Current Gene Mutations News and Events

Current Gene Mutations News and Events, Gene Mutations News Articles.
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New features of a gene defect that affects muzzle length and caudal vertebrae in dogs
A recent genetic study at the University of Helsinki provides new information on the occurrence of a DVL2 gene defect associated with a screw tail and its relevance to canine constitution and health. The variant was found in several Bulldog and Pit Bull type breeds, and it was shown to result in caudal vertebral anomalies and shortening of the muzzle. The DLV2 variant may also affect the development of the heart. (2021-02-23)

B cells continue to work against SARS-CoV-2 months after infection, but do not recognize mutant
A new analysis of B cells and more than 1,000 different monoclonal antibodies from 8 patients with COVID-19 shows that, contrary to previous hypotheses, protective B cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein remain stable and continue to evolve over a 5-month period, many months after the initial period of active viral replication. (2021-02-23)

Toxins from one bacterial species contribute to genetic diversity of others
A toxin produced by bacteria as a defence mechanism causes mutations in target bacteria that could help them survive. (2021-02-23)

UIC researchers invent new gene-editing tool
Researchers have discovered a new gene-editing technique that allows for the programming of sequential cuts -- or edits -- over time. (2021-02-23)

A novel gene discovery associated with a development disorder of pituitary origin
A study carried out at the University of Helsinki investigated pituitary dwarfism in Karelian Bear Dogs and found a link to a variant of the POU1F1 gene. The results can also help understand the gene's significance to the human pituitary gland's development and function. (2021-02-22)

Improved vectors for ocular gene therapy
Strategies based on the use of gene therapy to mitigate the effects of mutations that cause blindness are undergoing rapid development. Novel gene vectors now achieve widespread gene delivery and reduce the risks associated with these approaches. (2021-02-22)

Tweaking corn kernels with CRISPR
Corn has a highly complex genome, making it a challenge to apply genome-editing techniques to it. CSHL Professor David Jackson and postdoctoral fellow Lei Liu used CRISPR to tinker with the corn genome promoter regions and modify stem cell growth. They figured out which sections influence kernel yield, and they hope to make targeted genome-editing in corn more precise and efficient. (2021-02-22)

New technique reveals switches in RNA
Scientists at the University of Groningen (The Netherlands), in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Torino (Italy), have developed a method to visualize and quantify alternative structures of RNA molecules. These alternative RNA 'shapes' can have important functional relevance in viruses and bacteria. The method was used to identify a conserved structural switch in the RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (2021-02-22)

Don't focus on genetic diversity to save our species
Scientists at the University of Adelaide have challenged the common assumption that genetic diversity of a species is a key indicator of extinction risk. Published in the journal PNAS, the scientists demonstrate that there is no simple relationship between genetic diversity and species survival. But, Dr João Teixeira and Dr Christian Huber from the University of Adelaide's School of Biological Sciences conclude, the focus shouldn't be on genetic diversity anyway, it should be on habitat protection. (2021-02-22)

CovMT: Tracking virus mutations across the world
An interactive platform helps users visualize where SARS-CoV-2 mutations start, how wide they spread and how infectious they are. (2021-02-21)

Spina bifida can be caused by uninherited genetic mutations
Genetic mutations which occur naturally during the earliest stages of an embryo's development can cause the severe birth defect spina bifida, finds a new experimental study in mice led by UCL scientists. (2021-02-19)

Metabolic mutations help bacteria resist drug treatment
MIT researchers have identified a new class of mutations that help bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. In a study of E. coli, they discovered that mutations to genes involved in metabolism can help bacteria to evade the toxic effects of several different antibiotics. (2021-02-18)

A (pollen-free) sigh of relief for Japan: The genetics of male sterility in cedar trees
Pollen from Cryptomeria japonica, or Japanese cedar, is widely known to cause allergies. But, male-sterile trees are known to be devoid of pollen. Now, researchers from the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan, have studied the genetic variations in the male sterility gene (MS1) in these trees. This can help in selectively breeding male-sterile plants to counter the discomfort caused by pollen allergies and overcome the need to stay indoors during the pollen season. (2021-02-17)

Genotoxic E. coli 'caught in the act'
Max Planck researchers and their collaborators reveal transformation of colon organoids in vitro. (2021-02-17)

