Current Genes News and Events

Current Genes News and Events, Genes News Articles.
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Tweaking corn kernels with CRISPR
Corn has a highly complex genome, making it a challenge to apply genome-editing techniques to it. CSHL Professor David Jackson and postdoctoral fellow Lei Liu used CRISPR to tinker with the corn genome promoter regions and modify stem cell growth. They figured out which sections influence kernel yield, and they hope to make targeted genome-editing in corn more precise and efficient. (2021-02-22)

'Jumping genes' repeatedly form new genes over evolution
A study, 'Recurrent Evolution of Vertebrate Transcription Factors by Transposase Capture,' published Feb. 19 in Science, investigates how genetic elements called transposons, or ''jumping genes,'' are added into the mix during evolution to assemble new genes through exon shuffling. (2021-02-22)

A study with 1,600 dogs: More than 20 gene loci associated with canine hip dysplasia
An extensive study on canine hip dysplasia conforms to the polygenic background of the disease. Genes located in different chromosomes have a strong association with a protein modification process previously linked to inflammatory arthritis. (2021-02-18)

Capuchin monkey genome reveals clues to its long life and large brain
An international team of scientists has sequenced the genome of a capuchin monkey for the first time, uncovering new genetic clues about the evolution of their long lifespan and large brains. Published in PNAS, the work was led by the University of Calgary in Canada and involved researchers at the University of Liverpool. (2021-02-15)

Scientists identify how harmless gut bacteria "turn bad"
An international team of scientists has determined how harmless E. coli gut bacteria in chickens can easily pick up the genes required to evolve to cause a life-threatening infection. Their study, published in Nature Communications, warns that such infections not only affect the poultry industry but could also potentially cross over to infect humans. (2021-02-12)

Lifestyle changes in pregnant women affected babies' genes
A study led by researchers at Lund University in Sweden showed a connection between lifestyle intervention in pregnant women with obesity and epigenetic alterations in the baby. The study is published in the journal Diabetes. (2021-02-11)

Ecological interactions as a driver of evolution
In a recent study, an international team of researchers including TUD botanist Prof. Stefan Wanke has investigated the origin of the mega-diversity of herbivorous insects. These account for a quarter of terrestrial diversity. The results of the study were recently published in the international journal Nature Communications. There the scientists show that the evolutionary success of insects may be linked to recurrent changes in host plants. (2021-02-09)

Not a living fossil: How the Coelacanth recently evolved dozens of new genes
The research shows the dramatic effect traveling DNA can have on the creation of genes and provide a glimpse into some of the forces that shaped the genome of one of the most ancient and mysterious organisms. (2021-02-09)

Study: 'Hidden' genes could be key in development of new antibiotics
A study from the Center for Phage Technology, part of Texas A&M's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Texas A&M AgriLife Research, shows how the ''hidden'' genes in bacteriophages -- types of viruses that infect and destroy bacteria -- may be key to the development of a new class of antibiotics for human health. (2021-02-05)

Genes for face shape identified
Genes that determine the shape of a person's facial profile have been discovered by a UCL-led research team. (2021-02-05)

How to blackmail your family
Raising kids can be tough, and sometimes you need all the help you can get. Biologists at the University of Bristol argue that some animals might be able to blackmail reluctant relatives into assisting with the rearing of young. The study is published today [2 February] in The American Naturalist. (2021-02-02)

'You say tomato, I say genomics': Genome sequences for two wild tomato ancestors
A research team led by University of Tsukuba has produced genome sequences for two wild species of tomato from South America, ancestors of the cultivated tomato. The ancestral species contain thousands of genes that are not present in modern types. The novel genes will help plant breeders produce new tomatoes with features like improved disease resistance, increased tolerance for the changing climate, and improved flavor and shelf-life. (2021-01-27)

Building a corn cob--cell by cell, gene by gene
CSHL scientists analyzed where and when thousands of genes are activated in baby corn. This allowed them to build an anatomical map of important developmental genes that can be manipulated to improve crop yield and resilience. (2021-01-26)

