Current Enzymes News and Events

Current Enzymes News and Events, Enzymes News Articles.
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Scientists use DNA origami to monitor CRISPR gene targeting
The remarkable genetic scissors called CRISPR/Cas9, the discovery that won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, sometimes cut in places that they are not designed to target. (2021-02-23)

How inflammatory signalling molecules contribute to carcinogenesis
A team of MedUni Vienna researchers led by Johannes A. Schmid at the Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, has managed to identify a previously unknown molecular connection between an inflammatory signalling molecule and one of the main oncogenes. The study has been published in the leading journal 'Molecular Cancer'. (2021-02-17)

Researchers identify gene implicated in neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer
A new study by Mayo Clinic researchers has identified that a chromosome instability gene, USP24, is frequently missing in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma, an aggressive form of childhood cancer. The finding provides important insight into the development of this disease. The study is published in Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2021-02-17)

A genetic variant inherited from Neanderthals reduces the risk of severe COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2 impacts people in different ways after infection. Some experience only mild or no symptoms at all while others become sick enough to require hospitalization. Now, researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) in Japan and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Germany have found that a group of genes that reduces the risk of severe COVID-19 by around 20% is inherited from Neanderthals. (2021-02-16)

Membrane building blocks play decisive role in controlling cell growth
Lipids are the building blocks of a cell's envelope - the cell membrane. In addition to their structural function, some lipids also play a regulatory role and decisively influence cell growth. This has been investigated in a new study by scientists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU). The impact of the lipids depends on how they are distributed over the plasma membrane. The study was published in 'The Plant Cell'. (2021-02-15)

The chemistry lab inside cells
Osaka University scientists describe a novel protein that spurs the post-translational modifications of the amino acid tryptophan to create an enzyme cofactor. This work may lead to the creation of new biological catalysts. (2021-02-10)

Metabolism: Researchers first to shed light on structure of huge enzyme complex
A new method has enabled the natural structure of particularly large and complex enzymes to be revealed. Scientists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and TU Berlin have published their findings in the journal Cell Reports. They investigated a multi-enzyme complex that plays an essential role in metabolism and have discovered that it functions differently than previously thought. This will help scientists better understand certain diseases. (2021-02-10)

MSK scientists learn how genes and environment conspire in pancreatic cancer development
Both genes and environment are necessary to trigger pancreatic cancer development. A new study from Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers explains why. (2021-02-03)

Wonder fungi
Michelle O'Malley(link is external) has long been inspired by gut microbes. Since she began studying the herbivore digestive tract, the UC Santa Barbara chemical engineering professor has guided several students to their doctoral degrees, won early and mid-career awards (including a recognition from President Obama), attained tenure and advanced to the position of full professor. She even had three children along the way. A constant through it all: goat poop. (2021-02-01)

Lactobacillus manipulates bile acids to create favorable gut environment
Probiotic Lactobacillus bacteria use enzymes situationally to manipulate bile acids and promote their own survival in the gut. (2021-02-01)

Carbon-chomping soil bacteria may pose hidden climate risk
Much of the earth's carbon is trapped in soil, and scientists have assumed that potential climate-warming compounds would safely stay there for centuries. But new research from Princeton University shows that carbon molecules can potentially escape the soil much faster than previously thought. The findings suggest a key role for some types of soil bacteria, which can produce enzymes that break down large carbon-based molecules and allow carbon dioxide to escape into the air. (2021-01-27)

A research team from Denmark discovers new control mechanism in the innate immune system
Although the protein ITIH4 is found in large amounts in the blood, its function has so far been unknown. By combining many different techniques, researchers from Aarhus University have discovered that ITIH4 inhibits proteases in the innate immune system via an unknown mechanism. The research results have just been published in the prestigious scientific journal Science Advances. (2021-01-26)

Kombucha tea sparks creative materials research solution
With Army funding, researchers developed a new way to generate tough, functional materials using a mixture of bacteria and yeast similar to the kombucha mother used to ferment tea. (2021-01-26)

