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Yin and Yang: Two signaling molecules control growth and behavior in bacteria
Bacteria are considered to be true experts in survival. Their rapid adaptive response to changing environmental conditions is based, among other things, on two competing signaling molecules. As the 'Yin and Yang' of metabolic control they decide on the lifestyle of bacteria, as reported by researchers from the University of Basel. The new findings also play a role in the context of bacterial infections. (2020-11-09)

Plastics and rising CO2 levels could pose combined threat to marine environment
An international team of scientists found that after three weeks of being submerged in the ocean, the bacterial diversity on plastic bottles was twice as great as on samples collected from the surrounding seawater (2020-11-06)

Tel Aviv University says 'environmentally-friendly' tableware harms marine animals
A new Tel Aviv University study compares the effects of two types of disposable dishes on the marine environment -- regular plastic disposable dishes and more expensive bioplastic disposable dishes certified by various international organizations -- and determines that the bioplastic dishes had a similar effect on marine animals as regular plastic dishes. (2020-11-04)

Tracking flight trajectory of evaporating cough droplets
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led many to study airborne droplet transmission in different conditions and environments, and in Physics of Fluids, researchers from A*STAR conducted a numerical study on droplet dispersion using high fidelity air flow simulation. The scientists found a single 100-micrometer cough droplet under wind speed of 2 meters per second can travel up to 6.6 meters and even further under dry air conditions due to droplet evaporation. (2020-11-03)

Cauliflower coral genome sequenced
A newly sequenced coral genome offers tools to understand environmental adaptation. (2020-10-27)

Promising strategies for durable perovskite solar cells
Perovskite materials are increasingly popular as the active layer in solar cells, but internal forces in these materials cause distortions in their crystal structures, reducing symmetry and contributing to their intrinsic instability. Researchers at Soochow University examined the mechanisms at play, as well as several degradation factors that influence the performance of perovskite photovoltaics. In APL Materials, they clarified the factors influencing the degradation and they summarized some feasible approaches for durable perovskite photovoltaics. (2020-10-27)

A molecular break for root growth
The dynamic change in root growth of plants plays an important role in their adjustment to soil conditions. Depending on the location, nutrients or moisture can be found in higher or lower soil layers. This is why, depending on the situation, a short or a long root is advantageous. Caroline Gutjahr, Professor of Plant Genetics at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), and her team investigate how plant hormones influence the growth of roots. (2020-10-26)

Stanford researchers reveal US corn crop's growing sensitivity to drought
New management approaches and technology have allowed the US. Corn Belt to increase yields despite some changes in climate. However, soil sensitivity to drought has increased significantly, according to a new study that could help identify ways to reverse the trend. WATCH RELATED VIDEO: https://bit.ly/35rFgJ5 (2020-10-26)

Does classroom indoor environmental quality affect teaching and learning?
What impact does a classroom's indoor environment have on teaching, learning, and students' academic achievement in colleges and universities? This is the question researchers set out to answer in their analysis of all relevant published studies. (2020-10-21)

Removal of synthetic estrogen from water
Synthetic estrogens from pharmaceuticals contaminate rivers and threaten the health of humans and fish. An effective and cost-efficient method for removing synthetic estrogen from bodies of water (2020-10-20)

Trees prefer the big city life
A new study examines how trees respond to different urban intensities by comparing tree size and age, foliage nitrogen signature, nutrient and heavy metal content and other factors in forests in Newark, Del., and Philadelphia, Pa. Not only were the trees acclimated to urban conditions in the higher density Philadelphia forests, but the red maples there were actually healthier and more productive compared to those surrounded by less urbanization in Newark. (2020-10-16)

Phosphate polymer forms a cornerstone of metabolic control
In a changing climate, understanding how organisms respond to stress conditions is increasingly important. New work could enable scientists to engineer the metabolism of organisms to be more resilient and productive in a range of environments. Their research focuses on polyphosphate, an energy-rich polymer of tens to hundreds phosphate groups which is conserved in all kingdoms of life and is integral to many cellular activities, including an organism's ability to respond to changing environmental conditions. (2020-10-15)