University of Cincinnati student uses zebrafish to study spinal deformities
Oriana Zinani, a doctoral student in molecular developmental biology at the University of Cincinnati, is part of a team of researchers using zebrafish embryos to study a gene mutation that causes scoliosis, a sideways curvature of the spine that typically occurs in humans just before puberty. (2021-01-22)

Proteins unspool DNA so cells can take on unique properties
New research reveals how proteins, called 'pioneer transcription factors,' help turn on key genes that give cell types their unique properties and functions. (2021-01-22)

NUI Galway contribute to significant breast cancer risk genes study
Breast cancer investigators in the Lambe Institute at NUI Galway have collaborated on a pivotal international study into breast cancer risk which was published in the New England Journal of Medicine today. The results of the study have identified that there are nine specific genes associated with breast cancer risk. (2021-01-21)

CNIO participates in a study that defines the most important genes that increase breast cancer risk
* The study will help to improve prevention programmes since it ''defines the most useful genes'' for breast cancer risk prediction tests, the authors write * The study will be published in the 'New England Journal of Medicine' (NEJM) and is authored by 250 researchers from dozens of institutions in more than 25 countries * Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers today. One in eight women will develop it in their lifetime (2021-01-21)

Study updates breast cancer risk estimates for women with no family history
A new multi-institution study led by Fergus Couch, Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic pathologist, provides more accurate estimates of breast cancer risk for U.S. women who harbor inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes. The findings of the CARRIERS Consortium study, published Jan. 20 in The New England Journal of Medicine, may allow health care providers to better assess the risk of breast cancer in women ? many of whom have no family history of breast cancer. (2021-01-21)

Snake sex chromosomes say less about sex and more about survival
A new study looks to snakes to broaden our understanding of what makes a gene able to survive on a sex-specific chromosome. Comparing surviving genes on snake sex-specific chromosomes to those that are lost to the ravages of time can teach scientists about the evolutionary pressures that shaped sex chromosomes as we know them today. (2021-01-21)

Prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to the male bias of autism spectrum disorder
Autism has a higher prevalence in males than females. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common chemical found in plastics, our food, and even the human placenta. Higher prenatal exposure to BPA is thought to increase the risk of autism. Researchers have, for the first time, identified autism candidate genes that may be responsible for the sex-specific effects of BPA. (2021-01-19)

Exploration of toxic Tiger Rattlesnake venom advances use of genetic science techniques
A team of researchers led by the University of South Florida has decoded the genome of the Tiger Rattlesnake, which has venom 40 times more toxic than that of Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes, the largest venomous snake in North America. (2021-01-19)

The regulatory network of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit is revealed
The innovation project watermelon and melon cultivation and physiology team of Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute has made new progress in the metabolism regulation of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit. (2021-01-14)

Reverse engineering 3D chromosome models for individual cells
A new computational technique that uses heat map data to reverse engineer highly detailed models of chromosomes and researchers have uncovered new information about the close spatial relationships that chromatin folding creates between genes. (2021-01-14)

Sperm-specific gene expression in organisms including mice, macaques and men
A large class of mammalian genes is not completely shared throughout sperm development and differentiation, according to a new study of sperm in organisms including mice, macaques and men. (2021-01-14)

How the circadian clock regulates liver genes in time and space
EPFL scientists have carried out the first comprehensive study of how genes in the liver perform their metabolic functions in both space and time of day. Monitoring almost 5000 genes at the level of the individual cell across a 24-hour period, the researchers have modelled how the circadian clock and liver functions crosstalk throughout the day in sync with the feeding-fasting cycle. (2021-01-11)

Antibiotic resistance from random DNA sequences
An important and still unanswered question is how new genes that cause antibiotic resistance arise. In a new study, Swedish and American researchers have shown how new genes that produce resistance can arise from completely random DNA sequences. The results have been published in the journal PLOS Genetics. (2021-01-08)

Where antibiotic resistance comes from
By comparing thousands of bacterial genomes, scientists in Gothenburg, Sweden have traced back the evolutionary history of antibiotic resistance genes. In almost all cases where an origin could be determined, the gene started to spread from bacteria that, themselves, can cause disease. (2021-01-07)

Common brain malformation traced to its genetic roots
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown that Chiari 1 malformation can be caused by variations in two genes linked to brain development, and that children with large heads are at increased risk of developing the condition. (2020-12-28)

