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Study shows one quarter of hospitalized young patients aged 18-39 years with COVID-19 developed pneumonia
New research to be presented at the ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, held online from 23-25 September) shows that one quarter of hospitalized younger patients with COVID-19 aged 18-39 years developed pneumonia, underlining the danger the disease represents to young people. (2020-09-17)

Immune system affects mind and body, study indicates
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered that a molecule produced by the immune system acts on the brain to change the behavior of mice. (2020-09-14)

UCLA study shows how interferon-gamma guides response to cancer immunotherapy
UCLA researchers shed light on how interferon-gamma (IFN-y) guides the treatment response in people with advanced melanoma who are treated with one of the leading immunotherapies -- immune checkpoint blockade. (2020-09-10)

A new kind of liquid scintillator via hybridizing perovskite nanocrystals with organic molecules
Highly-efficient scintillators are playing an essential role in various fundamental science and industrial applications. For enhancing quantum yield, scientists in South Korea demonstrated a new kind of scintillating nanomaterials via hybridizing perovskite nanocrystals with organic molecules, which make it possible to detect X-rays efficiently and to achieve high-quality X-ray images in liquid form. The hybrid nanomaterials will hold substantial promise for advancing the industrial applications of X-ray imaging and producing intriguing scintillation in other hybrid nanomaterial systems. (2020-09-09)

As information flows through brain's heirarchy, higher regions use higher frequency waves
New study by MIT neuroscientists also finds specific frequency bands associated with encoding, or inhibiting encoding, of sensory information across the cortex. (2020-09-08)

Brain stimulation reduces dyslexia deficits
Restoring normal patterns of rhythmic neural activity through non-invasive electrical stimulation of the brain alleviates sound-processing deficits and improves reading accuracy in adults with dyslexia, according to a study published September 8, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Silvia Marchesotti and Anne-Lise Giraud of the University of Geneva, and colleagues. (2020-09-08)

LSU Health New Orleans radiologists find chest X-rays highly predictive of COVID-19
A team of LSU Health New Orleans radiologists investigated the usefulness of chest x-rays in COVID-19 and found they could aid in a rapid diagnosis of the disease, especially in areas with limited testing capacity or delayed test results. (2020-09-03)

Reef manta rays make long-term use of marine-protected areas
Understanding the key areas where migratory species like the reef manta ray like to congregate is crucial for their future conservation. A new study by a team of researchers in Australia tracked movement patterns for a population of Mobula alfredi along the country's west coast using satellites and photographs. Their data fill in key gaps in what scientists know about how these large marine animals live in the wild. (2020-09-02)

Subtypes and developmental pathways of innate T cells identified
Study finds T cells differentiate into memory cells before meeting antigens - a clue to developing new immunotherapy (2020-09-02)

Zooming in on dark matter
Cosmologists have zoomed in on the smallest clumps of dark matter in a virtual universe - which could help us to find the real thing in space. (2020-09-02)

MSK study links inflammation to Alzheimer's disease development
Scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute have discovered a direct link between the immune response to viruses and bacteria and the development of plaques in the brain that characterize Alzheimer's disease. (2020-09-02)

Continuous infrared winds discovered during the eruption of a stellar mass black hole
A team of researchers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) has detected for the first time the constant infrared emission from winds produced during the eruption of a black hole in an X-ray binary. (2020-08-27)

Study rules out DM destruction as origin of extra radiation in galaxy center
In a paper in Physical Review D, a University of California, Irvine-led team reports that - through an analysis of the Fermi data and an exhaustive series of modeling exercises - they were able to determine that an observed excess of gamma rays could not have been produced by what are called weakly interacting massive particles, most popularly theorized as the stuff of dark matter. (2020-08-26)

New observations of black hole devouring a star reveal rapid disk formation
When a star passes too close to a supermassive black hole, tidal forces tear it apart, producing a bright flare of radiation as material from the star falls into the black hole. Astronomers study the light from these 'tidal disruption events' (TDEs) for clues to the feeding behavior of the supermassive black holes lurking at the centers of galaxies, and new observations help resolve crucial details of this process. (2020-08-26)

