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Current Fusion News and Events, Fusion News Articles.
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Suppressing spatter reduces random defects in metal 3D printing
Controlling spatter during laser powder bed fusion -- a form of 3D printing that uses metal as a medium -- reduces random defects and increases the overall reliability of built parts. (2020-05-07)

Study finds 'volume dial' for turning neural communication up or down
MIT neuroscientists find that the protein Synaptotagmin 7 limits the supply of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles for release at synapses. (2020-05-06)

Scientists explore the power of radio waves to help control fusion reactions
New research points to improved control of troublesome magnetic islands in future fusion facilities. (2020-04-28)

New high-energy-density physics research provides insights about the universe
Researchers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics have applied physics theory and calculations to predict the presence of two new phenomena -- interspecies radiative transition (IRT) and the breakdown of the dipole selection rule--in the transport of radiation in atoms and molecules under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. The research enhances an understanding of HED science and could lead to more information about how stars and other astrophysical objects evolve in the universe. (2020-04-24)

Simulations show how to make gene therapy more effective
Diseases with a genetic cause could be treated by supplying a correct version of the faulty gene. However, in practice, delivering new genetic material to human cells is difficult. A promising method for the delivery of such genes involves the use of DNA/lipid complexes (lipoplexes). Scientists at the University of Groningen have now used advanced simulations to investigate how these lipoplexes deliver DNA fragments into cells. The results can be used to improve their efficiency. (2020-04-17)

3D fusion imaging improves coronary artery disease diagnosis
A new technique that combines CT and MRI can bolster coronary artery disease diagnosis and help to define appropriate treatment for patients suffering from the disease, according to a new study. (2020-04-16)

Novel sperm membrane protein FIMP facilitates mammalian fertilization
Researchers from Osaka University have identified a new sperm membrane protein that facilitates the complex sperm-oocyte fusion that is fundamental to sexual reproduction, naming it Fertilization Influencing Membrane Protein (FIMP). Using genome editing technology to generate knockout mice deficient in specific genes, they confirmed its importance in addition to the three factors already known. This knowledge may help in the management of human infertility and advance the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives. (2020-04-16)

Single cell division error may be responsible for complexity in cancer genomes
A single error in cell division related to the formation of a chromosome bridge can trigger a cascade of mutational events, rapidly generating many of the defining features of cancer genomes, a new study suggests. (2020-04-16)

Applying mathematics to accelerate predictions for capturing fusion energy
PPPL scientists have borrowed a technique from applied mathematics to rapidly predict the behavior of fusion plasma at a much-reduced computational cost. (2020-04-15)

New coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mapped out
IBS scientists report a high resolution gene and reveal many viral RNAs with unknown functions and modifications. (2020-04-09)

Seeking COVID cures: Scientists find promising first step in antiviral treatment
Researchers from Cornell University have identified a possible target for antiviral treatment for COVID-19. (2020-04-07)

New laser technique will allow more powerful -- and smaller -- particle accelerators
Scientists at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics outline a method to shape intense laser light in a way that accelerates electrons to record energies in very short distances. With such a technology, scientists could perform tabletop experiments to probe the Higgs boson or explore the existence of extra dimensions and the particles that make up our universe. (2020-04-03)

Nafamostat is expected to prevent the transmission of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)
Nafamostat mesylate (brand name: Fusan), which is the drug used to treat acute pancreatitis, may effectively block the requisite viral entry process the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) uses to spread and cause disease (COVID-19). The University of Tokyo announced these new findings on March 18, 2020. (2020-03-30)

New explanation for sudden heat collapses in plasmas can help create fusion energy
PPPL researchers find that jumbled magnetic fields in the core of fusion plasmas can cause the entire plasma discharge to suddenly collapse. (2020-03-30)

