoc Katharyn Duffy led an international team that looked at 20 years of data from throughout the world and found that record-breaking temperatures are contributing to a significant decrease in plants' ability to absorb human-caused carbon emissions. (2021-01-13)

Earth's terrestrial ecosystems may transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources within decades
Rising temperatures could trigger Earth's terrestrial ecosystems to transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources in the next 20 to 30 years, according to data from the world's largest continuous carbon monitoring network. The researchers suggest that up to half of land ecosystems could reach this tipping point - when plants begin to release carbon into the atmosphere. (2021-01-13)

Future too warm for baby sharks
As climate change causes the world's oceans to warm, baby sharks are born smaller, exhausted, undernourished and into environments that are already difficult for them to survive in. (2021-01-12)

Climate change caused mangrove collapse in Oman
Most of the mangrove forests on the coasts of Oman disappeared about 6,000 years ago. Until now, the reason for this was not entirely clear. A current study now sheds light on this: It indicates that the collapse of coastal ecosystems was caused by climatic changes. The results are published in the journal Quaternary Research. (2021-01-05)

Coastal ecosystems 'bright spots'
CSIRO, Australia's national science agency, has identified coastal 'bright spots' to repair marine ecosystems globally, paving the way to boost biodiversity, local economies and human wellbeing. (2020-12-21)

Land ecosystems are becoming less efficient at absorbing CO2
Land ecosystems currently play a key role in mitigating climate change. The more carbon dioxide (CO2) plants and trees absorb during photosynthesis, the process they use to make food, the less CO2 remains trapped in the atmosphere where it can cause temperatures to rise. But scientists have identified an unsettling trend - as levels of CO2 in the atmosphere increase, 86 percent of land ecosystems globally are becoming progressively less efficient at absorbing it. (2020-12-18)

How climate change is disrupting ecosystems
When it gets warmer, organisms rise higher from the lowlands. Swiss Researchers investigated what could happen to plant communities on alpine grasslands if grasshoppers from lower elevations settled there. (2020-12-17)

Fishing alters fish behaviour and features in exploited ecosystems
Not all specimens of the same species are the same: there is a marked variability within the same population and sometimes these morphological differences are translated into a different behaviour. (2020-12-16)

When dinosaurs disappeared, forests thrived
To understand how specific ecosystems were affected by the meteorite impact that led to the mass extinction of dinosaurs, a team of McGill scientists has analyzed the microscopic remains of plants from this period. They found that local plant communities and ecosystems experienced a long-term shift towards fewer aquatic plants and an increase in terrestrial plants, including trees such as birches and elms. Changes in rainfall patterns during the extinction event were relatively minor and short-lived. (2020-12-16)

Biologists clarify how three species of cephalopods coexist in the Arctic
By analyzing the content of stable heavy isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in the beaks, the researchers studied three closely related cephalopod species: the highly boreal Rossia megaptera, the wide-boreal-Arctic Rossia palpebrosa, and the Arctic endemic Rossia moelleri, which are sympatric in the Arctic. (2020-12-15)

Silica the best environmental alternative to plastic microbeads, finds study
Following bans on plastic microbeads in wash-off cosmetics, a new study weighs up the environmental costs of alternatives. (2020-12-14)

Mapping corals from the sky guides reef conservation
Using a new airborne mapping approach developed by researchers at Arizona State University's Center for Global Discovery and Conservation Science (GDCS), the geographic distribution of live corals was, for the first time, quantified to 16 meters (51 feet) of water depth across the main Hawaiian islands. (2020-12-14)

Artificial intelligence helps scientists develop new general models in ecology
The automation of scientific discoveries is here to stay. Among others, a machine-human cooperation found a hitherto unknown general model explaining the relation between the area and age of an island and the number of species it hosts. (2020-12-11)

Low oxygen levels in lakes and reservoirs may accelerate global change
Ultimately, this study is crucial for how researchers, and the general public, think about how freshwater ecosystems produce greenhouse gases in the future. With low oxygen concentrations increasing in lakes and reservoirs across the world, these ecosystems will produce higher concentrations of methane in the future, leading to more global warming. (2020-12-10)

Nature conservation requires more dynamic approach to weather impacts of climate change
A new hard-hitting paper, titled ''Post-2020 biodiversity targets need to embrace climate change'' argues that nature conservation strategies need to become more flexible and dynamic in how it addresses the impact of climate change on natural habitats, genetic resources of plants, the composition of species, and the functioning of ecosystems. If not, any apparent short-term gains in reversing biodiversity loss could be lost in the decades to follow, due to climate change. (2020-12-09)

Nature s contributions to people found to be in decline
Over the past 50 years, declining biodiversity has put many of nature s contributions to people at risk. This is the conclusion reached by fifteen leading international experts, including a French ethnoecologist at the CNRS. Based on the IPBES Global Assessment, their work is the subject of an article, published this week in the journal PNAS, which discusses the risks to human well-being and prosperity resulting from the continuing degradation of the environment. (2020-12-09)