Cosmetic laser may boost effectiveness of certain anti-cancer therapies
In mice treated with cancer immunotherapy, shining a cosmetic laser on a tumor boosted the therapy's effectiveness. The strategy stimulated the immune system to attack nonmutated proteins on the tumor. The findings may help investigators make cancer immunotherapy effective against currently incurable cancers. (2021-02-17)

Study demonstrates the reasons to screen children with cancer for inherited cancer genes
Experts at MSK Kids, the pediatric oncology program at MSK, have found that inherited cancer genes are more common than expected in children with cancer. (2021-02-16)

Asthma may heighten flu risk and cause dangerous mutations
A subtype of asthma in adults may cause higher susceptibility to influenza and could result in dangerous flu mutations. University of Queensland-led animal studies have found that paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA) - a non-allergic form of the condition - allows the flu virus to flourish in greater numbers in sufferers. (2021-02-16)

Heartbeat secrets unlocked as cardiac rhythm gene role identified
Researchers have used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to identify the role of a gene involved in cardiac rhythm, which could help explain the fundamentals of what it takes to make a human heartbeat. (2021-02-15)

Going the distance--insights into how cancer cells spread
In a study published in Nature Communications, cancer researchers at Kanazawa University identify mechanisms by which malignant tumor cells extend their toxicity to distinct cell types and in turn help them spread. (2021-02-12)

Liquid biopsy for colorectal cancer could guide therapy for tumors
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis demonstrates that a liquid biopsy examining blood or urine can help gauge the effectiveness of therapy for colorectal cancer that has just begun to spread beyond the original tumor. Such a biopsy can detect lingering disease and could serve as a guide for deciding whether a patient should undergo further treatments due to some tumor cells evading an initial attempt to eradicate the cancer. (2021-02-12)

Gene-based blood test for melanoma spread evaluates treatment progress
A test that monitors blood levels of DNA fragments released by dying tumor cells may serve as an accurate early indicator of treatment success in people in late stages of one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, a new study finds. (2021-02-12)

Artificial intelligence generates new diversity of AAV capsids for broader gene therapy
Research in Nature Biotechnology demonstrates the use of machine learning to generate unprecedented diversity of functional AAV capsids, towards evading immune system neutralization to allow more patients to benefit from gene therapies. It is estimated that up to 50-70% of the human population have pre-existing immunity to natural forms of the AAV vectors currently used in gene therapies. Dyno Therapeutics is applying CapsidMap™ and partnering with gene therapy companies to develop next-generation AAV vectors. (2021-02-11)

Study identifies never-before-seen dual function in enzyme critical for cancer growth
In developing therapies for hard-to-treat breast and ovarian cancers in patients with BRCA gene mutations, scientists aim to identify ways to keep cancer cells from using DNA break repair pathways. New findings demonstrate a previously-unknown capability for polymerase theta (pol theta) - a key enzyme in this repair function - that shows promise as a new avenue for treatment development. (2021-02-11)

Affordable CRISPR app reveals unintended mutations at site of CRISPR gene repair
Scientists have developed an affordable, downloadable app that scans for potential unintended mistakes when CRISPR is used to repair mutations that cause disease. The app reveals potentially risky DNA alterations that could impede efforts to safely use CRISPR to correct mutations in conditions like sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis. The development of the new tool, called DECODR (which stands for Deconvolution of Complex DNA Repair), was reported today in The CRISPR Journal by researchers from ChristianaCare's Gene Editing Institute. (2021-02-11)

Neandertal genes alter neurodevelopment in modern human brain organoids
Building modern human brain organoids with the Neanderthal variant of a gene has provided a glimpse into the way substitutions in this gene impacted our species' evolution. (2021-02-11)

Sinai team builds first model acute myeloid leukemia progression using CRISPR
A research team led by the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (Icahn Mount Sinai) has built the first cellular model to depict the evolution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), from its early to late stages. By using gene editing technologies to alter genes that make cells malignant, the team was able to identify potential therapeutic targets for early disease stages. The study was reported in the journal Cell Stem Cell in February. (2021-02-10)

Known tumour suppressor gene found essential for development, regeneration&stress-response
- Experiments carried out in the Drosophila fly have led to the identification of the headcase (hdc) gene as pivotal for adult progenitor cells, allowing them to undergo metamorphosis and give rise to adult tissue structures. - The study by IRB Barcelona's Development and Morphogenesis in Drosophila lab has been published in PLOS Genetics. (2021-02-09)