Supermassive black holes shortly after the Big Bang: How to seed them
They are billions of times larger than our Sun: how is it possible that supermassive black holes were already present when the Universe was 'just' 800 million years old? For astrophysicists, the formation of these cosmic monsters in such a short time is a real scientific headache. A new study proposes a very fast formation process in the initial phases of their development, proving, mathematically, that their existence was possible in the young Universe. (2020-03-23)

Oncotarget Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): a review of the literature
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 11 reported that relapsed APL, particularly in the high-risk subset of patients, remains an important clinical problem. The probability of relapse is significantly higher in the high-risk subset of patients undergoing treatment for APL; overall approximately 10-20% of APL patients relapse regardless of their risk stratification. (2020-03-20)

A landmark plan for realizing fusion energy and advancing plasma science
A summary of key points of the fusion and plasma science community's year-long Community Planning Process that proposes accelerating development of these strategic fields. (2020-03-19)

Artificial intelligence helps prevent disruptions in fusion devices
Research led by a Princeton University graduate student demonstrates that machine learning can predict and avoid damaging disruptions to fusion facilities. (2020-03-17)

Scientists optimize prime editing for rice and wheat
Recently, a research team led by Prof. GAO Caixia of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the optimization of a prime editing system (PPE system) for creating desired point mutations, insertions and deletions in two major cereal crops, namely, rice and wheat. The main components of a PPE system are a Cas9 nickase-RT fusion protein and a pegRNA. (2020-03-16)

Permanent magnets stronger than those on refrigerator could be a solution for delivering fusion energy
Permanent magnets can, in principle, greatly simplify the design and production of the complex coils of stellarator fusion facilities. (2020-03-11)

Feeding fusion: hydrogen ice pellets prove effective for fueling fusion plasmas
Injecting pellets of hydrogen ice rather than puffing hydrogen gas improves fusion performance. Studies by PPPL and ORNL physicists compared the two methods on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, looking ahead to the fueling to be used on ITER. (2020-03-10)

Isotope movement holds key to the power of fusion reactions
Controlling the uniformity of hydrogen isotope density ratio in fusion plasma is a problem for realizing fusion energy. The researchers have reached a key understanding of the process to make the hydrogen isotope ratio uniform using the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The uniformity is determined by isotope movement under the influence of plasma turbulence. This understanding would help researchers to increase the power of fusion reactions. (2020-02-26)

Design of the W7-X fusion device enables it to overcome obstacles
Advanced design of the world's largest and most powerful stellarator demonstrates the ability to moderate heat loss from the plasma that fuels fusion reactions. (2020-02-24)

Jackiw-Rebbi zero-mode: Realizing non-Abelian braiding in non-Majorana system
Topological quantum computation is widely considered as a Holy Grail in the field of condensed matter physics. Majorana fermion or Majorana zero-mode has long been regarded as the most possible candidate for topological quantum computation. Researchers from four universities including Peking University and Xi'an Jiaotong University published their recent progress and demonstrated that Jackiw-Rebbi zero-mode in topological insulators could be a new candidate for topological quantum computation. (2020-02-07)

Story tips: Fusion squeeze, global image mapping, computing mental health, Na+ batteries
Story tips: Fusion squeeze, global image mapping, computing mental health and sodium batteries. (2020-02-06)

U of T researchers discover intricate process of DNA repair in genome stability
An elaborate system of filaments, liquid droplet dynamics and protein connectors enables the repair of some damaged DNA in the nuclei of cells, researchers at the University of Toronto have found. The findings further challenge the belief that broken DNA floats aimlessly -- and highlight the value of cross-disciplinary research in biology and physics. (2020-02-04)

Mixing the unmixable -- a novel approach for efficiently fusing different polymers
Cross-linked polymers are structures where large molecular chains are linked together, allowing exceptional mechanical properties and chemical resistance to the final product. However, their modification is not easy. Now, scientists at Tokyo Tech develop a method that allows the fusion of different polymers together easily, allowing the precise tuning of the properties of the final material by selecting appropriate base polymers and mixing them at the right proportion. (2020-01-21)

