Current Genetic Variation News and Events

Current Genetic Variation News and Events, Genetic Variation News Articles.
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ACSL1 as a main catalyst of CoA conjugation of propionic acid-class NSAIDs in liver
Researchers from Kanazawa University have found that propionic acid-class nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen, form ''conjugates'' with coenzyme A (CoA) by one of the acyl-CoA synthetases, ACSL1, in liver. These conjugates have the covalent binding ability to cellular proteins that may lead to liver injury, a rare severe side effect of NSAID treatment. This knowledge could help pharmaceutical companies to generate pain control options with fewer risks of severe side effects. (2021-01-22)

Study finds genetic clues to pneumonia risk and COVID-19 disparities
Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and colleagues have identified genetic factors that increase the risk for developing pneumonia and its severe, life-threatening consequences. (2021-01-21)

Eating habits partly down to your genetics, finds new study
Your food intake patterns are partly under genetic control, according to the latest research from researchers at King's College London, published today in the journal Twin Research and Human Genetics. (2021-01-19)

Exploration of toxic Tiger Rattlesnake venom advances use of genetic science techniques
A team of researchers led by the University of South Florida has decoded the genome of the Tiger Rattlesnake, which has venom 40 times more toxic than that of Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes, the largest venomous snake in North America. (2021-01-19)

Guppies have varying levels of self-control
Just like humans trying to stick to New Year's resolutions, guppies have varying levels of self-control, a new study shows. (2021-01-15)

CCNY's David Lohman finds Asian butterfly mimics different species as defense mechanism
Many animal and insect species use Batesian mimicry - mimicking a poisonous species - as a defense against predators. The common palmfly, Elymnias hypermnestra (a species of satyrine butterfly), which is found throughout wide areas of tropical and subtropical Asia, adds a twist to this evolutionary strategy: the females evolved two distinct forms, either orange or dark brown, imitating two separate poisonous model species, Danaus or Euploea. (2021-01-14)

Behavioral traits converge for humans and animals sharing an environment
Humans, mammals and birds that live in a particular environment share a common set of behavioral traits, according to a new study, which identifies a local convergence of foraging, reproductive and social behaviors across species. (2021-01-14)

Sperm-specific gene expression in organisms including mice, macaques and men
A large class of mammalian genes is not completely shared throughout sperm development and differentiation, according to a new study of sperm in organisms including mice, macaques and men. (2021-01-14)

Model analyzes how viruses escape the immune system
MIT researchers have devised a way to computationally model viral escape, using models that were originally developed to model language. The model can predict which sections of viral surface proteins, including those of influenza, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2, are more likely to mutate in a way that allows the virus to evade the human immune system. It can also identify sections that are less likely to mutate, making them good targets for new vaccines. (2021-01-14)

Weaker skin barrier leads to faster uptake of chemicals
The ability of our skin to protect us from chemicals is something we inherit. Some people are less well-protected which could imply an increased risk of being afflicted by skin disease or cancer. A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden that has been published in Environmental Health Perspectives shows how the rate of uptake of common chemicals is faster in people with a genetically weakened skin barrier. (2021-01-13)

Ukraine genome survey adds missing pieces to human diversity puzzle
The largest study of genetic diversity in Ukraine was published in the open science journal GigaScience. Led by researchers at Uzhhorod National University and Oakland University in the US, the work provides genetic understanding of the historic and pre-historic migration settlements in one of the key intersections of human trade and migration between the Eurasian peoples and identifies genetic variants of medical interest in the Ukrainian population that differ from other European populations. (2021-01-13)

Infection biology: How one pathogen evades the immune system
A research team of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munch led by Nicolai Siegel has uncovered a mechanism that enables the parasite that causes sleeping sickness in humans to escape the attention of the immune system. The finding may also be relevant to other infectious diseases. (2021-01-13)

Asian butterfly mimics other species to defend against predators
Many animal and insect species use Batesian mimicry -- mimicking a poisonous species -- as a defense against predators. The common palmfly Elymnias hypermnestra -- a species of satyrine butterfly that is found throughout wide areas of tropical and subtropical Asia -- adds a twist to this evolutionary strategy. (2021-01-13)

