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Current Europa News and Events, Europa News Articles.
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Report discusses potential role of coffee in reducing risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's
A new report from the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) highlights the potential role of coffee consumption in reducing the risk of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. (2019-12-10)

NASA examines Tropical Cyclone Belna's water vapor concentration
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Southern Indian Ocean, water vapor data provided information about the intensity of Tropical Cyclone Belna. (2019-12-09)

Obesity exacerbates many causes of death, but risks are different for men and women
People who carry around unhealthy amounts of weight don't just have heart disease and diabetes to worry about. Obesity is implicated in two thirds of the leading causes of death from non-communicable diseases worldwide and the risk of certain diseases differs for men and women. Cecilia Lindgren of the University of Oxford and colleagues report these findings in a new study published Oct. 24 in PLOS Genetics. (2019-10-24)

Aphid-stressed pines show different secondary organic aerosol formation
Plants emit gases, called volatile organic compounds (VOCs), that enter the atmosphere, where they can interact with other natural and human-made molecules to form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). These tiny, suspended particles influence atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation and sunlight scattering. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Earth and Space Chemistry have shown that aphid-infested Scots pine trees produce a different mixture of VOCs than healthy plants, which then leads to different SOAs. (2019-09-11)

Earliest evidence of artificial cranial deformation in Croatia during 5th-6th century
People in Croatia during the 5th to 6th centuries may have used cranial modifications to indicate their cultural affiliations, according to a study published Aug. 21, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE led by Ron Pinhasi of the University of Vienna and Mario Novak of the Institute for Anthropological Research in Zagreb, Croatia. (2019-08-21)

Origin of massive methane reservoir identified
New research provides evidence of the formation and abundance of abiotic methane -- methane formed by chemical reactions that don't involve organic matter -- on Earth and shows how the gases could have a similar origin on other planets and moons, even those no longer home to liquid water. (2019-08-20)

Fragrance-releasing fabric could help neutralize sweaty gym clothes
Hot summer weather, stressful situations and intense workouts can produce unpleasant sweaty odors. But what if clothing could cover up these embarrassing smells with a burst of fragrance? Now, researchers have modified cotton fabric to emit a lemony citronella aroma upon contact with sweat. They report their body-odor-fighting strategy in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. (2019-07-31)

Gene transcripts from ancient wolf analyzed after 14,000 years in permafrost
RNA -- the short-lived transcripts of genes -- from the 'Tumat puppy', a wolf of the Pleistocene era has been isolated, and its sequence analyzed in a new study by Oliver Smith of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues publishing on July 30 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology. The results establish the possibility of examining a range of RNA transcripts from ancient organisms, a possibility previously thought extremely unlikely because of RNA's short lifespan. (2019-07-30)

Intake of phosphates: Babies, infants and children can exceed the health guidance values
Phosphates are essential substances that occur naturally in the human body and make up a considerable portion of our nutrition. They occur in almost all foods, especially those high in protein, such as cheese, cold cuts and meat. A certain group of phosphates is authorised as food additives in the European Union. (2019-07-16)

Europe: Chronic hepatitis B infections on the rise since 2008
In 2017, the majority (58%) of the almost 27 000 newly reported hepatitis B cases in the European Union and European Economic Area were classified as chronic infections. This follows a consistent upward trend in reported chronic hepatitis B cases since 2008. (2019-06-20)

Poor oral health linked to a 75% increase in liver cancer risk, new study finds
Poor oral health is associated with a 75% increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver cancer, new research published in UEG Journal has found. (2019-06-17)

Tildrakizumab shows promising efficacy and safety in psoriatic arthritis
The results of a phase 2B study presented today at the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (EULAR 2019) demonstrate superior efficacy and comparable safety of tildrakizumab versus placebo in patients with psoriatic arthritis. (2019-06-14)

Table salt compound spotted on Europa
New insight on Europa's geochemistry was hiding in the visible spectrum. (2019-06-12)

Providing state-of-the-art guidance and clarification concerning IC imaging
Intra-coronary (IC) imaging has been available for over two decades. Technological advances, with the development of new modalities and improvements in the software to facilitate 'real-time' analysis and decision making, have seen an increased use for both diagnostic assessment and the guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, significant regional and institutional differences in the use of IC imaging have been observed. (2019-05-21)