Researchers pursue 'hidden pathology' to explain fatigue in multiple sclerosis
In a study published in Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital used positron emission technology (PET) imaging to look for brain's immune cells that may become erroneously activated in MS, leading to fatigue. The team describes a potential link to brain inflammation that may help explain the connection between MS and fatigue. (2020-08-26)

A galaxy's stop-and-start young radio jets
VLBA image shows details of a young jet emitted from the core of an active galaxy, revealing that the jet activity stopped, then restarted only a decade ago. (2020-08-25)

NASA missions explore a 'TIE Fighter' active galaxy
Not so long ago, astronomers mapped a galaxy far, far away using radio waves and found it has a strikingly familiar shape. In the process, they discovered the object, called TXS 0128+554, experienced two powerful bouts of activity in the last century. (2020-08-25)

Lensless light-field imaging through diffuser encoding
Microlens array based light-field imaging generally suffers from an intrinsic trade-off between the spatial and angular resolutions. To this end, Scientists in China and German jointly proposed a lensless light-field imaging modality by using a diffuser as an encoder. Light rays can be decoupled from a detected image with adjustable spatio-angular resolutions, breaking through the resolution limitation of the sensor. This work indicates the possibility of using scattering media for lensless light-field recording and processing. (2020-08-24)

Spinning black hole powers jet by magnetic flux
A new letter has been found in the mysterious alphabet of black holes. Two astrophysicists share this discovery in the journal Nature Communications. (2020-08-21)

NTU scientists develop "biorubber" glue for faster surgical recovery and pain relief
Materials scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have invented a new type of surgical glue that can help join blood vessels and close wounds faster and may also serve as a platform to deliver pain relief drugs. (2020-08-20)

First immune-evading cells created to treat type 1 diabetes
Salk Institute scientists have made a major advance in the pursuit of a safe and effective treatment for type 1 diabetes, an illness that impacts an estimated 1.6 million Americans with a cost of $14.4 billion annually. Using stem cell technology, Salk researchers generated the first human insulin-producing pancreatic cell clusters able to evade the immune system. These ''immune shielded'' cell clusters controlled blood glucose without immunosuppressive drugs once transplanted in the body. (2020-08-19)

Exploding stars may have caused mass extinction on Earth, study shows
Imagine reading by the light of an exploded star, brighter than a full moon. It might be fun to think about, but this scene is the prelude to a disaster when the radiation devastates life as we know it. Killer cosmic rays from nearby supernovae could be the culprit behind at least one mass extinction event, researchers said, and finding certain radioactive isotopes in Earth's rock record could confirm this scenario. (2020-08-18)

Strange gamma-ray heartbeat puzzles scientists
Scientists have detected a mysterious gamma-ray heartbeat coming from a cosmic gas cloud. The inconspicuous cloud in the constellation Aquila is beating with the rhythm of a neighbouring precessing black hole, indicating a connection between the two objects, as the team led by DESY Humboldt Fellow Jian Li and ICREA Professor Diego F. Torres from the Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC) reports in the journal Nature Astronomy. (2020-08-17)

Arecibo Observatory data help lead to discovery of cosmic 'heartbeat'
An international team of researchers using data from Arecibo Observatory and the Fermi Space Telescope have discovered what they call a ''gamma-ray heartbeat'' coming from a cosmic gas cloud. The cloud is in the constellation Aquilla and ''beats'' in rhythm with a black hole 100 light years away in a microquasar system known as SS 433. The results were published today in the journal Nature Astronomy. (2020-08-17)

Surrey academics develop a new method to determine the origin of stardust in meteorites
Scientists have made a key discovery thanks to stardust found in meteorites, shedding light on the origin of crucial chemical elements. (2020-08-11)

Explosive nuclear astrophysics
An international team has made a key discovery related to 'presolar grains' found in some meteorites. This discovery has shed light on stellar explosions and the origin of chemical elements. It has also provided a new method for astronomical research. (2020-08-10)

Calcium-rich supernova examined with X-rays for first time
New findings reveal that a calcium-rich supernova is a compact star that sheds an outer layer of gas during the final stages of its life. When the star explodes, its matter collides with the loose material in that outer shell, emitting bright X-rays. The overall explosion causes intensely hot temperatures and high pressure, driving a chemical reaction that produces calcium. (2020-08-05)