Modern humans took detours on their way to Europe
Climate conditions shaped the geography of settlement by Homo sapiens in the Levant 43,000 years ago / findings of Collaborative Research Centre 806 'Our Way to Europe' published in 'PLOS ONE' (2020-10-14)

Watching nature on TV can boost wellbeing, finds new study
Watching high quality nature programmes on TV can uplift people's moods, reduce negative emotions, and help alleviate the kind of boredom associated with being isolated indoors. (2020-10-13)

Predicting sports performance with "big data"
Smartphones and wearable devices are not simple accessories for athletes. A CNRS researcher has developed a simple mathematical model for studying the performance of endurance athletes. A recent collaboration with a scientist from the Polar Electro Oy company (Finland) made it possible to apply the model to data gathered from approximately 14,000 runners training in real conditions. (2020-10-06)

Climate: Iodic acid influences cloud formation at the North Pole
An international team of scientists from EPFL, the Paul Scherrer Institute and Stockholm University has identified a novel driver of new aerosol particle formation in the Arctic during the summer to fall transition. The authors show that iodic acid is important for forming new particles which subsequently influence the formation of clouds and their radiative effect over the Arctic pack ice. (2020-10-01)

Texas A&M study: Marine heatwaves can strengthen hurricanes
Oceanographers have found that a hurricane can be considerably strengthened in the Gulf of Mexico through the compounding effects of two extreme weather events. This process could continue in the future as ocean temperatures continue to rise around the world, according to a study co-authored by a Texas A&M University at Galveston professor. (2020-09-30)

Tracking shape changes in amazon fish after major river is dammed
A team of biologists led by Craig Albertson and Ph.D. student Chaise Gilbert at the University of Massachusetts Amherst report this week on their comparison between museum collections of cichlid fishes collected before a dam was closed in 1984 on the Tocantins River in the Amazon and contemporary specimens taken from the Tucuruí Reservoir by fishermen 34 years later. (2020-09-24)

A fresh sense of possibility
A multisensory graphene-based skin can sense in extreme environments where other sensors cannot be used. (2020-09-22)

Biodiversity hypothesis called into question
How can we explain the fact that no single species predominates? A generally accepted hypothesis is that a trade-off exists between organisms able to acquire and consume more food than other when resources are scarce, and organisms which rapidly consume large quantities of food when they are in abundance. However, when scientists from the University of Geneva and the Technical University of Denmark analysed over 500 species, biodiversity cannot be explained with such a trade-off. (2020-09-21)

Turbulence affects aerosols and cloud formation
Turbulent air in the atmosphere affects how cloud droplets form. New research from Michigan Technological University's cloud chamber changes the way clouds, and therefore climate, are modeled. (2020-09-16)

Better communication helps translate molecular tools
Multi-stakeholder collaboration is key for the adoption of molecular approaches that can facilitate accurate, cheaper and faster monitoring of marine ecosystems. (2020-09-16)

Chimpanzees show greater behavioural and cultural diversity in more variable environments
An international team led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) has investigated the influence of environmental variability on the behavioural repertoires of 144 social groups. The scientists found that chimpanzees living further away from historical forest refugia, under more seasonal conditions, and found in savannah woodland rather than closed forested habitats, were more likely to exhibit a larger set of behaviours. (2020-09-15)

Climate change triggers migration - particularly in middle-income countries
Environmental hazards affect populations worldwide and can drive migration under specific conditions. Changes in temperature levels, increased rainfall variability, and rapid-onset disasters, such as tropical storms, are important factors as shown by a new study led by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Environmental migration is most pronounced in middle-income and agricultural countries but weaker in low-income countries, where populations often lack resources needed for migration. (2020-09-14)

Autistic adults have a higher rate of physical health conditions
Autistic individuals are more likely to have chronic physical health conditions, particularly heart, lung, and diabetic conditions, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Cambridge. The results are published in the journal Autism. (2020-09-10)