Interventions with paclitaxel drug-coated balloons
This PCR statement on paclitaxel drug-coated balloons (DCB) use in peripheral interventions addresses the controversy raised by the meta-analysis of K. Katsanos, M.D., Ph.D. (Patras University Hospital, Rion, Greece) and colleagues, published in late 2018. (2019-05-21)

A PCR statement on behalf of PCR and the EAPCI
Heart failure is a common cardiovascular disorder with ominous prognosis despite significant therapeutic advances. Mitral regurgitation (MR, leaking of the mitral valve within the heart) affects at least 50% of patients with heart failure and is independently associated with worse prognosis. Timely diagnosis is essential, and management is complex, requiring an expert approach. (2019-05-17)

Elections: New report highlights innovative research on 21st century political world
How and why people become engaged in politics? Are the electronic voting machines immune to vote-rigging? Can we tackle the growing phenomenon of misinformation on social media? What impact the financial crash had on the development of political conflict in Europe? Is civil society increasingly dependent on state finance and regulation? Here are some of the questions, ERC grantees investigate and solve. (2019-05-08)

Wolves more prosocial than pack dogs in touchscreen experiment
In a touchscreen-based task that allowed individual animals to provide food to others, wolves behaved more prosocially toward their fellow pack members than did pack dogs. Rachel Dale of the Wolf Science Center in Vienna, Austria, and colleagues present these findings in the open access journal PLOS ONE on May 1, 2019. (2019-05-01)

Gonorrhoea cases on the rise across Europe
Following a decline in notification rates in 2016, the number of gonorrhoea cases has gone up by 17% across the reporting EU/EEA countries with more than 89,000 confirmed diagnoses in 2017 -- equivalent to 240 cases a day. (2019-04-25)

New perennial brome-grass from Iberian Peninsula named after Picos de Europa National Park
Picos de Europa National Park has given its name to a new species of perennial brome-grass from Spain. Having worked on the systematics of the genus Bromus for a long time, the scientists were surprised to record previously unrecognised specimens from the well-studied ''Fuente la Escalera'' area in the National Park. Identified as a new species and recorded from a total of eleven locations, the plant is now described in the open access journal PhytoKeys. (2019-04-24)

The brain's imperfect execution of mathematically optimal perception
Human perception is based on mathematically optimal principles, but the brain implements those principles imperfectly, suggests new research by Elina Stengård and Ronald van den Berg of the University of Uppsala, Sweden. They present their findings in PLOS Computational Biology. (2019-04-18)

Disposable parts of plants mutate more quickly
Mutation rates are proposed to be a pragmatic balance struck between the harmful effects of mutations and the costs of suppressing them; this hypothesis predicts that longer-lived body parts and those that contribute to the next generation should have lower mutation rates than the rest of the organism, but is this the case in nature? (2019-04-09)

NASA catches Tropical Cyclone Idai making landfall in Mozambique
Tropical Cyclone Idai was approaching landfall in Mozambique when NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at the cloud top temperatures to determine the strongest parts of the storm. (2019-03-14)

NASA infrared imagery reveals powerful Tropical Cyclone Idai at Mozambique's coast
NASA's Terra satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Cyclone Idai approaching the coast of Mozambique. The infrared data provided cloud top temperatures that indicated powerful thunderstorms circled Idai's center. (2019-03-13)

Tropical Cyclone Idai seen in Mozambique channel by NASA's Terra Satellite
NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Southern Indian Ocean and caught a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Idai in the Mozambique Channel. The channel is located between the country of Mozambique on the African mainland and the island nation of Madagascar. (2019-03-12)

NASA's Aqua Satellite finds Tropical Cyclone Idai in Mozambique Channel
Visible imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite revealed the center of Tropical Cyclone Idai in the Mozambique Channel. (2019-03-11)

Gonorrhoea: Drug resistance compromises recommended treatment in Europe
Gonorrhoea is the second most commonly notified sexually transmitted infection across the EU/EEA countries with almost 500 000 reported cases between 2007 and 2016. The infection is treatable but Neisseria gonorrhoeae keep showing high levels of azithromycin resistance according to latest results of the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme. This antibiotic agent is part of the currently recommended therapy regimen for gonorrhoea and observed resistance patterns threaten its effectiveness. (2019-02-28)

Zoonoses: Antimicrobial resistance shows no signs of slowing down
Data released today by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reveal that antimicrobials used to treat diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, such as campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis, are becoming less effective. (2019-02-26)