Researchers develop promising way to find new cancer drugs
The enzymes in human cells known as histone deacetylases, or HDACs, are targets for a handful of anticancer drugs because of their ability to affect gene expression. Now, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have developed a new method to investigate how these enzymes work on a molecular level. This new method can also help identify more precise possible anti-cancer drug candidates at a very high pace. (2021-01-25)

The liver processes coconut oil differently than rapeseed oil
Coconut oil has increasingly found its way into German kitchens in recent years, although its alleged health benefits are controversial. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now been able to show how it is metabolized in the liver. Their findings could also have implications for the treatment of certain diarrheal diseases. The results are published in the journal Molecular Metabolism. (2021-01-25)

Better diet and glucose uptake in the brain lead to longer life in fruit flies
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have discovered that fruit flies with genetic modifications to enhance glucose uptake have significantly longer lifespans. Looking at the brain cells of aging flies, they found that better glucose uptake compensates for age-related deterioration in motor functions, and led to longer life. The effect was more pronounced when coupled with dietary restrictions. This suggests healthier eating plus improved glucose uptake in the brain might lead to enhanced lifespans. (2021-01-16)

Scientists discover key enzyme responsible for skin blistering in the elderly
The Granzyme B (GzmB) enzyme, which accumulates in certain tissues as we age, has been identified as a driver of itchy and sometimes life-threatening autoimmune conditions known as pemphigoid diseases (PDs), which cause blistering and skin erosion below the skin's surface. New research led by University of British Columbia (UBC) and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute (VCHRI) scientists has found that a gel containing a specific and potent inhibitor of GzmB activity, VTI-1002, resulted in significant improvements on skin affected by PDs. (2021-01-12)

Inspired by kombucha tea, engineers create "living materials"
Engineers at MIT and Imperial College London have developed a new way to generate tough, functional materials using a mix of bacteria and yeast similar to the ''kombucha mother'' used to ferment tea. Using this mix, called a Syn-SCOBY (synthetic symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast), they produced cellulose embedded with enzymes that can perform a variety of functions, such as sensing environmental pollutants. (2021-01-11)

Expanding the boundaries of CO2 fixation
Design and realization of synthetic enzymes open up an alternative to natural photorespiration (2021-01-09)

Keeping sperm cells on track
Researchers point to a new mechanism underlying male infertility. (2021-01-07)

Switching DNA functions on and off by means of light
Biochemists at Münster University have developed a new strategy for controlling the biological functions of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) by means of light and therefore provide a tool to investigate processes which take place in cells. The results have been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2020-12-28)

$3.9M project on self-deleting genes takes aim at mosquito-borne diseases
To control mosquito populations and prevent them from transmitting diseases such as malaria, many researchers are pursuing strategies in mosquito genetic engineering. A new Texas A&M AgriLife Research project aims to enable temporary ''test runs'' of proposed genetic changes in mosquitoes, after which the changes remove themselves from the mosquitoes' genetic code. (2020-12-28)

Discovery boosts theory that life on Earth arose from RNA-DNA mix
Chemists at Scripps Research have made a discovery that supports a surprising new view of how life originated on our planet. In a study published in the chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie, they demonstrated that a simple compound called diamidophosphate (DAP), which was plausibly present on Earth before life arose, could have chemically knitted together tiny DNA building blocks called deoxynucleosides into strands of primordial DNA. (2020-12-27)

Like tentacles catching fish
Researchers decode the structure of the molecular complex that carries detoxifying enzymes in cells to the right place (2020-12-18)

Researchers discover protein function that could improve chemotherapy in the future
A protein responsible for orchestrating DNA key signaling and repair pathways could play a role in future chemotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The protein's function has been described by researchers at University of Copenhagen. (2020-12-17)

Proteins enable crop-infecting fungi to 'smell' food
New UC Riverside research shows the same proteins that enable human senses such as smell also allow certain fungi to sense something they can eat. (2020-12-15)

NYUAD researchers shed new light on mysteries behind the light emission of fireflies
A team of researchers from the NYU Abu Dhabi's (NYUAD) Smart Materials Lab (SML) led by Professor of Chemistry Panče Naumov has conducted a thorough review of the scientific literature surrounding the natural production of light, called bioluminescence, and developed conclusions that will help others in the field direct their research to uncover the mysteries behind this fascinating natural phenomenon. (2020-12-10)

