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MIT uses sound to search for gas, oil
Just as doctors use ultrasound to image unborn babies, MIT researchers listen to the echoing language of rocks to map what's going on tens of thousands of feet below the Earth's surface. Now the scientists will use their skills to find pockets of natural gas and oil contained in fractured porous rocks in a Wyoming oil field. If the method proves effective, it could be used at oil and gas fields across the country. (2006-09-08)

Evolutionary forces explain why women live longer than men
Despite research efforts to find modern factors that would explain the different life expectancies of men and women, the gap is actually ancient and universal, according to University of Michigan researchers. (2006-05-09)

Mars region probably less watery than thought, says new U. of Colorado study
A region of Mars that some planetary scientists believe was once a shallow lakebed and likely habitable for life may not have been so wet after all, according to a new University of Colorado at Boulder study. (2005-12-21)

Human Y chromosome preserves itself better than the chimp Y
By using human and chimpanzee Y chromosomes as a genetic fossil record to examine our past, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) scientists have seen a surprising difference in the way the male-making chromosomes from the two species cope with the inexorable pressures of evolution. (2005-08-31)

NASA develops a 'nugget' to search for life in space
Conceived by scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., the Neutron/Gamma ray Geologic Tomography (NUGGET) would be able to generate three-dimensional images of fossils embedded in an outcrop of rock or beneath the soil of Mars or another planet. Tomography uses radiation or sound waves to look inside objects. NUGGET could help determine if primitive forms of life took root on Mars when the planet was awash in water eons ago. (2005-07-27)

Five giant impact basins reveal the ancient equator of Mars
A Canadian researcher has calculated the location of Mars' ancient poles, based upon the location of five giant impact basins on the planet's surface. This suggests that the projectiles that caused the basins originated with a single source, an asteroid that disintegrated when it approached too close to Mars, and that the impacts trace the Martian equator at the time of impact. (2005-04-18)

Want to petrify wood without waiting a few million years? Try this
Yongsoon Shin and colleagues at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have converted wood to mineral, achieving in days what it takes nature millions of years to do. (2005-01-24)

Arctic mystery no longer: Dinosaurs walked Canada's great north
It may hard to believe, yet lush ferns and dinosaurs coexisted in Canada's great north 240 million years ago. During recent expeditions, McGill palaeontologist Hans Larsson, of Montreal (Canada) found fern fossils and tyrannosaurus dinosaur bones. (2004-10-14)

Natural mineral locks up carbon dioxide
A common mineral can remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases, but in its natural state, it is glacially slow. Now, a team of Penn State researchers is changing serpentine so that it sequesters the carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning in hours, not eons. (2004-09-02)

Natural selection at work in genetic variation to taste
A genetic variation seen worldwide in which people either taste or do not taste a bitter, synthetic compound called PTC has been preserved by natural selection, University of Utah and National Institutes of Health researchers have reported. (2004-06-25)

Role of gas hydrates in carbon cycling and environmental change noted
Between 2 trillion and 20 trillion tons of methane in gas hydrates lie on the outer edges of the continents, just beneath the ocean floor. This enormous pool of methane might contain more carbon than all the world's oil, coal and natural gas reserves combined. The carbon that goes there leaves these hydrate reservoirs via several processes, each of which is poorly quantified. (2004-02-13)

Designing a better catalyst for 'artificial photosynthesis'
Scientists studying the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) -- a crucial step in transforming CO2 to useful organic compounds such as methanol -- are trying to mimic what plants do when they convert CO2 and water to carbohydrates and oxygen in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. Such (2003-09-09)

Is erosion helping Himalayas to grow?
Lehigh University professors Peter Zeitler and Anne Meltzer, leading their second international research expedition in the Himalayas, believe the Indus and Tsangpo Rivers are eroding gorges so deep that they are weakening the earth's crust, encouraging an upward surge of hot metamorphic and mountain-forming rock. (2003-08-05)

Meanwhile, back to barnacles...
They're very good at what they do. Powerful, fast, tenacious, and they've been at it since the beginning of time. What's more, they do it underwater. Billions of them glue themselves to ship hulls and cost the U.S. Navy over $50 million a year in fuel costs alone due to friction and drag. An ONR researcher may have the answer. (2003-01-18)

