Current Gene Regulation News and Events | Page 25

Current Gene Regulation News and Events, Gene Regulation News Articles.
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Unraveling role of tumor suppressor in gene expression & ovarian tumorigenesis
The tumor suppressor protein ARID1A controls global transcription in ovarian epithelial cells, according to new research conducted at The Wistar Institute, which provided mechanistic insight into tumorigenesis mediated by ARID1A loss in ovarian cancer. (2018-06-26)

Novel genetic method improves efficiency of enzyme
Researchers at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Georgia developed a new genetic engineering technique to dramatically improve an enzyme's ability to break down biomass. (2018-06-26)

Of hearts and giants: Moving a cardiac regulatory protein to the right place
An international research team revealed a nuclear localization role for a conserved short stretch of a cardiac muscle regulator. Mutations within the RSRSP stretch of RBM20 cause the left ventricle to enlarge and weaken, and were shown to interrupt nuclear transport of RBM20, preventing it from controlling a giant spring-like protein of cardiac muscle cells. The findings and animal model developed will pave the way for greater understanding of dilated cardiomyopathy. (2018-06-26)

Skeleton formation in young corals documented for first time in multidisciplinary study
Researchers have identified the biological process of mineralization that occurs in a young coral that shifts from the plankton (swimming) stage to the 'settled' stage in which it forms the skeleton from minerals that protect its colony. The discovery is important for understanding the process of coral reef formation and protecting marine creatures from ecological damage associated with global warming, and could impact new biotechnological developments using coral extractions to regenerate and reconstruct human bones. (2018-06-25)

A new tactic for starving tumors
Scientists have found a metabolic particularity in tumor cells that are low on oxygen. The discovery might point to new drugs to target the most difficult-to-treat spots within a tumor. (2018-06-25)

New nuclear medicine technique could help tackle brain disease
A new molecular imaging method can monitor the success of gene therapy in all areas of the brain, potentially allowing physicians to more effectively tackle brain conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. The research was presented today at the SNMMI 2018 Annual Meeting, June 23-26 in Philadelphia. (2018-06-25)

The psychobiology of online gaming
When researchers looked at expression of a particular gene complex that is activated by chronic stress, they found differences depending on whether someone was positively engaging in video games or were problematic gamers. (2018-06-21)

UM research identifies how snowshoe hares evolved to stay seasonally camouflaged
Researchers at the University of Montana recently discovered that hybridization played an important role in snowshoe hares' ability to match their environment. (2018-06-21)

The role of vitamin D in a healthy pregnancy
For a pregnancy to proceed to term, early modulation of the immunologic response is required to induce tolerance to the fetus. (2018-06-20)

A case of 'kiss and tell': Chromosomal kissing gets less elusive
Chromosomes occupy different territories in the nucleus; their arrangement and communication with each other is still poorly understood. Scientists from Berlin and Jena published in EMBO Journal findings about structural chromosomal aberrations which have an effect on genome organization (chromosomal kissing) and disease progression. (2018-06-20)

Mechanism controlling multiple sclerosis risk identified
While the DNA sequence remains the same throughout a person's life, the expression of the encoded genes may change with time and contribute to disease development in genetically predisposed individuals. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now discovered a new mechanism of a major risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS) that triggers disease through epigenetic regulation. They also found a protective genetic variant that reduces the risk for MS. The study is published in Nature Communications. (2018-06-19)

Sensitive new assay finds abnormalities in tumor cells that other techniques may miss
RNA-Seq, a new next-generation assay, can detect gene fusions in solid tumor cells with high accuracy and excellent reproducibility. According to a new report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, the assay detected 93 percent of gene fusions identified by currently available methods with no false positives. Importantly, gene fusions missed by other techniques were found, including 18 that had never been described before. This study paves the way for clinical use to advance the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors. (2018-06-18)

Rewiring plant defence genes to reduce crop waste
Plants could be genetically rewired to better resist disease, helping safeguard crop yields worldwide according to new research by the universities of Warwick and York. Defensive feedback control system developed enables plants to strengthen their defenses to withstand attack by re-wiring existing gene connections The system uses same approach as aircraft autopilots use to counteract turbulence. (2018-06-18)

