Current Genetic Variation News and Events | Page 25

Current Genetic Variation News and Events, Genetic Variation News Articles.
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Some people with cystic fibrosis might live longer because of genetic mutations
Research suggests that genetic mutations to an 'epithelial sodium pathway' could protect against cystic fibrosis and its debilitating effects on the lungs. (2017-10-25)

Study explores the seasonality of hair loss
A new British Journal of Dermatology study explores the relationship between seasonality and hair loss at a population level using Google Trends data. (2017-10-24)

Genetic rescue boosts recovery of Australia's endangered mountain pygmy possums
For the first time, a breeding technique known as genetic rescue has been shown to increase population numbers and survival rates of the endangered mountain pygmy possum, now at their highest numbers since 1996. (2017-10-23)

Exploring disease predisposition to deliver personalized medicine
Exploring the links between diseases and tissue-specific gene activity, geneticists from UNIGE have been able to build a model that constitutes a first step towards the identification of specific sequences in the non-coding genome signalling their pathogenicity in the context of a specific disease. In a second study, they went even further by associating particular disease risks - including schizophrenia, cardiovascular disease and diabetes - to the variability of genome activity in various cell types. (2017-10-23)

Enough vitamin D when young associated with lower risk of diabetes-related autoimmunity
Getting enough vitamin D during infancy and childhood is associated with a reduced risk of islet autoimmunity among children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes, according to a study published this week in the journal Diabetes. (2017-10-23)

Physical inactivity and restless sleep exacerbate genetic risk of obesity
Low levels of physical activity and inefficient sleep patterns intensify the effects of genetic risk factors for obesity, according to results of a large-scale study presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla. These results confirm and strengthen previous findings based on self-reported activity. (2017-10-20)

How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defences by stealth mechanisms
Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study by Vetmeduni Vienna has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens. (2017-10-20)

Evolution in your back garden -- great tits may be adapting their beaks to birdfeeders
A British enthusiasm for feeding birds may have caused UK great tits to have evolved longer beaks than their European counterparts, according to new research. The findings, published in Science, identify for the first time the genetic differences between UK and Dutch great tits which researchers were then able to link to longer beaks in UK birds. (2017-10-19)

Superior vena cava(SVC)-derived atrial fibrillation attributes clinical and genetic factor
The genetic factors associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), a condition characterized by irregular heartbeat that can lead to heart failure, have never been identified -- until now. Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU) researchers conducted a study on 2,170 AF patients and discovered two genetic variants that were associated with irregular rhythmic beating in the superior vena cava. This study has successfully demonstrated that AF is associated with both clinical and genetic factors. (2017-10-18)

Signaling pathway may be key to why autism is more common in boys
Researchers led by Ted Abel, director of the Iowa Neuroscience Institute at the University of Iowa, have discovered sex differences in a brain signaling pathway involved in reward learning and motivation that make male mice more vulnerable to an autism-causing genetic glitch. (2017-10-17)

Study identifies genetic clues to spinal stenosis
A new study published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research indicates that certain genetic changes are linked with an increased risk of developing lumbar spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the open spaces in the lower spine that can lead to pain in the legs when individuals walk. (2017-10-13)

Scientists demonstrate path to linking the genome to healthy tissues and disease
A study by an international consortium of scientists reached a major milestone in establishing a baseline understanding of gene expression across healthy human tissues, and linking genes to disease. (2017-10-13)

Johns Hopkins scientists help show links between genes, body tissues
A research team is assessing how a person's genetic profile affects his body. The results could help show how individual genetic differences contribute to disease and guide treatments for heritable disorders such as Alzheimer's, high cholesterol or Type 1 diabetes. (2017-10-12)

Whole genome sequencing identifies new genetic signature for autism
An analysis of the complete genomes of 2,064 people reveals that multiple genetic variations could contribute to autism. The work suggests that scanning whole genomes may one day be useful for clinical diagnostics. (2017-10-12)

Penn-led study identifies genes responsible for diversity of human skin colors
A study of diverse African groups led by University of Pennsylvania geneticists has identified new genetic variants associated with skin pigmentation. The findings help explain the vast range of skin color on the African continent, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer. (2017-10-12)

