Current Enzyme News and Events | Page 25

Current Enzyme News and Events, Enzyme News Articles.
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New understanding of enzymes could help to develop new drugs to treat diseases
University of Leicester researchers shed light on the role of inositol phosphate molecules in gene regulatory complexes. (2016-04-25)

Cpf1: CRISPR-enzyme scissors cutting both RNA and DNA
Scientists delineate molecular details of a new bacterial CRISPR-Cpf1 system and open possible avenue for alternative gene editing uses like targeting several genes in parallel. (2016-04-22)

New research shows how different strains of bed bugs resist insecticides
In a new paper published in the Journal of Economic Entomology, Australian scientists describe how bed bugs are able to resist pyrethroid insecticides via metabolic detoxification, the process by which bed bugs break down insecticides. (2016-04-21)

Discovery of enzyme in the sleeping sickness parasite streamlines drug development
Researchers from Umeå University in Sweden have discovered that the single-celled parasite causing African sleeping sickness has a defense mechanism against potential pharmaceuticals under development against the disease. The deadly parasite has an enzyme that can cleave and hence disarm adenosine analogue pharmaceuticals. This according to a study recently published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (2016-04-18)

Study provides structural basis for development of new antibioticsacific
Duke researchers have discovered a molecular structure that could aid the design of broad-spectrum antibiotics targeting an enzyme essential to every known strain of bacteria. They've mapped the structure of that enzyme, called MraY, as it is bound to the natural antibacterial muraymycin. The results show the enzyme changes it shape to reveal a hidden binding pocket, which muraymycin connects to like a two-pronged plug inserting into a socket. The study appears in in Nature. (2016-04-18)

Mothers' milk and the infant gut microbiota: An ancient symbiosis
Mothers' milk guides the development of neonates' gut microbiota, nourishing a very specific bacterial population that protects the child. Now a team from the University of California, Davis, has identified the compound in the milk that supplies this nourishment, and has shown that it can be obtained from cow's milk, which could result in using cow's milk being used as a prebiotic for infants. The research is published April 15th in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. (2016-04-15)

Protein-trapped sugar compounds nourish infant gut microbes
UC Davis researchers have shown that it is the sugar part of a sugar-protein compound found in both human and cow's milk that feeds the health-promoting microbes in babies' intestines. (2016-04-15)

Stop the growth: U-M researchers take aim at cancer metastasis
Most cancer drugs today work by attacking tumor growth. Researchers at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute, however, are taking aim at a different piece of the cancer puzzle -- preventing its ability to spread to new parts of the body, known as metastasis, which is the cause of most cancer deaths. (2016-04-14)

Chemical tracers reveal oxygen-dependent switch in cellular pathway to fat
Using tracer compounds, scientists have been able to track the cellular production of NADPH, a key coenzyme for making fat, through a pathway that has never been measured directly before. This method enabled the discovery of a novel switch in the way fat cells make NADPH depending on the presence of oxygen. (2016-04-14)

Newly identified cell explosions involved in bacterial secretion and adherence
A multinational research team led by the University of Technology Sydney, University of Tsukuba, and University of Zurich discovered an explosive cell lysis mechanism of bacteria controlled by a phage-related enzyme that releases cell-derived public goods and is activated by stress. The researchers found that explosive cell lysis also contributed to membrane vesicle formation, which helps determine bacterial virulence. These findings further help understanding of how bacteria control their environment and interact as communities. This could aid the development of growth inhibition techniques. (2016-04-14)

Slow-binding inhibition of cholinesterases: Pharmacological and toxicological relevance
Researchers of Kazan Federal University describe slow-binding inhibition of cholinesterases and present their pharmacological advantages over classical reversible inhibitors (e.g. long target-residence times, resulting in prolonged efficacy with minimal unwanted side effects), slow-binding inhibitors of ChEs are promising new drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia, and neuroprotection. (2016-04-13)

Scientists report on novel method for extending the life of implantable devices in situ
In a paper published in the April 13 issue of Nature Communications, investigators from Harvard report on a novel biochemical method that enables the rapid and repeated regeneration of selected molecular constituents in situ after device implantation, which has the potential to substantially extend the lifetime of bioactive films without the need for device removal. (2016-04-13)

