Current Eye News and Events

Current Eye News and Events, Eye News Articles.
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New therapeutic approach may help treat age-related macular degeneration effectively
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) has been linked to retinal neovascularization and the development of abnormal blood vessels, which result in vision loss in diabetic retinopathy. Now, scientists have found that RUNX1 inhibition presents a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. Their results are reported in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier. (2021-02-22)

COVID-19 linked to potentially dangerous eye abnormalities
Researchers using MRI have found significant abnormalities in the eyes of some people with severe COVID-19, according to a new study. The study results support the need for eye screening in these patients to provide appropriate treatment and management of potentially severe ophthalmological manifestations of COVID-19. (2021-02-16)

Cloudy eyes caused by protein imbalance
Cataracts are the most common eye ailment in humans. However, the exact processes leading to this condition are not fully understood. A team of researchers headed by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now discovered that the composition of the protein solution plays a decisive role. Their conclusions are contrary to prevailing opinion in the field. (2021-02-16)

Cold sores: Discovery reveals how stress, illness and even sunburn trigger flareups
The finding could lead to new ways to prevent cold sores and herpes-related eye disease from reoccurring, the researchers report. (2021-02-11)

New research sheds light on vision loss in Batten disease
Progressive vision loss, and eventually blindness, are the hallmarks of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) or CLN3-Batten disease. New research shows how the mutation associated with the disease could potentially lead to degeneration of light sensing photoreceptor cells in the retina, and subsequent vision loss. (2021-02-05)

Synthesized very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improved retinal function in mice
A University of Utah ophthalmologist is investigating how lipids known as VLC-PUFAs could be used to prevent eye disease thanks to a new way to synthesize them for research. (2021-02-04)

Blink! The link between aerobic fitness and cognition
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have found evidence that spontaneous eye blink activity, which reflects activity in the dopaminergic system, explains the connection between fitness and cognitive function. This is the first study to indicate that dopamine has an essential role in linking aerobic fitness and cognition. These findings open the door to new research regarding the mechanisms by which exercise improves brain function, and may lead to novel fitness strategies for enhancing cognition. (2021-02-03)

The benefits of reading outdoors
Investigators demonstrate that image luminance has opposite effects on the contrast sensitivity of cortical pathways signaling lights than darks. It impairs luminance discrimination for the brightest stimuli of the scene while improving it for the darkest stimuli, a mechanism that is needed to efficiently sample natural scenes. (2021-02-02)

Generation of conjunctivae in a dish
Researchers from Osaka University generated functional conjunctival tissue in a dish. By identifying the protein epidermal growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor for the development and maturation of conjunctival cells, respectively, they showed functional, mucin-producing conjunctival tissues can be formed from human induced pluripotent stem cells. This study could help with identifying novel drugs for dry eye syndrome and could further open new avenues for regenerative therapies. (2021-02-02)

Wearable sensor monitors health, administers drugs using saliva and tears
A new kind of wearable health device would deliver real-time medical data to those with eye or mouth diseases, according to Huanyu 'Larry' Cheng, Dorothy Quiggle Career Development Professor in the Penn State Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics (ESM). (2021-02-01)

CCNY researchers demonstrate how to measure student attention during remote learning
The Covid-19 pandemic has made home offices, virtual meetings and remote learning the norm, and it is likely here to stay. But are people paying attention in online meetings? Are students paying attention in virtual classrooms? Researchers Jens Madsen and Lucas C. Parra from City College of New York, demonstrate how eye tracking can be used to measure the level of attention online using standard web cameras, without the need to transfer any data from peoples computers, thus preserving privacy. (2021-01-29)

Scientists spotted RPS-12 protein as a potential target for anti-cancer therapy
Using the developing eye of the fruit fly as a test platform, researchers found that RPS-12 protein overproduction appears to trigger triple-negative breast cancer and possibly some other malignancies. The protein indirectly switches on an important inracellular signaling pathway active while the embryo develops and shut down in healthy cells of adults. Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), the University of Geneva, and the Institute of Protein Research (Russia) scientists addressed the problem in Scientific Reports. (2021-01-29)

