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Popular weight-loss surgery in teenagers weakens bones
A common weight loss surgery for adolescents with obesity called sleeve gastrectomy has harmful effects on bones, according to a study being presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). (2020-11-24)

Study: gut hormones' regulation of fat production abnormal in obesity, fatty liver disease
Gut hormones play an important role in regulating fat production in the body. One key hormone, released a few hours after eating, turns off fat production by regulating gene expression in the liver, but this regulation is abnormal in obesity, researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign found in a new study. (2020-11-24)

Early weight gain in children linked to ability to produce the hormone leptin
The brain controls weight by measuring levels of leptin in the blood, which is released by fat cells. In adults, leptin treatments have so far proved ineffective at treating obesity. New genetics research by scientists at the University of Copenhagen suggests that leptin plays a stronger role in controlling the weight of children than in adults. (2020-11-23)

Antimicrobial soap additive worsens fatty liver disease in mice
Triclosan, an antimicrobial found in many soaps and other household items, worsens fatty liver disease in mice fed a high-fat diet. (2020-11-23)

Adipose tissue may be the source of inflammatory factors that aggravate COVID-19
Preliminary results of patient tissue analysis show that the virus infects adipocytes and alters the quantity of signaling molecules released by these cells into the bloodstream. (2020-11-20)

Do meal kits tick right boxes?
During the pandemic, handy meal kit delivery services are helping to develop home cooking habits incorporating healthy ingredients such as vegetables, and a balance of less harmful fats and salt. However, it's important to understand the qualities of these recipes, which vary from week to week, before deciding whether the meal kit is a suitable service for you and your family's nutritional needs and preferences,'' Australian nutrition and dietetics researchers say in a paper in Health Promotion International. (2020-11-19)

Are high-protein total diet replacements the key to maintaining healthy weight?
The results of a study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition suggest that high-protein total diet replacements are a promising nutritional strategy to combat rising rates of obesity. In particular, the study provides further evidence that diets with a higher proportion of protein might offer a metabolic advantage compared to a diet consisting of the same number of calories, but with a lower proportion of protein. (2020-11-18)

Potential therapeutic strategy for obesity
Together with researchers from Poland, Germany, Australia and Austria, a team of MedUni Vienna scientists has now discovered the signalling pathways responsible for the development of a valuable type of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) in obesity, which prevents lipotoxicity. (2020-11-17)

New Fred Hutch-led trial shows no benefits of dairy foods for blood sugar regulation
Results from a new trial published by a team led by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center suggests lower dairy intake may be beneficial for people with metabolic syndrome. (2020-11-16)

Mediterranean diet helps reduce effects of stress in animal model, study shows
Even before the pandemic and the presidential election, Americans reported some of the highest perceived levels of stress in the world, according to the American Psychological Association. Not only does stress have negative effects on work and personal relationships, it also increases the risk of many chronic conditions, such as heart disease and Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with higher mortality rates. (2020-11-16)

Changes to the brain's reward system may drive overeating in mice
A combination of innate differences and diet-induced changes to the reward system may predispose some mice to overeat, according to research recently published in JNeurosci. (2020-11-16)

A diet rich in ultra-processed fats and sugars increases the possibility of muscle pain
A research team from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona - Spain) has observed that following a diet rich in fats and sugars from ultra-processed foods (such as sweet rolls and pastries) for a six-week period increases the number of inflammatory molecules in the organism, which increases the excitability of the muscle nerves. This is known as musculoskeletal neurotransmission. (2020-11-13)

Convenient antioxidant capacity measurement of food
Japanese researchers have developed a system to quickly and easily measure the antioxidant capacity of food. The new electrochemical system uses Bicontinuous Microemulsion (BME), where a mixture of water and oil is gelated and integrated with a sheet-type electrode. This system can easily be used by anyone anywhere and is expected to be used for quality control in the production, manufacturing and sale of food products. (2020-11-12)

Team sport lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women
Team sport effectively counteracts diminished vascular function in women with high blood pressure, even several years after the onset of menopause. Estrogen loss associated with transition into menopause increases women's risk of developing cardiovascular disease and reduces their ability to benefit from training. However, a new study from the Center for Team Sports and Health at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen demonstrates that postmenopausal women do benefit from playing small-sided floorball twice a week. (2020-11-11)