'Fun size' Cas9 nucleases hold promise for easier genome editing
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues from Russia and the US have described two new, compact Cas9 nucleases, the cutting components of CRISPR-Cas systems, that will potentially expand the Cas9 toolbox for genome editing. In vitro studies and experiments in bacteria showed that these two nucleases are efficient at cleaving DNA, and the P. pneumotropica Cas9 nuclease is active in human cells. (2020-12-10)

Memory deficits resulting from epigenetic changes in Alzheimer's disease can be reversed
Memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be able to be restored by inhibiting certain enzymes involved in abnormal gene transcription, according to a preclinical study by researchers at the University at Buffalo. (2020-12-09)

Understanding bacteria's metabolism could improve biofuel production
A new study reveals how bacteria control the chemicals produced from consuming 'food.' The insight could lead to organisms that are more efficient at converting plants into biofuels. (2020-12-03)

Predicting breast cancer recurrences
A new tool combining traditional pathology with machine learning could predict which breast cancer patients actually need surgery. The technology, reported in the November issue of American Journal of Physiology -- Cell Physiology (vol. 319: C910-C921; https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00280.2020), could spare women from unnecessary treatments, reduce medical expenses, and lead to a new generation of drugs to stop breast cancer recurrences. (2020-12-03)

New immunotherapeutic approach takes aim at cancer's enzyme shield
A Brigham team observed that in a range of mouse models, inhibiting the protein SerpinB9 with a small molecule reduced tumor growth both by weakening the tumor's defense mechanisms and by triggering cell death in the tumors themselves. (2020-12-01)

Tackling metabolic complexity
CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E. coli. (2020-11-24)

Researchers identify genetics behind deadly oat blight
A multi-institution team co-led by a Cornell University researcher has identified the genetic mechanisms that enable the production of a deadly toxin called Victorin - the causal agent for Victoria blight of oats, a disease that wiped out oat crops in the U.S. in the 1940s. (2020-11-23)

Unlocking cheaper chemicals
A new technique to make cheaper more efficient biological enzyme hybrids could have valuable applications in future water recycling, targeted drug manufacturing and other industries, Flinders University green chemistry researchers say in a new publication. The model enzyme system, which immobilises a catalyst enzyme hybrid for continuous flow use in the high-speed vortex fluidic device, showed a 16-fold increase in its efficiency, the researchers say in American Chemical Society journal, ASC Applied Materials & Interfaces. (2020-11-22)

Discovery illuminates how cell growth pathway responds to signals
A basic science discovery by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health reveals a fundamental way cells interpret signals from their environment and may eventually pave the way for potential new therapies. (2020-11-20)

Supramolecular chemistry - Self-constructed folded macrocycles with low symmetry
The synthesis and self-organization of biological macromolecules is essential for life on earth. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich chemists now report the spontaneous emergence of complex ring-shaped macromolecules with low degrees of symmetry in the laboratory. (2020-11-20)

Gut microbiome manipulation could result from virus discovery
Scientists have discovered how a common virus in the human gut infects and takes over bacterial cells - a finding that could be used to control the composition of the gut microbiome, which is important for human health. The Rutgers co-authored research, which could aid efforts to engineer beneficial bacteria that produce medicines and fuels and clean up pollutants, is published in the journal Nature. (2020-11-18)

Researchers recognize a viral protein's M.O. by just 3% of its size
Skoltech researchers and their colleagues from Russia, the US, and Sweden have described an unusual RNA polymerase that helps a poorly studied crAss-like bacteriophage transcribe its genes. They ''caught'' this enzyme by a tiny -- less than 3% of its size -- portion of the amino acid sequence that was similar to other RNA polymerases. (2020-11-18)

Researchers at Goethe University create artificial cell organelles for biotechnology
Cells of higher organisms use cell organelles to separate metabolic processes from each other. This is how cell respiration takes place in the mitochondria, the cell's power plants. They can be compared to sealed laboratory rooms in the large factory of the cell. A research team at Goethe University has now succeeded in creating artificial cell organelles and using them for their own devised biochemical reactions. (2020-11-12)

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