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AI detects COVID-19 on chest x-rays with accuracy and speed
Northwestern University researchers have developed a new artificial intelligence (A.I.) platform that detects COVID-19 by analyzing X-ray images of the lungs. (2020-11-24)

NASA's Hubble sees unexplained brightness from colossal explosion
Long ago and far across the universe, an enormous burst of gamma rays unleashed more energy in a half-second than the Sun will produce over its entire 10-billion-year lifetime. In May of 2020, light from the flash finally reached Earth and was first detected by NASA's Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. (2020-11-23)

Prehistoric shark hid its largest teeth
Some, if not all, early sharks that lived 300 to 400 million years ago not only dropped their lower jaws downward but rotated them outwards when opening their mouths. This enabled them to make the best of their largest, sharpest and inward-facing teeth when catching prey, paleontologists at the Universities of Zurich and Chicago have now shown using CT scanning and 3D printing. (2020-11-18)

In the lab, St. Jude scientists identify possible COVID-19 treatment
Immunologists have determined the process driving life-threatening inflammation, lung damage and organ failure in patients with COVID-19, sepsis and other inflammatory disorders suggesting possible treatment using existing drugs. (2020-11-18)

Image release: Galaxies in the Perseus Cluster
New VLA images show how the crowded environment of a cluster of galaxies affects the individual galaxies, helping astronomers better understand some of the complex details of such an environment. (2020-11-12)

Birth of magnetar from colossal collision potentially spotted for first time
Researchers spotted a short gamma ray burst 10 times brighter than predicted. The mysterious brightness might signal the birth of a rare magnetar, formed from two neutron stars merging, which has never before been observed. (2020-11-12)

Unexplained brightness from colossal explosion
Astronomers may have potentially spotted a magnetar born from a neutron star merger for the very first time. The merger resulted in the brightest kilonova ever seen. The light first came as a violent explosion of gamma rays billons of light-years away that unleashed more energy in a blink of an eye than the Sun will produce over its entire 10-billion-year lifetime. (2020-11-12)

Tree rings may hold clues to impacts of distant supernovas on Earth
Massive explosions of energy happening thousands of light-years from Earth may have left traces in our planet's biology and geology, according to new research by University of Colorado Boulder geoscientist Robert Brakenridge. (2020-11-11)

Researchers show safer, more targeted way to deliver CRISPR gene therapy
Biomedical researchers have come up with a novel way to use a beam of light to deliver CRISPR gene therapy molecules targeting illnesses. (2020-11-11)

Surrey helps to produce the world's first neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions
An international team of scientists have unveiled the world's first production of a purified beam of neutron-rich, radioactive tantalum ions. (2020-11-10)

New analysis finds lung cancer screening reduces rates of lung cancer-specific death
Low-dose CT screening methods may prevent one death per 250 at-risk adults screened, according to a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled clinical trials of lung cancer screening. Researchers at the University of Georgia analyzed the health outcomes of 90,275 patients, comparing those who were screened versus those who received usual medical care or chest x-rays. (2020-11-10)

Perspectives of tumor treatment: Researchers investigate combination of carbon ion and immunotherapy
It is still a glance into the future: The combination of carbon ion and immune therapy could become an effective tool in the fight against cancer. Promising results for the potential benefit of this treatment combination have now been published in the journal ''International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics'' of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology. The authors are an international team, led by the Biophysics Department at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. (2020-11-09)

Steroid injections do not hasten the need for knee replacement
New research shows that corticosteroid injections for knee OA treatment do not hasten a patient's progression to a total knee replacement when compared with hyaluronic acid injections. Details of this study was presented at ACR Convergence, the American College of Rheumatology's annual meeting. (2020-11-06)

Astronomers discover clues that unveil the mystery of fast radio bursts
UNLV astrophysicist Bing Zhang and international collaborators recently observed fast radio bursts, powerful radio waves coming from deep space that have been among the most mysterious astronomical phenomena ever observed. Zhang and colleagues contribute to our understanding of where they come from and how they're produced in a series of papers published in Nature. (2020-11-05)

FAST helps reveal the origin of fast radio bursts
Researchers from Beijing Normal University, Peking University and National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) found that there is weak correlation between fast radio bursts(FRBs) and soft gamma-ray repeater J1935+2145(SGRs). (2020-11-04)