Milestone reached on path to new form of male contraception
Researchers developing a new form of male contraception have isolated an enzyme they hope will allow them to stop sperm from swimming to the egg. (2016-04-12)

Primate evolution in the fast lane
The pace of evolution is typically measured in millions of years, as random, individual mutations accumulate over generations, but researchers at Cornell and Bar-Ilan Universities have uncovered a new mechanism for mutation in primates that is rapid, coordinated, and aggressive. The discovery raises questions about the accuracy of using the more typical mutation process as an estimate to date when two species diverged, as well as the extent to which this and related enzymes played a role in primate evolution. (2016-04-07)

Magnetic delivery of therapeutic enzymes paves the way for targeted thrombosis treatment
Researchers have fabricated a new magnetically controlled material composed of enzymes entrapped directly within magnetite particles. Combined with water, it forms a stable solution that can be used for safe intravenous injection for medical purposes, in particular, for targeted treatment of cancer and thrombosis. Previously, the synthesis of similar materials involved using additional components that impaired the magnetic response and enzymatic activity as well as created obstacles for intravenous injection into the human body. (2016-04-06)

Enzyme discovery leads scientists further down path to pumping oil from plants
An enzyme responsible for making hydrocarbons has been discovered by Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists studying a common green microalga called Botryococcus braunii. (2016-04-06)

ERC Advanced Grant for cancer researcher from Vetmeduni Vienna
Veronika Sexl of the Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology at Vetmeduni Vienna has been awarded a coveted ERC Advanced Grant from the European Research Council. The grant will provide funding of about € 2.5 million over the next five years for research into new possibilities of cancer therapy using the enzyme CDK6. (2016-04-05)

UT Southwestern scientists identify structure of crucial enzyme in cell division
UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have determined the atomic structure of an enzyme that plays an essential role in cell division, the fundamental process that occurs countless times daily in many life forms on Earth. (2016-03-30)

Scientists find 'outlier' enzymes, potential new targets to treat diabetes, inflammation
A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies has discovered two enzymes that appear to play a role in metabolism and inflammation--and might someday be targeted with drugs to treat type 2 diabetes and inflammatory disorders. (2016-03-28)

Enzyme may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease caused by HIV medications
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 37 million people are living with HIV. Antiviral medications are used to control the disease and prevent its progression to AIDS. Although antivirals improve health and increase survival for people with HIV, their use also has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri School of Medicine have identified an enzyme that may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by HIV medications. (2016-03-28)

For the perfect eggs, roundworms use small RNAs
All multicellular organisms that reproduce sexually rely on eggs to support early life. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Ludwig Cancer Research used the tiny roundworm C. elegans as a model to better understand how eggs enable embryonic development, using only the materials already present in them. Their study, published March 24 in Cell, uncovers the role small RNAs and helper proteins play in fine-tuning egg development. (2016-03-24)

Yellow as the sunrise
What is it that walnut leaves, mushrooms and Coreopsis have in common? An enzyme that is also responsible for the browning reaction in bananas or apples is present in all of them in large amounts. For the first time, chemists from the University of Vienna around Annette Rompel have analyzed the structure of the enzyme in the leaves of Coreopsis. (2016-03-21)

Enzyme controls food intake and drives obesity
Researchers have identified an enzyme in the brain that plays a key role in regulating how much food mice eat in one sitting, finding that deletion of this enzyme caused the mice to increase their food intake to the point of becoming obese. (2016-03-17)

Broccoli ingredient has positive influence on drug efficacy
Colon cancer cells that are pretreated with an ingredient found in cruciferous vegetables are more likely to be killed by a cancer drug that is currently in development, found ETH scientists. This is one of only a few examples of a food ingredient that, in moderate amounts, has a positive influence on the efficacy of a cancer drug. (2016-03-14)

Potential new therapeutic target for hypertension may offer less side effects
The recent discovery of a molecule that rescues damaged blood vessels, yet preserves healthy vessels, could serve as a springboard for a new pharmaceutical therapy with fewer side effects for hypertension. (2016-03-12)

The plastic-eating bacteria breakdown
Further investigation identified an enzyme, ISF6_4831, which works with water to break down PET into an intermediate substance, which is then further broken down by a second enzyme, ISF6_0224. (2016-03-10)