NASA data helps uncover our solar system's shape
Scientists have developed a new prediction of the shape of the bubble surrounding our solar system using a model developed with data from NASA missions. (2020-08-05)

35-second scan could pick the next sporting champion
How hard is it to pick the next Usain Bolt, Ian Thorpe or Anna Meares? Finding a world champion often falls to talent scouts and involves years of hard work, but could it be as simple as a 35-second body scan? (2020-08-03)

X-rays recount origin of oddball meteorites
X-ray experiments at Berkeley Lab played a key role in resolving the origin of rare, odd meteorites that have puzzled scientists since their discovery a half-century ago. Known as type IIE iron meteorites, they appear to have originated from a parent body that had a composition featuring both fully melted and unmelted parts - other meteorite types display only one composition. (2020-07-27)

New 'super light source' should allow fascinating insights into atoms
The 'Gamma Factory initiative' -- an international team of scientists -- is currently exploring a novel research tool: They propose to develop a source of high-intensity gamma rays using the existing accelerator facilities at CERN. To do this, specialized ion beams will be circulated in the SPS and LHC storage rings, which will then be excited using laser beams so that they emit photons within the gamma radiation range of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is of particular interest in connection with spectroscopic analysis of atomic nuclei. (2020-07-22)

Biotelemetry provides unique glimpse into whitespotted eagle rays' behavior
Researchers are the first to characterize the ecology and fine-scale habitat use of 'near threatened' whitespotted eagle rays in Florida while also identifying areas of potential interactions between this species and multiple environmental threats. Biotelemetry provided unique insights into this species' occupancy, which is not apparent at the landscape-scale. Prolonged observations showed affinities for habitats of considerable recreational and commercial importance, like inlets, channels, and clam aquaculture lease sites close to shore. (2020-07-22)

Using lung X-rays to diagnose COVID-19
This system uses deep learning to train a neural network model that can distinguish between healthy patients, pneumonia patients and COVID-19 patients. This has been achieved using a freely accessible online database that medical professionals from around the world have been feeding with lung X-rays since the onset of the pandemic. (2020-07-21)

Physicists find ways to control gamma radiation
Researchers from Kazan Federal University, Texas A&M University and Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences) found ways to direct high frequency gamma radiation by means of acoustics. (2020-07-21)

National poll: Some parents may not properly protect children from the sun
While the majority of parents recognize the importance of sunscreen, they may not always use best practices to protect children from getting burned, a new national poll suggests. (2020-07-20)

Separating gamma-ray bursts: Students make critical breakthrough
By applying a machine-learning algorithm, scientists at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have developed a method to classify all gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), rapid highly energetic explosions in distant galaxies, without needing to find an afterglow - by which GRBs are presently categorized. This breakthrough, initiated by first-year B.Sc. students, may prove key in finally discovering the origins of these mysterious bursts. The result is now published in Astrophysical Journal Letters. (2020-07-17)

Low-cost catalyst helps turn seawater into fuel at scale
The Navy's quest to power its ships by converting seawater into fuel is one step nearer fruition. University of Rochester chemical engineers, in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory, the University of Pittsburgh, and OxEon Energy, have demonstrated that a potassium-promoted molybdenum carbide catalyst efficiently and reliably converts carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, a critical step in the process. (2020-07-15)

Tulane scientists build high-performing hybrid solar energy converter
The project is the culmination of a U.S. Department of Energy ARPA-E project that began in 2014 with $3.3 million in funding and involved years of prototype development at Tulane and field testing in San Diego. (2020-07-15)

A rapid finger-stick blood test quickly estimates radiation exposure in mice
A new finger-stick test can use a single drop of blood to quickly estimate how much harmful radiation mice have been exposed to, according to a study. (2020-07-15)

Underused part of the electromagnetic spectrum gets optics boost from metamaterial
Terahertz radiation, or T-rays, has barely been exploited compared to most of the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum. Yet T-rays potentially have applications in next-generation wireless communications (6G/7G), security systems, biomedicine, and even art history. A new device for controlling T-rays using a specially designed 'metasurface' with properties not found in nature could begin to realize this potential. (2020-07-14)

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