Liver scarring relatively common among middle-aged adults
A substantial minority of participants from the Framingham Heart Study, (nearly nine percent), had potentially clinically significant liver fibrosis (scarring). This the first study of this size and scale done in the United States. (2020-11-09)

All weight loss isn't equal for reducing heart failure risk
DALLAS - Nov. 9, 2020 - Reducing the level of body fat and waist size are linked to a lower risk of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes, a study led by UT Southwestern researchers indicates. The findings, reported today in Circulation, suggest that all weight loss isn't equal when it comes to mitigating the risk of heart disease. (2020-11-09)

Physical activity and dietary counselling slows down development of insulin resistance in children
A new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that individualised and family-based physical activity and dietary counselling considerably slows down the development of insulin resistance, which is a precursor of type 2 diabetes, in 6-9-year-old children. (2020-11-05)

NIH researchers identify gene in mice that controls food cravings, desire to exercise
National Institutes of Health researchers have discovered a gene in mice that controls the craving for fatty and sugary foods and the desire to exercise. The gene, Prkar2a, is highly expressed in the habenula, a tiny brain region involved in responses to pain, stress, anxiety, sleep and reward. The findings could inform future research to prevent obesity and its accompanying risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (2020-11-05)

Dietary supplement may help in the treatment of fatty liver
A recent study by researchers at the University of Jyväskylä was successful in partially preventing fatty liver disease in rats. Rats with fatty liver disease were fed with a dietary supplement that is known to increase the growth of good bacteria in the gut. Simultaneous with the increased abundance of the bacteria, the liver fat content decreased significantly. In addition, preliminary results from a human study seem promising. (2020-11-04)

Western diet impairs odor-related learning and olfactory memory in mice
Problems with the sense of smell appear to be an early indicator of cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes. However, it's unknown whether factors such as diet and obesity play a role in who develops these symptoms. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Chemical Neuroscience found that mice fed a moderate-fat, high-sugar chow (simulating a Western diet) showed a faster decline in their ability to learn and remember new odors. (2020-11-04)

Removing this hidden nasty from our food could save thousands of lives
Banning a harmful ingredient from the Australian food supply could prevent thousands of deaths from heart disease according to new research from The George Institute for Global Health. (2020-11-02)

Eating less suppresses liver cancer due to fatty liver
Liver cancer from too much fat accumulation in the liver has been increasing in many countries including Japan. In order to change this unfortunate state of affairs, it is important to improve the prognosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Fatty liver is often improved through eating less, getting more exercise, and reducing body weight. The research group posed the question, ''Can eating less also suppress liver cancer caused by fatty liver?'' (2020-10-29)

Genetic predisposition to increased weight is protective for breast and prostate cancer
A research study presented at the ASHG 2020 Virtual Meeting suggests that found that increasing weight is causally protective for breast and prostate cancer. (2020-10-26)

High fat or 'ketogenic' diets could prevent, reverse heart failure
Research from Saint Louis University finds that high fat or ''ketogenic'' diets could completely prevent, or even reverse heart failure caused by a metabolic process. The research team, led by Kyle S. McCommis, Ph.D., assistant professor in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at SLU, looked at a metabolic process that seems to be turned down in failing human hearts. (2020-10-26)

Researchers identify how night-shift work causes internal clock confusion
Night-shift workers face an increased risk of obesity and diabetes, but the underlying reason for that has been a mystery. Now, University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers have found a potential cause for metabolic changes during night-shift work that creates confusion between cells in the body and the central clock in the brain. (2020-10-22)

Vitamin A boosts fat burning in cold conditions
A recent study conducted by a research team led by Florian Kiefer from MedUni Vienna's Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism shows that cold ambient temperatures increase vitamin A levels in humans and mice. This helps convert ''bad'' white adipose tissue into ''good'' brown adipose tissue which stimulates fat burning and heat generation. (2020-10-21)