Rare mutation of gene carried by Quebec family gives insight into how the brain is wired
The study of a Quebec family with an unusual gene provides novel insight into how our brain is built and, according to the McGill led team of scientists, offers a better understanding of psychiatric disorders such as depression, addictions and schizophrenia. (2018-06-18)

Novel information about the effects of in vitro fertilization on embryonic growth
In vitro fertilization affects the regulatory region of genes essential for placental and embryonic growth, as well as the birth weight. A new study suggests that the effects depend on genetic variation inherited from the parents. This information could be useful in development of assisted reproduction technologies. (2018-06-18)

Blue gene regulation helps plants respond properly to light
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science (CSRS) have discovered a process through which gene expression in plants is regulated by light. Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, the study found that blue light triggers a shift in which portion of a gene is ultimately expressed. (2018-06-18)

Gene therapy restores hand function after spinal cord injury in rats
Researchers at King's College London have shown that rats with spinal cord injuries can re-learn skilled hand movements after being treated with a gene therapy that could be switched on and off using a common antibiotic. (2018-06-14)

Non-coding DNA changes sex determination
Scientists have identified a key enhancer of Sox9 -- a gene critical for male sex development -- and demonstrated that deleting this non-coding DNA results in male-to-female sex reversal. (2018-06-14)

Social rejection is painful and can lead to violence. Mindfulness may provide a solution.
People who have greater levels of mindfulness -- or the tendency to maintain attention on and awareness of the present moment -- are better able to cope with the pain of being rejected by others, according to a new study led by a team of Virginia Commonwealth University researchers. (2018-06-14)

Stem cell-derived organoids for testing gene delivery to retinal & photoreceptor cells
A new study that compared six of the most promising adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy vectors in human retinal organoid models showed clear distinctions in the efficiency of gene transfer to both retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and photoreceptor cells. (2018-06-13)

Genome-editing tool could increase cancer risk
Therapeutic use of gene editing with the so-called CRISPR-Cas9 technique may inadvertently increase the risk of cancer, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, and the University of Helsinki, Finland, published in Nature Medicine. Researchers say that more studies are required in order to guarantee the safety of these 'molecular scissors' for gene-editing therapies. (2018-06-11)

RNA changes aided sunflower's rapid evolutionary transformation, domestication
A new University of Colorado Boulder-led study sheds light on the genetic mechanisms that allowed sunflowers to undergo a relatively rapid evolutionary transition from wild to domesticated in just over 5,000 years. (2018-06-11)

Enzyme found to control formation of collagen carriers and inhibit collagen secretion
Researchers at Tokyo Tech have identified an enzyme that controls how much our cells secrete collagen. As collagen imbalance is linked to a range of human diseases, the study provides clues to new therapeutic strategies. Moreover, the findings could facilitate efficient production of collagen for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (2018-06-10)

Coral tricks for adapting to ocean acidification
A molecular process that signals distress could also help corals adapt to climate change. (2018-06-08)

In building the brain, cell pedigree matters
Research in mice shows that a protein made by the stem cells that give rise to neurons, but not by neurons themselves, is key to brain cells' ability to migrate during development and assume their proper positions This primordial protein acts by clinging onto thousands of sites in the genome, affecting the activity of multiple genes that regulate brain development. The findings could yield valuable clues for a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders (2018-06-07)

Improved ape genome assemblies provide new insights into human evolution
Higher-quality assemblies of great ape genomes have now been generated without guidance of the human reference genome. They provide a clearer view of genetic differences that arose as humans diverged from other primates. The newest investigation offers the most comprehensive catalog of genetic variants that were gained or lost in different ape lineages. The influence of these variants was explored in brain development, dietary needs and anatomy. A fossil virus found in ape but not human genomes was also examined. (2018-06-07)

New tool enables big-scale analysis of single cells
Researchers at the Centro Nacional de AnĂ¡lisis GenĂ³mico of the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CNAG-CRG) in Barcelona, Spain, developed a novel computational tool named BigSCale to analyze millions of single cells simultaneously. Their work, which is published in the June issue of Genome Research, analyzed 1.3 million cells and unraveled an unprecedented heterogeneity in rare cell populations during mouse brain development. (2018-06-05)