Scientists identify locations of early prion protein deposition in retina
The earliest eye damage from prion disease takes place in the cone photoreceptor cells, specifically in the cilia and the ribbon synapses, according to a new study of prion protein accumulation in the eye by National Institutes of Health scientists. Prion diseases originate when normally harmless prion protein molecules become abnormal and gather in clusters and filaments in the human body and brain. (2021-01-29)

Eyes reveal life history of fish
If you look deep into the eyes of a fish, it will tell you its life story. Scientists from the University of California, Davis, demonstrate that they can use stable isotopic analysis of the eye lenses of freshwater fish -- including threatened and endangered salmon -- to reveal a fish's life history and what it ate along the way. (2021-01-28)

Link between dual sensory loss and depression
People with combined vision and hearing loss are nearly four times more likely to experience depression and more than three times more likely to suffer chronic anxiety, according to a new study published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology and led by Anglia Ruskin University (ARU). (2021-01-28)

Air pollution linked to higher risk of sight loss from AMD
Air pollution is linked to a heightened risk of progressive and irreversible sight loss, known as age related macular degeneration (AMD), reveals a large long term study led by UCL researchers, published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology. (2021-01-25)

Scientists improved eye tracking technology in VR systems
The tracking of eye movement is one of the key elements of virtual and amplified reality technologies (VR/AR). A team from MSU together with a professor from RUDN University developed a mathematical model that helps accurately predict the next gaze fixation point and reduces the inaccuracy caused by blinking. The model would make VR/AR systems more realistic and sensitive to user actions. (2021-01-22)

Hand sanitizer-induced ocular injury
The cases of two children with eye injuries after unintentional contact between alcohol-based hand rubs and the eye are described in this observation. (2021-01-21)

How the brain learns that earmuffs are not valuable at the beach
A collaboration between the University of Tsukuba and the NEI in the US has discovered that fast-spiking neurons in the basal ganglia allow monkeys to associate different values with the same objects based on the surrounding environment. Blocking input from these cells inhibited learning of new scene-based values, but did not erase already learned associations. This could help understand clinical conditions such as Tourette syndrome, which is characterized by reduced input from these cells. (2021-01-21)

Bonobos, chimpanzees, and oxytocin
Kyoto University researchers analyze the effects of the hormone oxytocin in our closest primate cousins, bonobos and chimpanzees by tracking their eye movement -- a important indicator of social interaction. Similar to other mammals, oxytocin increases eye contact in bonobos. However, the opposite effect is observed in chimpanzees. Therefore, oxytocin could play a modulating role in the social evolution of the two species. (2021-01-20)

Increased blood flow during sleep tied to critical brain function
Our brains experience significant changes in blood flow and neural activity during sleep, according to Penn State researchers. Such changes may help to clean out metabolic brain waste that builds up during the day. (2021-01-18)

A rift in the retina may help repair the optic nerve
In experiments in mouse tissues and human cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have found that removing a membrane that lines the back of the eye may improve the success rate for regrowing nerve cells damaged by blinding diseases. (2021-01-14)

Temperature scanners of limited value in detecting Covid-19
Making people stand in front of a scanner to have their body temperature read can result in a large number of false negatives, allowing people with Covid-19 to pass through airports and hospitals undetected. (2021-01-14)

Retinal cell transplant clears experimental hurdle toward treating blindness
Retinal cells derived from adult human eye stem cells survived when transplanted into the eyes of monkeys, an important early step in the validation of this approach for treating blindness, according to a study by Liu, et al recently published in Stem Cell Reports. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a layer of pigmented cells in the retina, is essential for sustaining normal vision. Blindness due to RPE dysfunction, such as macular degeneration, affects about 200 million people worldwide. (2021-01-14)

Scientists take important step toward using retinal cell transplants to treat blindness
Latest discovery is promising step in use of cell therapy to treat retinal diseases (2021-01-14)

A fly's eye view of evolution
The fascinating compound eyes of insects consist of hundreds of individual eyes known as ''facets''. In the course of evolution, an enormous variety of sizes and shapes has emerged, often adaptations to different environmental conditions. Scientists, led by a research group at Göttingen University have now shown that these differences can be caused by very different changes in the genome of fruit flies. The study was published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. (2021-01-13)

A niche for the eye
What if the degenerative eye conditions that lead to glaucoma, corneal dystrophy, and cataracts could be detected and treated before vision is impaired? Recent findings from the lab of Investigator Ting Xie, PhD, at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research point to the ciliary body as a key to unlocking this possibility. (2021-01-13)