UBCO researchers suggest stool transplants can battle serious infections
Could number two be number one when it comes to combating recurrent Clostridium difficile (CDI) infections? Using genetic material analysis and machine learning, UBC researchers have pinpointed several key factors to ensure successful fecal microbiota transplants (FMT), which have proven successful in treating bacterial infections in the gut including illnesses like C. difficile, Crohn's Disease, Colitis and even obesity, explains lead author Negin Kazemian. (2020-12-09)

How soil fungi respond to wildfire
When wildfires swept through the North Bay in 2017, graduate student Gabriel Smith saw a unique opportunity to study how fire affected his research subject: soil fungi. (2020-12-09)

Colorado mountains bouncing back from 'acid rain' impacts
Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains is slowly recovering from increased acidity caused by vehicle emissions in Colorado's Front Range, suggesting that alpine regions across the Mountain West may be recovering. This is good news for the wildlife and wildflowers of Rocky Mountain National Park and for water sources that supply the Front Range and the Mountain West. (2020-12-08)

No refuge from the heat
Over the past several decades, marine protected areas (MPAs) have emerged as a favored conservation tool. By protecting marine species and safeguarding habitat, these reserves help buffer ecosystems against natural and human-made shocks alike. (2020-12-07)

Tree rings provide evidence for climate regime shifts
Researchers at the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have given an overview on using tree rings to identify climate regime shifts in a perspective paper, they provided background in the field and discussed its advances. They also referenced a paper reporting a recent climate regime shift to a hotter and drier climate over inner East Asia. (2020-11-30)

Study reveals unintended impact of conversation policies
New research involving the University of East Anglia (UEA) shows how conservation polices can avoid having unintended consequences for local ecosystems and people. The research, conducted by scientists at the Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions (COS) and University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, with partners in Palau and economists in Italy and the UK, shows that the PNMS policies which restrict industrial offshore fishing could drive up offshore fish prices and, in turn, increase tourists' consumption of reef fish. (2020-11-30)

Satellite images confirm uneven impact of climate change
University of Copenhagen researchers have been following vegetation trends across the planet's driest areas using satellite imagery from recent decades. They have identified a troubling trend: Too little vegetation is sprouting up from rainwater in developing nations, whereas things are headed in the opposite direction in wealthier ones. As a result, the future could see food shortages and growing numbers of climate refugees. (2020-11-26)

Community conservation reserves protect fish diversity in tropical rivers
A collaboration between researchers from Cornell University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison has found that small, community-based reserves in Thailand's Salween River Basin are serving as critical refuges for fish diversity in a region whose subsistence fisheries have suffered from decades of overharvesting. (2020-11-25)

Changes in fire activity are threatening more than 4,400 species globally
More than 4,400 species across the globe are at risk from extinction because of changes in fire activity says a new paper involving 27 international researchers. (2020-11-23)

WSU scientists discover new, simple way to classify marine biomes
Washington State University scientists have developed a new way to classify the ocean's diverse environments, shedding new light on how marine biomes are defined and changed by nature and humans. (2020-11-20)

Giant aquatic bacterium is a master of adaptation
The largest freshwater bacterium, Achromatium oxaliferum, is highly flexible in its requirements, as researchers led by the IGB have now discovered: It lives in places that differ extremely in environmental conditions such as hot springs and ice water. The adaptation is probably achieved by a process which is unique to these bacteria: only relevant genes are enriched in the genomes and transcribed, while others are archived in cell compartments. (2020-11-19)

New effective and safe antifungal isolated from sea squirt microbiome
By combing the ocean for antimicrobials, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have discovered a new antifungal compound that efficiently targets multi-drug-resistant strains of deadly fungi without toxic side effects in mice. (2020-11-19)

A sweeping climate model of the Red Sea
An all-inclusive climate model for the entire Red Sea region is supporting Saudi Arabia's plans for a sustainable future. (2020-11-16)

Wolves alter wetland creation and recolonization by killing ecosystem engineers
Researchers observed and demonstrated that wolves affect wetland ecosystems by killing beavers leaving their colonies to create new ponds. (2020-11-13)

New research identifies 'triple trouble' for mangrove coasts
Some of the world's most valuable ecosystems are facing a ''triple threat'' to their long-term durability and survival, new research shows. (2020-11-10)

RUDN University soil scientist: Deforestation affects the bacterial composition of the soil
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied the effect of forest conversion on the properties of the soil: its acidity, carbon and nitrogen resources, bacterial composition, and the activity of microorganisms. The study can help improve the methods of soil cultivation after deforestation, namely, select the best fertilizers, prevent erosion, slow down nutrient depletion, and balance the composition of the bacterial community. (2020-11-09)

Drones that patrol forests could monitor environmental and ecological changes
Imperial researchers have created drones that can attach sensors to trees to monitor environmental and ecological changes in forests. (2020-11-03)

UNH research: Longer mud season, no snow could alter northeast rivers by 2100
University of New Hampshire has found that snow cover is on the decline in northeastern US due to climate change and by the end of century, the vernal window, sometimes referred to as mud season, could be two to four weeks longer which means significantly less melting snow that could be detrimental to key spring conditions in rivers and surrounding ecosystems. (2020-11-02)

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