Infants exposed to corticosteroids in utero are smaller at birth, study finds
Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroid therapy (ACT) to accelerate lung maturation have a clinically significant reduction in birth size, according to a new of study of 278,508 births published this week in PLOS Medicine by Alina Rodriguez of the University of Lincoln and Imperial College London, UK, and colleagues. (2019-02-26)

Penis development needs more than just testes and testosterone
Proper development of the fetal penis requires not just testosterone from the testes, but a second hormone produced by other tissues, including the placenta, according to a new study publishing Feb. 14 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology from Paul Fowler of the University of Aberdeen, Michelle Bellingham of the University of Glasgow, and colleagues in the UK, France and Sweden. The results reveal a previously unknown pathway of masculinization of the external genitals. (2019-02-14)

Insulating crust kept cryomagma liquid for millions of years on nearby dwarf planet
A recent NASA mission to the dwarf planet Ceres found brilliant, white spots of salts on its surface. New research led by The University of Texas at Austin in partnership with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) delved into the factors that influenced the volcanic activity that formed the distinctive spots and that could play a key role in mixing the ingredients for life on other worlds. (2019-02-12)

Butterflies are genetically wired to choose a mate that looks just like them
Male butterflies have genes which give them a sexual preference for a partner with a similar appearance to themselves, according to new research. In a study publishing Feb. 7 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, a team of academics from the University of Cambridge, in collaboration with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, observed the courtship rituals and sequenced the DNA from nearly 300 butterflies to find out how much of the genome was responsible for their mating behavior. (2019-02-07)

How whipworms wreak havoc on the gut
Signaling through interleukin-10 (IL-10) receptors on gut immune cells plays a critical role in protecting the gut lining and microbiota from disruption caused by whipworms, according to a study published Jan. 31 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by María Duque-Correa of the Wellcome Sanger Institute in the UK, and colleagues. (2019-01-31)

Engineers program marine robots to take calculated risks
MIT engineers have now developed an algorithm that lets AUVs weigh the risks and potential rewards of exploring an unknown region. For instance, if a vehicle tasked with identifying underwater oil seeps approached a steep, rocky trench, the algorithm could assess the reward level (the probability that an oil seep exists near this trench), and the risk level (the probability of colliding with an obstacle), if it were to take a path through the trench. (2019-01-30)

Juno mission captures images of volcanic plumes on Jupiter's moon Io
The Juno spacecraft captured new images of a volcanic plume on Jupiter's moon Io during a December 21 flyby. JunoCam, the Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM), and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVS) observed Io for over an hour, providing a glimpse of the moon's polar regions as well as evidence of an active eruption. (2018-12-31)

ECDC: Influenza vaccination coverage rates insufficient across EU member states
None of the European Union (EU) Member States could demonstrate that they reach the EU target of 75 percent influenza vaccination coverage for vulnerable groups, according to a new report from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). (2018-12-18)

Interventions in dog populations could reduce rabies in rural China
Domestic dogs play a key role in the transmission and expansion of rabies in rural areas of China, according to a study published Dec. 6 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Huaiyu Tian of Beijing Normal University, Hailin Zhang of the Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory for Zoonosis Control and Prevention, Simon Dellicour of KU Leuven, and colleagues. (2018-12-06)

Ending the HIV epidemic: Where does Europe stand?
From diagnosis of HIV to successful viral suppression: in a rapid communication published in Eurosurveillance today, ECDC and co-authors from Public Health England and The National AIDS Trust summarise the progress towards HIV elimination in 52 countries in Europe and Central Asia. The main issues: diagnosing those who are unaware of their HIV infection and treating them. (2018-11-29)

New HIV diagnoses at high levels in the European Region but progress in EU
With nearly 160,000 new HIV diagnoses, 2017 marked another year of alarming numbers of HIV diagnoses in the WHO European Region. Encouragingly, the overall increasing trend is not as steep as before. The eastern part of the Region recorded over 130,000 new HIV diagnoses, the highest number ever. In contrast, the EU/EEA countries reported a decline in rates, mainly driven by a 20 percent decrease since 2015 among men who have sex with men. (2018-11-28)

ECDC calls for continued action to address antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings
On European Antibiotic Awareness Day, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) publishes the results of two point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in hospitals and in long-term care facilities in the EU/EEA. The findings show that practices in terms of antimicrobial use vary from country to country throughout Europe and that, overall, there is room for improvement. (2018-11-15)

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