Birmingham research paves the way for new anti-fibrotic therapy for glaucoma
Researchers showed that novel low molecular weight dextran-sulphate, ILB®, can normalise matrix deposition inside the eye and lower IOP in a pre-clinical model of human glaucoma, paving the way for new anti-fibrotic therapies to be developed for the disease. (2021-01-07)

Antibiotics not needed after most sinus surgeries: randomized controlled trial
Randomized controlled trial comparing antibiotics and placebo after routine endoscopic sinus surgery found no difference in outcomes including infection rates and symptoms. More gastrointestinal side effects were reported in patients taking antibiotics. (2021-01-06)

Routine eye scans may give clues to cognitive decline in diabetes
As they age, people with diabetes are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders than are people without diabetes. Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center now have shown that routine eye imaging can identify changes in the retina that may be associated with cognitive disorders in older people with type 1 diabetes. These results may open up a relatively easy method for early detection of cognitive decline in this population. (2021-01-05)

AI algorithms detect diabetic eye disease inconsistently
In a paper published Jan. 5 in Diabetes Care, researchers compared seven algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy against the diagnostic expertise of retina specialists. (2021-01-05)

Blood alcohol levels much lower than the legal limit impair hand-eye coordination
In previous studies, eye movements and vision were only affected at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) approaching the legal limit for driving (0.08% BAC), in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (2020-12-21)

AI-supported test predicts eye disease three years before symptoms
A pioneering new eye test, developed by scientists at UCL in collaboration with the Western Eye Hospital, London, may predict wet AMD, a leading cause of severe sight loss, three years before symptoms develop, finds a new study in Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. (2020-12-18)

Zika virus affects eye development before but not after birth
A new study from UC Davis finds that Zika infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can impact fetal retinal development and cause congenital ocular anomalies. The virus does not appear to affect ocular growth postnatally. (2020-12-18)

Cataract surgery in infancy increases glaucoma risk
Children who undergo cataract surgery as infants have a 22% risk of glaucoma 10 years later, whether or not they receive an intraocular lens implant. The findings come from the National Eye Institute (NEI)-funded Infant Aphakic Treatment Study, which today published 10-year follow-up results in JAMA Ophthalmology. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health. (2020-12-17)

Two new studies offer ways to avert accidents and workplace injuries for American workers
Human error is a causal factor in up to 80 percent of workplace accidents. A new study measuring the eye movements and cognitive processes for at-risk workers, sheds new light on the potential to avert accidents and possibly prevent workplace injuries. The study 'Measuring attention, working memory, and visual perception to reduce risk of injuries in the construction industry,' by Behzad Esmaeili, Ph.D., George Mason University challenges the conventional, reactionary paradigm of safety-risk management (2020-12-17)

Study in mice shows genes may be altered through drug repurposing
Researchers screened drugs that can enhance the PAX6 gene and found MEK inhibitors can stimulate PAX6 expression in the eye. They tested this drug in newborn PAX6 deficient mice and found that either topical or oral administration of the drug enhanced PAX6 and partially normalized their eye development. Mice treated with topical MEK inhibitor had clearer corneas (less scarring) and could see better. (2020-12-17)

Hopes of new treatment strategies for glaucoma
In the search for new ways to treat the incurable eye disease glaucoma, researchers at Karolinska Institutet and St. Erik Eye Hospital in Sweden have discovered more clues as to its pathogenesis. A new study shows how metabolic disturbance of the neurons coincide with raised pressure in the eye. In animal and cell models, rapamycin and pyruvate treatments were shown to have a protective effect. The study is published in the journal PNAS. (2020-12-15)

Surgical and drug treatment options lead to similar outcomes for diabetic eye disease
Surgical and injectable drug approaches are equally effective for treatment of bleeding inside the eye from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), according to a National Eye Institute (NEI)-supported clinical study from the DRCR Retina Network (DRCR.net). (2020-12-15)

Researchers discover clue to how to protect neurons and encourage their growth
Researchers have identified a family of enzymes whose inhibition both protects neurons and encourages their growth, a pathway to potential new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases from Alzheimer's to glaucoma. (2020-12-14)

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