Viruses could be harder to kill after adapting to warm environments
Enteroviruses and other pathogenic viruses that make their way into surface waters can be inactivated by heat, sunshine and other microbes, thereby reducing their ability to spread disease. But researchers report in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology that global warming could cause viruses to evolve, rendering them less susceptible to these and other disinfectants, such as chlorine. (2020-09-02)

Asphalt adds to air pollution, especially on hot, sunny days
Asphalt is a near-ubiquitous substance -- it's found in roads, on roofs and in driveways -- but its chemical emissions rarely figure into urban air quality management plans. A new study finds that asphalt is a significant source of air pollutants in urban areas, especially on hot and sunny days. (2020-09-02)

Researchers to investigate wind power effects on bats in the Baltic Sea region
Despite the increasing numbers of wind turbines, their impacts on the environment are poorly known. A new study published by researchers in Finland focuses on wind turbines in the Baltic Sea region and their impact on bats and their migration. (2020-08-24)

Premature delivery linked to heightened risk of early death for mothers
Preterm and early term delivery are independent risk factors for premature death in women up to 40 years later, finds a study from Sweden published by The BMJ today. (2020-08-19)

Environment drivers of ecological complexity in marine intertidal communities
Environmental conditions such as sea surface temperature and the occurrence of cold water upwelling events drive the structure of interaction networks in marine intertidal communities via their effects on species richness, according to new research. (2020-08-17)

Pregnant mother's immunity tied to behavioral, emotional challenges for kids with autism
Children with autism born to mothers who had immune conditions during their pregnancy are more likely to have behavioral and emotional problems, a UC Davis Health study has found. Offspring sex may also interact with maternal immune conditions to influence outcomes, particularly in terms of a child's cognition. (2020-08-14)

Bouncing, sticking, exploding viruses: Understanding the surface chemistry of SARS-CoV-2
Better understanding of the surface chemistry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is needed to reduce transmission and accelerate vaccine design. (2020-08-11)

Multi-species bacterial communities bounce back from environmental disturbances
Perturbations in the environment are common, and communities consisting of several species seem to find their way around the crisis. Species immigration is beneficial for community recovery. (2020-08-10)

How soft hair deforms the sharpest steel blades
Why do the edges of a steel razor dull from cutting far softer materials? (2020-08-06)

Between shark and ray: The evolutionary advantage of the sea angels
Angel sharks are sharks, but with their peculiarly flat body they rather resemble rays. An international research team led by Faviel A. López-Romero and Jürgen Kriwet of the Institute of Palaeontology has now investigated the origin of this body shape. The results illustrate how these sharks evolved into highly specialised, exclusively bottom-dwelling ambush predators and thus also contribute to a better understanding of their threat from environmental changes. The study is published in the journal Scientific Reports. (2020-08-04)

Small trees offer hope for rainforests
Small trees that grow up in drought conditions could form the basis of more drought-resistant rainforests, new research suggests. (2020-08-04)

Monarchs raised in captivity may be worse at migrating than wild monarchs raised outdoors
New research provides clearer picture of the migration behavior of commercially and wild-derived monarchs and the effects of indoor rearing on ability to fly south. (2020-08-04)

Major climate initiative in the Northeastern US benefits children's health
A new study by researchers from the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health reports that the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) has been successful in reducing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and substantially improving children's health, both major co-benefits of this climate policy. These findings are published today in Environmental Health Perspectives (2020-07-29)

Adjusting planter parameters to match field conditions can maximize emergence and yield
Planter performance is a critical component when laying the foundation for a successful crop season. Environmental and soil conditions can significantly impact crop germination and emergence and help or hinder development of an adequate crop stand early in the season. Adjusting specific planter components and settings to match current field conditions can ensure maximized emergence and increase yield in most cases. (2020-07-29)

Population genetic screening shown to efficiently identify increased risk for inherited disease
In a new study published today in the journal Nature Medicine, researchers behind the Healthy Nevada Project® suggest that community-based genetic screening has the potential to efficiently identify individuals who may be at increased risk for three common inherited (CDC Tier 1) genetic conditions known to cause several forms of cancer and increased risk for heart disease or stroke. (2020-07-27)

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