An understanding of pigmentation that is more than just skin deep
In an effort to better understand genes affecting skin pigmentation, scientists have generated one of the largest and most comprehensive datasets to date -- by sequencing the genomes of 2,092 ethnically and genetically diverse Africans living in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Botswana. (2017-10-12)

New regions of the human genome linked to skin color variation in some African populations
In the first study of its kind, an international team of genomics researchers have identified new regions of the genome that are associated with skin color variation in some African populations. These newly identified regions include genes that repair DNA damage caused by UV light, are associated with albinism and contribute to the production of a novel lysosomal protein. Lysosomes are sub-cellular structures that play roles in optimizing nutrition and fighting infections and now, with these findings, in pigmentation. (2017-10-12)

NIH completes atlas of human DNA differences that influence gene expression
Researchers from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Consortium, funded by the National Institutes of Health, have completed a detailed atlas documenting the stretches of human DNA that influence gene expression - a key way in which a person's genome gives rise to an observable trait, like hair color or disease risk. This atlas is a critical resource for the scientific community interested in how individual genomic variation leads to biological differences across human tissues and cell types. (2017-10-11)

Deciphering biological meaning from an atlas of gene expression across 42 tissue types
The human genome encodes instructions for which genes are expressed in what cell type, along with other molecules that control how much and when these genes are expressed. Variation in the regulation of gene expression gives rise to the diverse tissue types, with diverse functions, in the human body. Finding new clues about the molecular origins of disease is the goal for a comprehensive atlas of variation in gene expression. (2017-10-11)

A new genetic marker accounts for up to 1.4 percent of cases of hereditary colon cancer
IDIBELL-ICO scientists identify a new genetic marker accounts for up to 1.4 percent of cases of hereditary colon cancer. Patients with mutations in this gene, if identified, could follow a clinical approach much more consistent with their genetics. (2017-10-10)

Lifestyle changes can close regional obesity gap, study finds
Lifestyle differences are to blame for regional variation in obesity rates in Scotland, research from the University of Edinburgh has found. Genetic factors cannot completely explain why obesity is more common in some areas and not others, scientists say. (2017-10-06)

A candidate genetic factor for the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure has been found
Researchers at the University of Helsinki have found a genetic variation, which associates with the damage caused by maternal alcohol consumption. This genetic variation clarifies the role of genetic factors in the alcohol-induced developmental disorders and could be useful in future diagnostics. (2017-10-05)

More traits associated with your Neandertal DNA
After humans and Neandertals met many thousands of years ago, the two species began interbreeding. Recent studies have shown that some of those Neandertal genes have contributed to human immunity and modern diseases. Now researchers reporting in the American Journal of Human Genetics on Oct. 5 have found that our Neandertal inheritance has contributed to other characteristics, too, including skin tone, hair color, sleep patterns, mood, and even a person's smoking status. (2017-10-05)

The Lord Howe Island stick insect lives: A story of survival
Researchers use genetic sequencing of museum specimens to confirm that the Lord Howe Island stick insect, once thought to be extinct, survived by hiding out on a nearby island. (2017-10-05)

Researchers identify genetic drivers of most common form of lymphoma
An international research effort led by Duke Cancer Institute scientists has been working to better understand the genetic underpinnings of the most prevalent form of this cancer -- diffuse large B cell lymphoma -- and how those genes might play a role in patients' responses to therapies. (2017-10-05)

Shared genetics in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
A genetic variant associated with multiple psychiatric disorders drives changes in a brain network that may increase an individual's risk of developing bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, finds a study published in JNeurosci. (2017-10-02)

Genetic study investigates ways to increase productivity and tenderness of meat
Improve the quality of beef produced in Brazil, which could increase industry revenue without expanding breeding area, is the goal of a research group. (2017-10-02)

Central America 'kissing bug' carries two main subtypes of Chagas disease parasite
Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, is divided into six strains, each of which differs in where they are found and in how important they are in human infections. Now, researchers have found that most T. cruzi parasites in Central America belong to just two of those strains. The results are detailed this week in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. (2017-09-28)