Gene linked to intellectual ability affects memory replay in mice
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science in Japan have discovered that a gene associated with human intellectual ability is necessary for normal memory formation in mice. Published in Nature Neuroscience, the study shows that mice with only one copy of the gene replay shorter fragments of their previous experiences during periods of rest, impairing their ability to consolidate memories. (2018-06-04)

The role of cohesin in genome 3D structure helps for a better understanding of tumor cells
The genome spatial organization depends on a number of factors, the cohesin protein complex being one of them. This essential complex is present in two versions that contain either the SA1 or SA2 subunit. A study analyses in-depth the functions of both variants in 3D genome architecture and shows how the alteration of SA2 influences gene expression and may favor the loss of differentiation in tumor cells. (2018-06-04)

Unlocking the genome
A team led by Prof. Stein Aerts (VIB-KU Leuven) uncovers how access to relevant DNA regions is orchestrated in epithelial cells. These findings shed new light on the biological mechanisms of gene regulation and open up potential new avenues for cellular reprogramming. (2018-06-04)

Brain structure may predict diet success
Differences in the structure of the prefrontal cortex predict an individual's ability to make healthier food choices, according to a new analysis of previous research in healthy men and women. The paper, published in JNeurosci, suggests an important role of these anatomical markers in decisions that have long-term effects on health and wellbeing. (2018-06-04)

How did human brains get so large?
The human brain is a remarkable organ, but how did it evolve to give us such unprecedented cognitive abilities? The research team of Pierre Vanderhaeghen (ULB, VIB-KU Leuven) turned to the genome for answers. In the latest edition of Cell, they report that a set of genes found only in humans and in no other living species, controls key steps of brain development. (2018-05-31)

Neuroscientists discover roles of gene linked to Alzheimer's
MIT researchers found that the gene APOE4 promotes the aggregation of beta amyloid proteins that cause plaques seen in Alzheimer's patients. They also found they could eliminate signs of Alzheimer's in brain cells with APOE4 by editing the gene using CRISPR/Cas9 to turn it into the APOE3 variant. (2018-05-31)

A new understanding of how glucose makes you fat
Glucose is the energy that fuels cells, and the body likes to store glucose for later use. But too much glucose can contribute to obesity, and scientists have long wanted to understand what happens within a cell to tip the balance. (2018-05-31)

NCI-MATCH precision medicine trial reaches milestone
NCI-MATCH (Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice), the largest precision medicine trial of its kind, achieves a milestone with the release of results from three treatment arms of the trial at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2018 annual meeting. Spokespersons are available for interviews. (2018-05-30)

Understanding the origin of Alzheimer's, looking for a cure
Researchers look at the promising role played by the BMI1 gene, which could someday help mitigate or even reverse the disease. (2018-05-29)

MSU-based molecular biologists compared human and yeast FACT
Today, scientists extensively study FACT -- a protein complex that plays a role in DNA packing within a nucleus, as well as in oncogenesis. A team of scientists from MSU working in cooperation with foreign colleagues found out similarities between the work of this complex in humans and yeast. This discovery helped predict the existence of a new protein that assists the FACT complex in humans. (2018-05-25)

Molecular network boosts drug resistance and virulence in hospital-acquired bacterium
In response to antibiotics, a gene regulation network found in the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii acts to boost both virulence and antibiotic resistance. Edward Geisinger of Tufts University School of Medicine and colleagues present new insights into this system in a study published in PLOS Pathogens. (2018-05-24)

The secret to honing kids' language and literacy
Research from Michigan State University found that a child's ability to self-regulate is a critical element in childhood language and literacy development, and that the earlier they can hone these skills, the faster language and literacy skills develop leading to better skills in the long run. (2018-05-24)

Unsubstantiated health claims widespread within weight loss industry
New research investigating the legality of on-pack nutrition and health claims routinely found on commercially available meal replacement shakes for sale in the UK, reveals that more than three-quarters are unauthorized and do not comply with the EU Nutrition and Health Claims regulation. (2018-05-24)

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