Goby fins have fingertip touch sensitivity
Primates are renowned for their delicate sense of touch, but now a series of experiments by scientists from The University of Chicago, USA, published in Journal of Experimental Biology reveal that the fins of round gobies are as touch sensitive as primate fingertips. (2020-11-03)

The Grantecan finds the farthest black hole that belongs to a rare family of galaxies
An international team of astronomers has identified one of the rarest known classes of gamma-ray emitting galaxies, called BL Lacertae, within the first 2 billion years of the age of the Universe. The team has used one of the largest optical telescope in the world, Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (Garafía, La Palma). The finding is published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. (2020-10-27)

The Milky Way galaxy has a clumpy halo
Astronomers at the University of Iowa have determined our galaxy is surrounded by a clumpy halo of hot gases that is continually being supplied with material ejected by birthing or dying stars. The halo also may be where matter unaccounted for since the birth of the universe may reside. Results published in the journal Nature Astronomy. (2020-10-19)

Oncotarget: Th1 cytokines potentiate apoptosis of breast cancer cells and suppress tumor growth
Volume 11, Issue 30 of Oncotarget reported that previously, the authors showed that anti-estrogen drugs combined with a dendritic cell-based anti-HER-2 vaccine known to induce strong Th1-polarized immunity dramatically improved clinical response rates in patients with HER-2pos/ERpos early breast cancer. (2020-10-18)

Zeptoseconds: new world record in short time measurement
In the global race to measure ever shorter time spans, physicists from Goethe University Frankfurt have now taken the lead: together with colleagues at the accelerator facility DESY in Hamburg and the Fritz-Haber-Institute in Berlin, they have measured a process that lies within the realm of zeptoseconds for the first time: the propagation of light within a molecule. A zeptosecond is a trillionth of a billionth of a second (10 exp -21 seconds). (2020-10-16)

Modelling extreme magnetic fields and temperature variation on distant stars
New research is helping to explain one of the big questions that has perplexed astrophysicists for the past 30 years - what causes the changing brightness of distant stars called magnetars. Magnetars were formed from stellar explosions or supernovae and they have extremely strong magnetic fields, estimated to be around 100 million, million times greater than the magnetic field found on earth. (2020-10-13)

Properties of catalysts studied with gamma ray resonance
Steam-assisted oil extraction methods for heavy deposits have long been the focus of attention at Kazan Federal University. In particular, much attention is paid to in-situ combustion catalysts. (2020-10-13)

UMD astronomers find x-rays lingering years after landmark neutron star collision
It's been three years since the landmark detection of a neutron star merger from gravitational waves. Since that day, an international team of researchers led by University of Maryland astronomer Eleonora Troja has been continuously monitoring the subsequent radiation emissions to provide the most complete picture of such an event. Their analysis provides possible explanations for X-rays that continued to radiate from the collision long after models predicted they would stop. (2020-10-12)

In the eye of a stellar cyclone
While on COVID lockdown, a University of Sydney honours student has written a research paper on a star system dubbed one of the ''exotic peacocks of the stellar world''. (2020-10-11)

Researchers find "missing link" between magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars
Researchers from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research have made observations of a new magnetar, called Swift J1818.0-1607, which challenges current knowledge about two types of extreme stars, known as magnetars and pulsars. (2020-10-08)

Hunting for the lowest known nuclear-excited state
Measurements in thorium-229 take a step towards the direct laser excitation of an atomic nucleus in this unique isotope (2020-10-06)

NASA-NOAA satellite finds Hurricane Delta rapidly intensifying
Infrared imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite revealed that Hurricane Delta has been rapidly growing stronger and more powerful. Infrared imagery revealed that powerful thunderstorms circled the eye of the hurricane and southern quadrant as it moved through the Caribbean Sea on Oct. 6, 2020. (2020-10-06)

NASA imagery reveals Tropical Storm Gamma battered by wind shear
NASA's Terra satellite obtained visible imagery of Tropical Storm Gamma being battered by outside winds in the south central Gulf of Mexico. Over the weekend of Oct. 3 and 4, Gamma tracked over Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. (2020-10-05)

