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Eyes reveal life history of fish
If you look deep into the eyes of a fish, it will tell you its life story. Scientists from the University of California, Davis, demonstrate that they can use stable isotopic analysis of the eye lenses of freshwater fish -- including threatened and endangered salmon -- to reveal a fish's life history and what it ate along the way. (2021-01-28)

Scientists jump-start two people's brains after coma
In 2016, a team led by UCLA's Martin Monti reported that a 25-year-old man recovering from a coma had made remarkable progress following a treatment to jump-start his brain using ultrasound. Now, Monti and colleagues report that two more patients with severe brain injuries have also made impressive progress thanks to the same technique. (2021-01-27)

"Smiling eyes" may not signify true happiness after all
A smile that lifts the cheeks and crinkles the eyes is thought by many to be truly genuine. But new research at Carnegie Mellon University casts doubt on whether this joyful facial expression necessarily tells others how a person really feels inside. (2021-01-20)

How the brain paralyzes you while you sleep
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have discovered a group of neurons in the mouse brainstem that control muscle tone. Inhibiting these neuronal cells caused mice to move during REM sleep, reminiscent of REM sleep behavior disorders. These neurons were also responsible for episodes of cataplexy in a mouse model of narcolepsy; inhibiting them reduced the number of cataplexic bouts. These circuits could thus be a new target for treating these sleep disorders. (2021-01-14)

Retinal cell transplant clears experimental hurdle toward treating blindness
Retinal cells derived from adult human eye stem cells survived when transplanted into the eyes of monkeys, an important early step in the validation of this approach for treating blindness, according to a study by Liu, et al recently published in Stem Cell Reports. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a layer of pigmented cells in the retina, is essential for sustaining normal vision. Blindness due to RPE dysfunction, such as macular degeneration, affects about 200 million people worldwide. (2021-01-14)

Scientists take important step toward using retinal cell transplants to treat blindness
Latest discovery is promising step in use of cell therapy to treat retinal diseases (2021-01-14)

A fly's eye view of evolution
The fascinating compound eyes of insects consist of hundreds of individual eyes known as ''facets''. In the course of evolution, an enormous variety of sizes and shapes has emerged, often adaptations to different environmental conditions. Scientists, led by a research group at Göttingen University have now shown that these differences can be caused by very different changes in the genome of fruit flies. The study was published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. (2021-01-13)

Uncovering how plants see blue light
Plants can perceive and react to light across a wide spectrum. New research from the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences shows how plants can respond to blue light in particular by revealing the structure of cryptochrome-2, the molecule that reacts to blue light. (2021-01-04)

Zika virus affects eye development before but not after birth
A new study from UC Davis finds that Zika infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can impact fetal retinal development and cause congenital ocular anomalies. The virus does not appear to affect ocular growth postnatally. (2020-12-18)

Cataract surgery in infancy increases glaucoma risk
Children who undergo cataract surgery as infants have a 22% risk of glaucoma 10 years later, whether or not they receive an intraocular lens implant. The findings come from the National Eye Institute (NEI)-funded Infant Aphakic Treatment Study, which today published 10-year follow-up results in JAMA Ophthalmology. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health. (2020-12-17)

COVID-19 found in the cornea: Are transplants a transmission risk?
A multi-institutional study finds that COVID-19 can be found in post-mortem corneal tissue, highlighting the importance of the donor screening process. (2020-12-10)

Single-eye gene therapy improves vision in both eyes of patients with inherited eye disorder
A gene therapy for an inherited eye disorder can ameliorate vision loss in both eyes despite only being injected into one, according to a phase 3 clinical trial involving 37 patients. (2020-12-09)

Research reveals how COVID-19 affects the eyes
Sore eyes are the most significant vision-based indicator of COVID-19, according to new research published in the journal BMJ Open Ophthalmology. (2020-12-08)

Brain clears the way for binocular vision even before eyes are open
The brain architecture of binocular vision is laid down even before a young mouse's eyes are open. About half of the chandelier cells, so-named because they have many long extensions that control the firing of hundreds of excitatory pyramidal neurons, are selectively pruned from the developing mouse visual cortex by a process of programmed cell death called apoptosis. (2020-12-07)