Larotrectinib in tumours with NTRK gene fusion: Data are not yet sufficient
Larotrectinib in tumours with NTRK gene fusion: Data are not yet sufficient for derivation of an added benefit The small studies on the histology-independent use of the inhibitor have no controls. The amount of other data is also still too small to assess an added benefit. (2020-01-16)

Cancer study may accidentally help researchers create usable blood stem cells
University of Colorado Cancer Center study shows that cancer-causing MLL gene may also push pluripotent stem cells to make hematopoietic stem cells, a strong step in the decades-long effort to make personalizable, durable blood stem cells. (2020-01-16)

Black patients have worse outcomes of lower spinal fusion surgery
Black patients undergoing lumbar (lower) spinal fusion surgery have worse outcomes -- including higher complication rates, more hospital days, and higher costs -- compared to white patients, suggests a study in Spine. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer. (2020-01-15)

Stellar heavy metals can trace history of galaxies
Astronomers have cataloged signs of nine heavy metals in the infrared light from supergiant and giant stars. New observations based on this catalog will help researchers to understand how events like binary neutron star mergers have affected the chemical composition and evolution of our own Milky Way galaxy and other galaxies. (2020-01-09)

Utilizing relativistic effects for laser fusion: A new approach for clean power
Researchers at Osaka University studied a new approach for laser nuclear fusion utilizing relativistic phenomena of intense laser light. By irradiating the ultra-intense laser light directly onto the fusion fuel, the researchers examined signs of heating of fusion fuel. This work may lead to widespread, clean fusion power. (2020-01-07)

Ten not-to-be-missed PPPL stories from 2019 -- plus a triple bonus!
Arms control robots, a new national facility, and accelerating the drive to bring the fusion energy that powers the stars to Earth: 10 (and a triple bonus!) Must-Read Stories of 2019. (2020-01-02)

Powder, not gas: A safer, more effective way to create a star on Earth
PPPL scientists have found that sprinkling a type of powder into fusion plasma could aid in harnessing the ultra-hot gas within a tokamak facility to produce heat to create electricity without producing greenhouse gases or long-term radioactive waste. (2019-12-23)

Rapid tissue donation program offers feasible approach to improve research
In an article published in Cancer Medicine, Moffitt Cancer Center scientists describe a community-based program called the Rapid Tissue Donation (RTD) protocol. It enables patients to consent to donating tumor tissue and blood samples for research purposes after their death. (2019-12-13)

Entrectinib effective, well-tolerated against ROS1 and NTRK lung cancers, especially with brain metastases
Pooled analysis of three phase 1 and 2 clinical trials show that the drug entrectinib is effective and well-tolerated against advanced ROS1 and NTRK fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). (2019-12-13)

Proton-hydrogen collision model could impact fusion research
A new study published in EPJ D uses new techniques to calculate the cross sections of atoms which have been excited to higher energy levels. They analysed the behaviour over a wide range of impact energies. (2019-12-09)

Fusion by strong lasers
Nuclear physics usually involves high energies, as illustrated by experiments to master controlled nuclear fusion. One problem is how to overcome the strong electrical repulsion between atomic nuclei which requires high energies to make them fuse. But fusion could be initiated at lower energies with electromagnetic fields that are generated by state-of-the-art free electron lasers emitting X-ray light. Researchers at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) describe how this could be done in the journal Physical Review C. (2019-12-05)

Record-size sex chromosome found in two bird species
Researchers in Sweden and the UK have discovered the largest known avian sex chromosome. The giant chromosome was created when four chromosomes fused together into one, and has been found in two species of lark. (2019-12-04)

Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, December 2019
ORNL story tips: An additively manufactured polymer layer applied to specialized plastic proved effective to protect aircraft from lightning strikes in lab test; injecting shattered argon pellets into a super-hot plasma, when needed, could protect a fusion reactor's interior wall from runaway electrons; ORNL will celebrate the life and legacy of Dr. Liane Russell on December 20. (2019-12-02)

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