Starling success traced to rapid adaptation
Love them or hate them, there's no doubt the European Starling is a wildly successful bird. A new study from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology examines this non-native species from the inside out to learn what exactly happened at the genetic level as the starling population exploded across North America? (2021-02-09)

Winner-takes-all synthetic gene circuit process opens new pathways to disease treatment
Multicellular synthetic circuits will be a much more effective way to treat cancer. (2021-02-08)

Identification of three genes that determine the stemness of gastric tissue stem cells
Tissue stem cells can self-renew and differentiate, supplying cells necessary for tissues at various developmental stages. However, detailed analysis in vivo is difficult, so the molecular mechanisms underlying the stemness of gastric tissue stem cells have remained a mystery. Here, by using organoids that mimic tissue structure and function in vivo and GeCKO screening to inactivate arbitrary genes, Alk, Bclaf3 and Prkra have been identified as genes regulating stemness. (2021-02-08)

AI researchers ask: What's going on inside the black box?
Brain-like artificial networks are often referred to as a ''black box'' because researchers do not know how they learn and make predictions. Researchers at CSHL reported a way to peek inside the box and identify key features on which the computer relies, particularly when trying to identify complex DNA sequences. (2021-02-08)

Researchers develop platform to identify cancer mutations that may be responsive to drug therapies
A Cleveland Clinic-led team of researchers has developed a personalized genomic medicine platform that will help advance accelerate genomic medicine research and genome-informed drug discovery, according to new study results published recently in Genome Biology. (2021-02-08)

New AI tool can thwart coronavirus mutations
USC computer scientists used AI to create a new tool that rapidly identifies potential solutions to coronavirus mutations and screens vaccines much faster to give humans an advantage over the contagion. (2021-02-05)

At the core of the Integrator complex
A new paper from the Galej group at EMBL Grenoble describes the structure of key parts of the Integrator complex. This complex, which is composed of multiple protein subunits, is involved in global regulation of the process of transcription, during which the cell's DNA is used as a template to make instructions in the form of RNA. Knowing the structure of the Integrator complex will help scientists to better understand the interactions between its subunits and how it is involved in gene expression. (2021-02-05)

Study highlights risk of new SARS-CoV-2 mutations emerging during chronic infection
SARS-CoV-2 mutations similar to those in the B1.1.7 UK variant could arise in cases of chronic infection, where treatment over an extended period can provide the virus multiple opportunities to evolve, say scientists. (2021-02-05)

Fungi in the gut prime immunity against infection
Common fungi, often present in the gut, teach the immune system how to respond to their more dangerous relatives, according to new research from scientists at Weill Cornell Medicine. Breakdowns in this process can leave people susceptible to deadly fungal infections. (2021-02-05)

Researchers replicate a potential step of the fin-to-limb transition in zebrafish
By tweaking a single gene, scientists engineered zebrafish that show the beginnings of limb-like appendages. The researchers stumbled upon this mutation, which may shed light on the sea-to-land transition of vertebrates, while screening for gene mutants and their impact on fish development. Their discovery, outlined February 4th in the journal Cell, marks a fundamental step in our understanding of fin-to-limb evolution and how simple genetic changes can create leaps in the development of complex structures. (2021-02-04)

Can a fin become a limb?
Researchers at Harvard and Boston Children's Hospital examine what's happening at genetic level to drive patterns in fin skeleton versus limb skeleton and find mutants with modified fins in a more limb-like pattern by adding new bones, complete with muscles and joints. The results reveal the ability to form limb-like structures was present in the common ancestor of tetrapods and teleost fishes and has been retained in a latent state which can be activated by genetic changes. (2021-02-04)

How elephants evolved to become big and cancer-resistant
In this new study, 'We explored how elephants and their living and extinct relatives evolved to be cancer-resistant,' says University at Buffalo biologist Vincent Lynch. He adds, regarding the findings, 'Elephants have lots and lots and lots of extra copies of tumor suppressor genes, and they all contribute probably a little bit to cancer resistance.' (2021-02-04)

Uncovering recurring deletions in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that drive antibody escape
Researchers have identified a pattern of deletions in the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 that can prevent antibody binding. Virus lineages featuring this mechanism are currently being transmitted between individuals globally, they say. (2021-02-03)

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