A first look at geographic variation in Gentoo penguin calls
Vocal communication is central to the lives of many birds, which use sound to attract mates and defend territories. Penguins are no exception, but we know little about how or why penguin vocalizations vary between isolated populations. A new study takes a broad look at vocalizations across the range of Gentoo penguins and concludes that while their calls do vary from place to place, we still have lots to learn about the processes at work. (2017-09-27)

The benefits & dangers when genetic testing companies partner with orphan drug developers
Pharmaceutical companies developing Orphan Drugs are increasingly partnering with direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing firms to identify individuals with rare diseases, in a trend that is raising concerns related to privacy, drug costs, and rising healthcare-related financial burden for consumers. (2017-09-27)

Caribbean spiders named for Barack Obama, Bernie Sanders David Bowie, and others
A new paper published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society has identified and named 15 new species of spider in the Caribbean. Given the vernacular names 'smiley faced' spiders due to the distinctive markings on their backs, the new species have been given names including S. davidattenboroughi, S. barackobamai, and S.leonardodicaprioi. (2017-09-26)

DNA discovery could help shed light on rare childhood disorder
Fresh analysis of how our cells store and manage DNA when they undergo cell division could give valuable insights into a rare developmental condition known as Cornelia de Lange syndrome. (2017-09-21)

Scientists sequence asexual tiny worm -- whose lineage stretches back 18 million years
A team of scientists has sequenced, for the first time, a tiny worm that belongs to a group of exclusively asexual species that originated approximately 18 million years ago--making it one of the oldest living lineages of asexual animals known. (2017-09-21)

Summer rainfall over the Yangtze River valley can differ after similar El Nino events
The rainfall over the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 2016 was much weaker than that in 1998, despite the intensity of the 2016 El Nino having been as strong as that in 1998. A group of scientists from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, have now revealed the remarkable role played by the mid-latitude circulation in this surprising feature. (2017-09-20)

Is there a link between breast milk nutrients, circadian rhythms, and infant health?
The fat content and levels of several key nutrients and hormones in breast milk vary with the mother's circadian rhythm, which may have implications for the timing of breastfeeding and feeding of expressed milk, especially for high-risk infants. (2017-09-19)

A Cereal survives heat and drought
An international consortium around the biologist Wolfram Weckwerth has published the genome sequence of Pearl millet, a drought resistant crop plant most important in aride regions in Africa and Asia. This plant is important to small and medium farmers who grow the plant without larger irrigation. Pearl millet delivers a good harvest index under drought and heat conditions when rice, maize or wheat already have no grains anymore. (2017-09-18)

Dogs' social skills linked to oxytocin sensitivity
The tendency of dogs to seek contact with their owners is associated with genetic variations in sensitivity for the hormone oxytocin, according to a new study from Linköping University, Sweden. The results have been published in the scientific journal Hormones and Behavior and contribute to our knowledge of how dogs have changed during their development from wolf to household pet. (2017-09-18)

Plant geneticists develop a new application of CRISPR to break yield barriers in crops
Scientists at CSHL have harnessed the untapped power of genome editing to improve agricultural crops. In tomato they have mobilized CRISPR to rapidly generate variants of the plant displaying a continuum of three agriculturally important traits: fruit size, branching architecture and overall plant shape. All are major components in determining yield. The method is designed to work in all food, feed, and fuel crops, including staples rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. (2017-09-14)

People in New Guinea exhibit great genetic diversity
A genetic analysis of people from Papua New Guinea reveals a sharp genetic divide between those residing in the highlands and lowlands, beginning 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. (2017-09-14)

Household environment -- not genetics -- shapes salivary microbes
Researchers in the United Kingdom have discovered that the mix of microorganisms that inhabit a person's saliva are largely determined by the human host's household. The study, published this week in mBio®, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, shows that early environmental influences play a far larger role than human genetics in shaping the salivary microbiome--the group of organisms that play a crucial role in oral and overall health. (2017-09-12)

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