How roundworms decide the time is right
The roundworm C. elegans matches its development to the amount of food in its environment. It uses a protein called BLMP-1 to open up a large set of developmental genes, priming them to turn on when food is plentiful. Humans have a protein with a similar function that is known to be overactive in some blood cancers. (2020-12-22)

Brain stem cells divide over months
For the first time, scientists at the University of Zurich have been able to observe the way stem cells in the adult brains of mice divide over the course of months to create new nerve cells. Their study shows that brain stem cells are active over a long period, and thus provides new insights that will feed into stem cell research. (2020-12-21)

Clemson researcher identifies gene teams working in subregions of brain
You must first understand how something works normally before you can figure out why it's broken. Clemson University researcher Yuqing ''Iris'' Hang has identified six mini gene co-expression networks for a normally functioning brain. That will allow researchers to test each of the gene teams to see if gene pairs are changing in brain tumors or people with intellectual disabilities. (2020-12-16)

Genes play a role in common knee injury
It has long been known that the choice of shoe, surface and type of sport can all be contributing factors when someone suffers an anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have now observed that genes also play a decisive role. (2020-12-15)

Scientists found out genes involved in a compound in lichens with antiviral activity
Lichens are of great importance both ecologically and as a biological model. These organisms produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, including usnic acid, a compound with unknown biological function but which in-vitro studies have found to present antiviral, neuroprotective and anti-cancer activity. An international research team led by the Complutense University of Madrid has identified the cluster of biosynthetic genes involved in the production of this compound. (2020-12-11)

Male weeds may hold key to their own demise
Scientists are getting closer to finding the genes for maleness in waterhemp and Palmer amaranth, two of the most troublesome agricultural weeds in the US. Finding the genes could enable new 'genetic control' methods for the weeds, which, in many places, no longer respond to herbicides. (2020-12-11)

Development of a new method for decoding viral genes
A research team led by Professor Yasushi Kawaguchi of the Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo, developed a new decoding method for viral genes that can easily and quickly obtain even non-canonical genetic information. Using this new decoding method, they identified nine novel proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) and found that one of them, piUL49, is a pathogenic factor that specifically controls the onset of herpes encephalitis . (2020-12-07)

Quick and sensitive identification of multidrug-resistant germs
Researchers from the University of Basel have developed a sensitive testing system that allows the rapid and reliable detection of resistance in bacteria. The system is based on tiny, functionalized cantilevers that bend due to binding of sample material. In the analyses, the system was able to detect resistance in a sample quantity equivalent to 1-10 bacteria. (2020-12-07)

Researchers use genomics to identify diabetic retinopathy factors
In the paper, ''Integration of genomics and transcriptomics predicts diabetic retinopathy susceptibility genes,'' published in eLife, researchers identified genes that respond differently in response to high glucose in individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy. (2020-12-07)

Biologists from RUDN University discovered the secret of flaxseed oil with long shelf life
Biologists from RUDN University working together with their colleagues from the Institute of Molecular Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Flax studied the genes that determine the fatty acid composition in flaxseed oil and identified polymorphisms in six of them. The team also found out what gene variations could extend the shelf life of flaxseed oil. This data can be used to improve the genetic selection of new flax breeds. (2020-12-04)

Tweaking carotenoid genes helps tomatoes bring their a-game
Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba demonstrated that Target-AID gene editing technology can be used to simultaneously introduce single-base changes into multiple genes in tomatoes. Using this technique, the researchers altered three genes associated with carotenoid accumulation, resulting in elevated levels of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, in the resulting tomato lines. This technology will allow tomato breeders to introduce multiple advantageous gene changes into elite commercial cultivars, bypassing lengthy back-crossing steps between generations. (2020-12-01)

A large-scale tool to investigate the function of autism spectrum disorder genes
Scientists have developed a technology to investigate the function of many different genes in many different cell types at once, in a living organism. They applied the large-scale method to study dozens of genes associated with autism spectrum disorder, identifying how specific cell types in the developing mouse brain are impacted by mutations. The ''Perturb-Seq'' method is an efficient way to identify potential biological mechanisms underlying disease and is broadly applicable to other organs. (2020-11-30)

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