Problems with depth perception caused by too many cells
The connections that integrate information from the left and right eyes are set up early in development, but visual experiences are important for fine-tuning the circuits. Without pruning the proper cells, an adult may lack full use of their visual system. (2020-12-07)

Drug for rare disorder shows promise for treating herpes viruses
New research shows that the antiviral activity of the drug -- called phenylbutyrate, or PBA -- was even better when used along with acyclovir, a common HSV-1 treatment. When used in combination, less acyclovir is needed to effectively suppress the virus compared to acyclovir alone -- this is important because acyclovir is also known to have toxic side effects in the kidneys. (2020-12-07)

Incredible vision in ancient marine creatures drove an evolutionary arms race
Ancient deep sea creatures called radiodonts had incredible vision that likely drove an evolutionary arms race according to new research published today. (2020-12-02)

COVID's collateral damage: Germicidal lamps may damage corneas
In a paper published in the journal of Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, physicians from the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine reported that several patients using germicidal lamps in an attempt to sanitize against the coronavirus, developed painful inflammation of the cornea, a condition called photokeratitis. These consumer-available ultraviolet (UV) emitting devices were being usedin an attempt toeliminate coronavirusfrom homes and offices. (2020-11-24)

Novel population of neurons identified that control binocular eye movements in 3D space
Researchers have discovered a previously undescribed population of neurons called saccade-vergence burst neurons that help control our eyes as they view in three-dimensional space. Models had predicted the existence of such neurons. The neurons are in a region of the mid-brain called the central mesencephalic reticular formation. (2020-11-11)

Empathy and perspective taking: How social skills are built
Being able to feel empathy and to take in the other person's perspective are two abilities through which we understand what is going on in the other's mind. But it is still unclear what exactly they constitute. The Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences has now developed a model which explains what empathy and perspective taking are made of: It is not one specific competence rather than many individual factors that vary according to the situation. (2020-11-10)

A 520-million-year-old five-eyed fossil reveals arthropod origin
Researchers from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NIGPAS) have discovered a shrimp-like fossil with five eyes, which has provided important insights into the early evolutionary history of arthropods. (2020-11-04)

First Australian night bees recorded foraging in darkness
Australian bees are known for pollinating plants on beautiful sunny days, but a new study has identified two species that have adapted their vision for night-time conditions for the first time. The study by a team of ecology researchers has observed night time foraging behaviour by a nomiine (Reepenia bituberculata) and masked (Meroglossa gemmata) bee species, with both developing enlarged compound and simple eyes which allow more light to be gathered when compared to their daytime kin. (2020-10-30)

Buzz kill: Ogre-faced spiders 'hear' airborne prey with their legs
In the dark of night, ogre-faced spiders with dominating big eyes dangle from a silk frame to cast a web and capture their ground prey. But these spiders also can capture insects flying behind them with precision, and Cornell University scientists have now confirmed how. (2020-10-29)

Detect with PKAchu
Researchers use genetically engineered mice that fluoresce during PKA activation -- PKAchu -- to observe its activation in retina cells. They found prolonged PKA activates in darkness, after a subsequent light-on mode. Moreover, the activation was seen only in rod cells. The group hopes the results will lead to a better understanding of how our eyes see at night. (2020-10-27)

Research provides a new understanding of how a model insect species sees color
Through an effort to characterize the color receptors in the eyes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, University of Minnesota researchers discovered the spectrum of light it can see deviates significantly from what was previously recorded. (2020-10-26)

With deep learning algorithms, standard CT technology produces spectral images
In research published today in Patterns, a team of engineers from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute demonstrate how a deep learning algorithm can be applied to a conventional computerized tomography (CT) scan in order to produce images that would typically require a higher level of imaging technology known as dual-energy CT. (2020-10-19)

Ultrafast camera films 3-D movies at 100 billion frames per second
Lihong Wang's latest camera technology captures ultrafast video in three dimensions and may help solve some scientific mysteries. (2020-10-16)