New study examines medical practice patterns over time
Variations in medical practice can have serious consequences for the quality, equity and cost of one's health care; however, it's unclear whether these disparities can be attributed to individual differences, from one doctor to another or to changes in your doctor's individual practice over time, perhaps in response to shifts in clinical guidelines or advancements in diagnostic technologists. (2021-01-12)

Big differences in how coral reef fish larvae are dispersed
How the larvae of colorful clownfish that live among coral reefs in the Philippines are dispersed varies widely, depending on the year and seasons - a Rutgers-led finding that could help scientists improve conservation of species. Right after most coral reef fish hatch, they join a swirling sea of plankton as tiny, transparent larvae. Then currents, winds and waves disperse them, frequently to different reefs. (2021-01-11)

New statistical method exponentially increases ability to discover genetic insights
A test of the Sum-Share statistical method with only summary-level data found 1,734 genetic variations associated with cardiovascular-related conditions when just one had previously been likely. (2021-01-08)

Long-term study finds dozens of new genetic markers associated with lifetime bone growth
A multidisciplinary team of researchers has discovered several genetic markers associated with bone mineral accrual, which could ultimately help identify causes of eventual osteoporosis earlier in life through genetic testing. (2021-01-06)

Flag leaves could help top off photosynthetic performance in rice
A team from the University of Illinois and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) found that some flag leaves of different varieties of rice transform light and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates better than others, potentially opening new opportunities for breeding higher yielding rice varieties. (2020-12-29)

New mammal reference genome helps ID genetic variants for human health
A new reference genome assembly identified more than 85 million genetic variants in the rhesus macaque, the largest database of genetic variation for any one nonhuman primate species to date. (2020-12-23)

Genetic exchange discovered in anciently asexual rotifers
Skoltech's evolutionary biologists discovered recombination in bdelloid rotifers, microscopic freshwater invertebrates, which have long been regarded as 'an evolutionary scandal' due to their presumed ancient asexuality. The existence of such anciently asexual groups calls into question the hypothesis that sexual reproduction is indispensable for long-term evolutionary success of species. However, the recent study published in Nature Communications provides evidence of recombination and genetic exchange in bdelloids. (2020-12-18)

Plants can be larks or night owls just like us
Plants have the same variation in body clocks as that found in humans, according to new research that explores the genes governing circadian rhythms in plants. (2020-12-18)

Improved macaque genome enhances biomedical utility
Using advanced sequencing technology, researchers present a new, improved and far more complete reference genome for the rhesus macaque - one of the most important animal models in biomedical research. (2020-12-17)

TGen identifies gene that could explain disparity in COVID-19 effects
TGen identified a genetic target that could help explain the tremendous variation in how sick those infected with COVID-19 become. Led by Nicholas Schork, Ph.D., Director of TGen's Quantitative Medicine and Systems Biology Division, researchers identified miR1307 by comparing the genetic elements of SARS-Cov-2 with seven other human coronaviruses, and the genomes of coronavirus strains known to infect bats, pigs, pangolins, ferrets, civets and chickens. (2020-12-16)

Genes play a role in common knee injury
It has long been known that the choice of shoe, surface and type of sport can all be contributing factors when someone suffers an anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have now observed that genes also play a decisive role. (2020-12-15)

Using water fleas, UTA researchers investigate adaptive evolution
Researchers from The University of Texas at Arlington resurrected the preserved eggs of a shrimp-like crustacean to examine long-standing questions about adaptive evolution, reporting the results in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. (2020-12-11)

A new evolutionary clue
Colleen B. Young, a graduate student in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Missouri, tested several popular assumptions about the characteristics of Homo floresiensis by comparing an island fox from California's Channel Islands with its mainland US relative, the gray fox. (2020-12-09)

Genetics of human face begin to reveal underlying profile
The genetics behind the shape of the human face are difficult to decipher, but now an international team of researchers has connected specific genetic signals with specific areas of the face. They not only can see the signals of normal facial features in the genome, but also hope their work can shed light on craniofacial malformations such as cleft lip and palate. (2020-12-07)