Timing the life of antimatter particles may lead to better cancer treatment
Experts in Japan have devised a simple way to glean more detailed information out of standard medical imaging scans. A research team made up of atomic physicists and nuclear medicine experts has designed a timer that can enable PET scanners to detect the oxygen concentration of tissues throughout patients' bodies. This upgrade to PET scanners may lead to a future of better cancer treatment by quickly identifying parts of tumors with more aggressive cell growth. (2020-10-01)

New extreme ultraviolet facility opens for use
Researchers have established a novel high-frequency laser facility at the University of Tokyo. The coherent extreme ultraviolet light source can reveal details of biological or physical samples with unprecedented clarity. It also allows for investigation of time-dependent phenomena such as ultrafast chemical reactions. Existing facilities for such investigations necessarily require enormous particle accelerators and are prohibitive to many researchers. This new facility should greatly improve access for a broad range of researchers. (2020-09-28)

Scientists achieve higher precision weak force measurement between protons, neutrons
Through a one-of-a-kind experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, nuclear physicists have precisely measured the weak interaction between protons and neutrons. The result quantifies the weak force theory as predicted by the Standard Model of Particle Physics. (2020-09-24)

Atom-Billiards with X-Rays: a new Approach to look inside of Molecules
Since these early days of quantum mechanics, it is known that photons also possess momentum. The photon's ability to transfer momentum was used in a novel approach by scientists of the Max Born Institute, Uppsala University, and the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility to observe a fundamental process in the interaction of x-rays with atoms. The detailed experimental and theoretical results are reported in the journal Science. (2020-09-24)

New materials: A toggle switch for catalysis
A special material made of lanthanum, strontium, iron and oxygen can be switched back and forth between two different states: In one state the material is catalytically extremely active, in the other less so. The reason for this is the behavior of tiny iron nanoparticles on the surface. This finding should now make it possible to develop even better catalysts. (2020-09-23)

Survey reveals popular misconceptions about child marriage
Misconceptions about child marriage (marriage under 18) appear widespread among the American public, potentially hampering efforts to address the practice globally. David Lawson and colleagues at the University of California, Santa Barbara, present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on September 23, 2020. (2020-09-23)

NIST scientists get soft on 3D printing
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a new method of 3D-printing gels and other soft materials. Published in a new paper, it has the potential to create complex structures with nanometer-scale precision. (2020-09-22)

Cosmic X-rays reveal an indubitable signature of black holes
A black hole is an exotic cosmic object, from within which nothing, not even light, can escape. Definitive proof of the existence of such objects is a holy grail of physics and astronomy. An international team of astrophysicists, consisting of Mr. Srimanta Banerjee, Professor Marat Gilfanov, Professor Sudip Bhattacharyya and Professor Rashid Sunyaev, has found by far the strongest steady signature of stellar-mass black holes to date, from the cosmic X-rays observed with a satellite. (2020-09-21)

VLBA makes first direct distance measurement to magnetar
Using the VLBA, astronomers have made the first direct geometric measurement of the distance to a magnetar. This precision measurement to one of the most magnetic objects in the Universe could help scientists determine if such objects are responsible for generating the mysterious Fast Radio Bursts. (2020-09-18)

Who stole the light?
Free electron X-ray lasers deliver intense ultrashort pulses of x-rays, which can be used to image nanometer-scale objects in a single shot. When the x-ray wavelength is tuned to an electronic resonance, magnetization patterns can be made visible. When using increasingly intense pulses, however, the magnetization image fades away. The mechanism responsible for this loss in resonant magnetic scattering intensity has now been clarified. (2020-09-18)

Immune system may have another job -- combatting depression
An inflammatory autoimmune response within the central nervous system similar to one linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) has also been found in the spinal fluid of healthy people, according to a new Yale-led study comparing immune system cells in the spinal fluid of MS patients and healthy subjects. The research, published Sept. 18 in the journal Science Immunology, suggests these immune cells may play a role other than protecting against microbial invaders -- protecting our mental health. (2020-09-18)

Imaging probe to visualize Alzheimer's disease-related gamma-secretase in the brain
Scientists have developed a molecular imaging probe to reveal Alzheimer's-related γ-secretase in rodents and macaques with translational potentials in humans (2020-09-17)

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