Now you see it, now you don't: Hidden colors discovered by coincidence
Scientists in Australia have stumbled across an unusual way to observe colour that had previously gone unnoticed. An example of a process called scattering, the effect occurs in some materials when light interference combines with strong electric fields. The findings, which have been published in the journal Advanced Optical Materials, have expanded our understanding of the behaviour and properties of light, and could also have practical applications in sensing technology and security devices. (2020-10-14)

Scientists replicated self-cleaning anti-reflective coating of insects' eyes
Scientists from Russia and Switzerland have probed into nanostructures covering the corneas of the eyes of small fruit flies. Investigating them the team learned how to produce the safe biodegradable nanocoating with antimicrobial, anti-reflective, and self-cleaning properties in a cost-effective and eco-friendly way. The protection coating might find applications in diverse areas of economics including medicine, nanoelectronics, automotive industry, and textile industry. The article describing these discoveries appears in Nature. (2020-10-13)

How mobile apps grab our attention
Aalto University researchers alongside international collaborators have done the first empirical study on how users pay visual attention to mobile app designs. (2020-10-06)

Do eyeglasses help keep coronavirus out? Johns Hopkins expert says more evidence needed
According to a new Chinese study, wearing eyeglasses for more than eight hours per day may offer some protection against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. A Johns Hopkins Medicine infectious disease expert says that more evidence is needed to confirm any actual benefit. (2020-10-06)

Anti-reflective coating inspired by fly eyes
The eyes of the fruit fly are covered by a thin and transparent coating with anti-reflective, anti-adhesive properties. Researchers from the University of Geneva and Lausanne discovered that the coating only consists of two ingredients: retinin and corneal wax. They succeeded in artificially reproducing the phenomenon on different kinds of surface. This process, which is very inexpensive and is based on biodegradable materials, could have numerous applications for contact lenses, medical implants and textiles. (2020-09-16)

The surprising rhythms of Leopards: Females are early birds, males are nocturnal
After 10 months of camera surveillance in the Tanzanian rainforest, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have become the first to conclude that female and male leopards are active at very different times of the day. The discovery contradicts previous assumptions and could be used to help protect the endangered feline, whose populations have dwindled by 85 percent over the past century. (2020-09-10)

Eye of a fly: Researchers reveal secrets of fly vision for rapid flight control
By examining how fruit flies use eye movements to enhance flight control with a staggeringly fast reaction speed -- about 30 times faster than the blink of an eye -- Penn State researchers have detailed a framework to mimic this ability in robotics. (2020-09-01)

Before eyes open, they get ready to see?
A KAIST research team's computational simulations demonstrated that the waves of spontaneous neural activity in the retinas of still-closed eyes in mammals develop long-range horizontal connections in the visual cortex during early developmental stages. (2020-08-25)

New study: Eyes linger less on 'fake news' headlines
A new study from the University of Copenhagen and Aalborg University reports that people spend a little less time looking at 'fake news' headlines than to factual ones -- knowledge that could make it easier to sort through fake news. (2020-08-24)

Risk of diabetes complications increases with elevated levels of NT-proBNP
Healthy people - especially women - with elevated levels of the heart failure marker NT-proBNP have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, if these people develop diabetes nonetheless, they are more likely to suffer from macro- and microvascular complications such as heart attack, stroke, or severe damage to eyes, kidneys, or nerves. These are the findings of a recent study by DZD researchers that has now been published in Diabetes Care. (2020-08-18)

Palaeontology: 429-million-year-old eye provides a view of trilobite life
The internal structure of a 429-million-year-old fossilized trilobite eye is almost identical to that of modern bees, according to a study published in Scientific Reports. The findings suggest that the principles of vision in many insects and crustaceans today are at least half a billion years old. (2020-08-13)

Recalling memories from a third-person perspective changes how our brain processes them
Adopting a third-person, observer point of view when recalling your past activates different parts of your brain than recalling a memory seen through your own eyes, according to a new paper. (2020-08-13)

Young nearsighted kids benefit from bifocal contact lenses, study shows
Bifocal contact lenses aren't just for aging eyes anymore. In nearsighted kids as young as 7 years old, multifocal contact lenses with a heavy dose of added reading power can dramatically slow further progression of myopia, new research has found. (2020-08-11)

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