Study finds large-scale expansion of stem rust resistance gene in barley and oat lineages
Stem rust is one of the most devastating fungal diseases of wheat and historically has caused dramatic, widespread crop failures resulting in significant yield losses around the world. Stem rust epidemics in major wheat growing areas could cause a major threat to global food security. Scientists have identified a resistance gene, Sr22, as one of the few characterized genes that protects against a large array of stem rust races. (2020-12-07)

Potential means of improving learning and memory in people with mental illnesses
More than a dozen drugs are known to treat symptoms such as hallucinations, erratic behaviors, disordered thinking and emotional extremes associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other severe mental illnesses. But, drug treatments specifically able to target the learning, memory and concentration problems that may accompany such disorders remain elusive. (2020-12-03)

Study highlights strategies for boosting accuracy of personal genetic risk scores
As the consumer genetics industry rapidly expands, more and more people are turning to DNA-based services to learn their risk of developing a wide range of diseases. However, the risk scores from these genetic tests are not always as precise as they could be, according to a new study from Scripps Research. The scientists examine many approaches to calculating the scores and recommend that personal genomics organizations adopt standards that will raise the bar for accuracy. (2020-12-03)

Tweaking carotenoid genes helps tomatoes bring their a-game
Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba demonstrated that Target-AID gene editing technology can be used to simultaneously introduce single-base changes into multiple genes in tomatoes. Using this technique, the researchers altered three genes associated with carotenoid accumulation, resulting in elevated levels of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, in the resulting tomato lines. This technology will allow tomato breeders to introduce multiple advantageous gene changes into elite commercial cultivars, bypassing lengthy back-crossing steps between generations. (2020-12-01)

New method identifies adaptive mutations in complex evolving populations
A research team co-led by a scientist at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology has developed a method to study how HIV mutates to escape the immune system in multiple patients, which could inform HIV vaccine design. (2020-11-30)

High genomic variability predicts success in desert tortoise refugees; could inform conservation
Tortoise refugees with the highest genetic variation are far more likely to survive conservation translocation than tortoises whose genetic diversity is lower, according to a new study. (2020-11-26)

UCLA study of threatened desert tortoises offers new conservation strategy
A UCLA study publishing Nov. 27 in Science supports a new conservation strategy. Climate change increasingly makes relocating threatened species necessary, despite the frequently low success rate. The study found tortoises with lots of genetic variation were much more likely to survive after their relocation. The research supports this fast, inexpensive conservation tool, and upends the conventional wisdom suggesting that tortoises from areas moved from close by would fare best. (2020-11-26)

Researchers have discovered new links between miscarriage and maternal genes
Researchers at the Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu described hitherto undiscovered associations between miscarriage and maternal genes, reveals a recent article published in the Nature Communication. (2020-11-25)

Genetic study shows that the risk of pre-eclampsia is related to blood pressure and BMI
An international study, coordinated by experts from the University of Nottingham, has revealed that the genetic risk of pre-eclampsia - a potentially dangerous condition in pregnancy - is related to blood pressure and body mass index. (2020-11-25)

Space worms experiment reveals gravity affects genes
Living at low gravity affects cells at the genetic level, according to a study of worms in space. (2020-11-25)

New wheat and barley genomes will help feed the world
An international research collaboration, including scientists from the University of Adelaide's Waite Research Institute, has unlocked new genetic variation in wheat and barley - a major boost for the global effort in breeding higher-yielding wheat and barley varieties. (2020-11-25)

Barley pan-genome: IPK scientists reach milestone on the way to 'transparent' barley
An international research team led by the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) has reached a milestone on the way to the 'transparent' barley plant. With the complete sequencing of 20 different genotypes, the scientists completed the first step in decoding the genetic information of the entire species 'barley' -- the barley pan-genome. Breeders will greatly benefit from these new findings, which have today been published in the renowned magazine Nature. (2020-11-25)

Novel haplotype-led approach to increase the precision of wheat breeding
Wheat researchers at the John Innes Centre are pioneering a new technique that promises to improve gene discovery for the globally important crop. (2020-11-25)

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