Enzyme involved in glucose metabolism promotes wound healing, study finds
An enzyme involved in glucose metabolism in cells plays a major role in the early steps of wound healing, a finding that could lead to new therapeutic approaches for wound care, according to researchers at Georgia State University. (2016-03-10)

Researchers build molecule that could significantly reduce brain damage in stroke victims
University of Nebraska-Lincoln chemists partnered with medical researchers from the National University of Singapore to develop a molecule that can inhibit an enzyme linked with stroke onset. The enzyme can trigger production of toxic levels of hydrogen sulfide in the brain. Stroke patients often exhibit elevated hydrogen sulfide concentrates, which is believed to initiate brain damage. Tests showed that the new molecule reduced brain damage in rats by as much as 66 percent. (2016-03-09)

PGK1 protein promotes brain tumor formation and cancer metabolism
PGK1, a glycolytic enzyme, has been found to play a role in coordinating cellular processes crucial to cancer metabolism and brain tumor formation, according to results published in today's online issue of Molecular Cell. (2016-03-03)

New insight into enzyme evolution
How enzymes -- the biological proteins that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur -- are 'tuned' to work at a particular temperature is described in new research from groups in New Zealand and the UK, including the University of Bristol. (2016-03-03)

Chemical snapshot unveils path to greener biofuel
Chemists at the University of Copenhagen have taken a leap ahead in understanding enzymes used to crack open cellulose easing subsequent fermentation into alcohol. The study can be important for, among other things, the development and production of sustainable biofuels. (2016-03-02)

First 3-D structure of the enzymatic role of DNA
DNA does not always adopt the form of the double helix which is associated with the genetic code; it can also form intricate folds and act as an enzyme: a deoxyribozyme. A researcher from Spain and other scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany) have solved the first three-dimensional structure of this biomolecule that has proved much more flexible than previously thought. (2016-03-02)

University of Missouri researchers receive $1.3 million NIH grant to study protein structure
Protein structure prediction is important, particularly in the medical community. The scientific community has sequenced millions of proteins to date but only has been able to experimentally define the structure of less than 0.1 percent of those proteins. Now, University of Missouri researchers have been awarded a $1.3 million NIH grant to study protein structures. (2016-03-02)

Depression is more than a mental disorder: It affects the whole organism
This work could explain the significant association that depression has with cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and why people with depression die younger. (2016-03-01)

Capsule shedding: A new bacterial pathway that promotes invasive disease
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have discovered that an enzyme antibiotics rely on to kill bacteria also promotes survival of pneumococcus and sets the stage for serious, invasive infections. (2016-02-29)

Syracuse chemists combine biology, nanotechnology to create alternate energy source
Chemists in Syracuse University's College of Arts and Sciences have made a transformational advance in an alternate lighting source -- one that doesn't require a battery or a plug. (2016-02-29)

GW researcher receives $2.6 million grant to study treatment for malaria and tuberculosis
Cynthia Dowd, a chemistry professor at the George Washington University, is studying a promising possible treatment for malaria and tuberculosis with a five-year, $2.6 million grant from the National Institutes of Health. (2016-02-29)

Researchers find association between oral bacteria and esophageal cancer
University of Louisville School of Dentistry researchers have found a bacterial species responsible for gum disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis, is present in 61 percent of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (2016-02-26)

New trigger for self-powered mechanical movement
A new way to use the chemical reactions of certain enzymes to trigger self-powered mechanical movement has been developed by a team of researchers at Penn State University and the University of Pittsburgh. The pumps provide precise control over flow rate without the aid of an external power source and are capable of turning on in response to specific chemicals. (2016-02-25)

Researchers work to block harmful behavior of key Alzheimer's enzyme
Enzymes rarely have one job. So, attempts to shut down the enzyme that causes the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease often mean side effects, because these therapies prevent the enzyme from carrying out many other functions. A study appearing Feb. 25 in Cell Reports presents a new therapeutic strategy: blocking the most harmful behavior enzyme while allowing it to work normally otherwise. This potential approach now needs to be further developed and tested in pre-clinical trials. (2016-02-25)

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