Fats fighting back against bacteria
With antibiotic-resistant superbugs on the rise, this research shows a new way that cells are using to protect themselves - using fats as a covert weapon, and giving us new insights into alternative ways to fight infection. (2020-10-16)

NYUAD study finds key protein related to the disease-causing malformation of fat tissue
A team of researchers from NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD), led by Associate Professor of Biology Piergiorgio Percipalle in collaboration with Research Assistant Professor Mohamed Al-Sayegh, recently studied the molecular basis of adipogenesis and discovered that the protein actin (a specific variant referred to as β-actin) has an important role in activating the genes which need to be expressed in order to create fat tissue. (2020-10-14)

'Danger molecule' associated with being obese, female and black in younger adults
A 'danger molecule' is higher in the blood of younger black adults than whites, females than males and increases with weight and age, researchers report in the first large, longitudinal study associating circulating HMGB1 levels with obesity, inflammation promoters and early indicators of cardiovascular risk in humans. (2020-10-08)

Targeting our second brain to fight diabetes
Patrice Cani (UCLouvain) and Claude Knauf (INSERM) have discovered a 'jammer' that blocks communication between the gut and the brain, thus preventing proper regulation of sugar and causing insulin resistance in people with diabetes. They also discovered that a lipid produced by our body helps prevent this dysfunction and regulate sugar level, thus mitigating diabetes and intestinal inflammation. These discoveries, published in the scientific journal GUT, are major, because today one in two Europeans is overweight and one in ten has diabetes. (2020-10-06)

Fly larvae extract will replace antibiotics in fighting plant pathogens
Biotechnologists from MIPT have developed a method for extracting the active constituents from the fat of black soldier fly larvae. These compounds possess unique antimicrobial properties and can destroy bacteria that cause farm crop diseases and are resistant to antibiotics. (2020-10-05)

Medical mystery: 'Creeping fat' in Crohn's patients linked to bacteria
Cedars-Sinai researchers might have solved a mystery surrounding Crohn's disease: Why does fat appear to migrate into patients' small intestines? (2020-09-30)

Inflammatory gene provides clue to obesity risk
A gene that helps to control inflammation increases the risk of obesity and could be turned off in mice to stop weight gain, a study from The University of Queensland has found. (2020-09-29)

Vitamin D deficiency leads to obesity, stunted growth in zebrafish
Using a zebrafish model, researchers have found that vitamin D deficiency during early development can disrupt the metabolic balance between growth and fat accumulation. (2020-09-29)

Genetic differences in body fat shape men and women's health risks
New findings about body fat help explain the differing health risks men and women face - and set the stage for better, more targeted treatments. (2020-09-28)

'Front of package' nutrition labels improved nutrition quality
A new study analyzing 16 years of data on tens of thousands of products finds that the adoption of nutrition data on ''front of package'' labels is associated with improved nutritional content of those foods and their competitors. (2020-09-21)

The hormone glucagon may be a warning light for diabetes
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen are introducing a new biological concept in the fight against diabetes: glucagon resistance. Glucagon resistance or decreased sensitivity to the hormone glucagon increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. New research shows that glucagon resistance is particularly pronounced in people with fatty liver, and this may be the key to understanding the link between fatty liver and diabetes. (2020-09-17)

A ferry protein in the pancreas protects it from the stress induced by a high-fat diet
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have now uncovered a key mechanism by which pancreatic function is maintained in response to a high-fat diet. A protein present in pancreatic insulin-producing cells protects them from damage under the stress induced by a high-fat diet. As the world increases its intake of high-fat foods and as type 2 diabetes incidence rises as a result, this protein could be a novel therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (2020-09-16)

New insight into how muscles and fat cells work together to make you more fit
Scientists in Denmark and Brazil find evidence of muscle and adipose cross-talk and gain new insight into the importance of adipose DICER in the adaptive response of muscle to exercise training (2020-09-14)

Taste buds may play role in fostering obesity in offspring
Cornell food scientists show in animal studies that a mother's high-fat diet may lead to more sweet-taste receptors and a greater attraction to unhealthy food in their offspring - resulting in poor feeding behavior, obesity in adulthood. (2020-09-11)

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