New evidence for dark dwarf galaxies supports dark matter theory
Two scientists have found evidence that galaxies are surrounded by halos containing hundreds of invisible dwarf galaxies. Their discovery, described in a paper in the June 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal, provides strong support for the theory that most of the matter in the universe is in the form of some undetected type of slowly moving particles called cold dark matter. (2002-05-20)

Patients needlessly suffering from chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting
Nearly two decades after the introduction of highly effective antiemetic (anti-nausea) therapies, almost a third of patients are still suffering from chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). (2002-04-15)

Chandra scores a double bonus with a distant quasar
Two discoveries from a distant quasar - an enormous X-ray jet and an X-ray shadow cast by an intervening galaxy - are giving astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory cause to be doubly excited. These two independent results reveal information about a supermassive black hole at the center of the quasar as well as the amount of oxygen in a distant galaxy billions of years ago. (2002-02-07)

Simulation explains mystery of giant planets' tiny moons
Cornell planetary scientists have used one of the world's most powerful computing clusters to simulate motions of the small moons of Jupiter over a one billion-year epoch, learning how the tugs and pulls of the sun and planets shake out the permanent moons of the giant planets from those that get tossed away. (2001-11-30)

Magazine article by Rutgers researcher details revival of life after deep-sea volcanic eruption
In an article appearing in the September-October issue of American Science magazine, a Rutgers researcher describes how life quickly revived around hydrothermal vents on the Pacific Ocean floor after a lava flow had appeared to exterminate it. (2001-08-23)

U-M study solves Pangea puzzle
Researchers at the University of Michigan and the Geological Survey of Norway say they have solved a longstanding and controversial puzzle over the position of Pangea, the ancient supercontinent that began breaking up some 200 million years ago to form today's continents. (2000-12-18)

Mars may hold twice as much water as previously thought
Mars may hold two to three times as much water as scientists have previously believed. Studies of deuterium in the martian atmosphere and a meteorite of martian origin suggest that the loss of water through time was much less than previously calculated. (2000-06-26)

Chandra catches cannibal galaxy in the act
NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of Perseus A, a supergiant galaxy in the center of a galaxy cluster, provides new insight into how the galaxy has grown by cannibalizing gas and other galaxies in the vicinity. (2000-06-06)

Study Associates Asteroid Or Comet Impact With Extinctions In Argentina
A paper in Science magazine proposes that a major ecosystem-altering asteroid or comet impact took place 3.3 million years ago - a geologically recent time - in what is now Argentina. (1998-12-10)

Molecular Mechanism For Evolution Described
Researchers at the University of Chicago have discovered the first molecular mechanism for promoting evolutionary change in response to the environment. The mechanism works by allowing multiple small genetic variations to accumulate and then expose themselves when that organism is under environmental stress. (1998-11-25)

Brookhaven, Carnegie Scientists Report First 'Morphing' Of Plant Enzyme Function
Scientists have for the first time turned one plant enzyme into another plant enzyme, by manipulating the genetic blueprint for the enzymes. The enzymes are important to plant oil production, and the ability to manipulate their structure raises the possibility of better (1998-11-12)

Rapid Rock Changes Deep Under Fault Lines Can Trigger Repeated Earthquakes
Rock metamorphism and earthquakes may be linked, say three Yale University geologists. Their theoretical study shows that the release of water by rock within fault zones can occur rapidly, in a time frame measured in decades or centuries, rather than eons, and can lead to repeated earthquakes. (1998-11-12)

Computers Of The Future Are Topic Of International Conference
The strange new world of quantum computing, where logic bits are not limited to yes-or-no but span every color in the spectrum and circuits and gates operate not individually or hierarchically but holistically, will be the topic of an international conference at Northwestern University Aug. 22 to 27. (1998-08-14)

Researchers Say Good Cholesterol Can Turn Bad
Long considered the (1997-11-10)

The Sunspots Are Coming
Atmospheric scientists participating in a workshop funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) will debate the effects of so-called (1997-10-15)

Bering Land Bridge Conference In Colorado Slated For Sept. 20
Scores of scientists from around the world will be in Colorado Sept. 20 to Sept. 23 for a conference on the prehistoric environment of the Bering land bridge, believed to be the migration corridor for the earliest North Americans. (1997-09-12)

Fly-like Gene Linked To Tooth Development and Glaucoma
In a study supported by the National Institutes of Health, scientists at the University of Iowa have just identified the gene that causes Rieger syndrome, a rare disorder that leads to glaucoma in 50 percent of the cases (1996-11-26)

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