Current Genome Editing News and Events

Current Genome Editing News and Events, Genome Editing News Articles.
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Scientists use DNA origami to monitor CRISPR gene targeting
The remarkable genetic scissors called CRISPR/Cas9, the discovery that won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, sometimes cut in places that they are not designed to target. (2021-02-23)

Largest comprehensive Middle East GWAS reveals Arab genetic risk factors
A new study in Nature Communications confirms that the existing global dataset of human genomes, which overrepresent European populations, does not accurately reveal the genetic architecture of diseases affecting Arab populations in the Middle East. The Qatar Foundation-led study of genetic variants across more than 6,000 individuals in Qatar is largest of its kind and a foundation for implementing precision medicine in the Middle East. (2021-02-23)

Cre-controlled CRISPR: Conditional gene inactivation just got easier
The ability to turn a gene off only in a specific cell type is essential to modern life science. Thanks to the Cre-Controlled CRISPR it has just became simpler. The new method developed by researchers from the Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD) at TU Dresden with support from the DRESDEN-concept Genome Center (DCGC) offers a fast and easy approach for conditional gene inactivation. The findings were published in the journal ''Nature Communications.'' (2021-02-23)

UIC researchers invent new gene-editing tool
Researchers have discovered a new gene-editing technique that allows for the programming of sequential cuts -- or edits -- over time. (2021-02-23)

Tweaking corn kernels with CRISPR
Corn has a highly complex genome, making it a challenge to apply genome-editing techniques to it. CSHL Professor David Jackson and postdoctoral fellow Lei Liu used CRISPR to tinker with the corn genome promoter regions and modify stem cell growth. They figured out which sections influence kernel yield, and they hope to make targeted genome-editing in corn more precise and efficient. (2021-02-22)

'Jumping genes' repeatedly form new genes over evolution
A study, 'Recurrent Evolution of Vertebrate Transcription Factors by Transposase Capture,' published Feb. 19 in Science, investigates how genetic elements called transposons, or ''jumping genes,'' are added into the mix during evolution to assemble new genes through exon shuffling. (2021-02-22)

Don't focus on genetic diversity to save our species
Scientists at the University of Adelaide have challenged the common assumption that genetic diversity of a species is a key indicator of extinction risk. Published in the journal PNAS, the scientists demonstrate that there is no simple relationship between genetic diversity and species survival. But, Dr João Teixeira and Dr Christian Huber from the University of Adelaide's School of Biological Sciences conclude, the focus shouldn't be on genetic diversity anyway, it should be on habitat protection. (2021-02-22)

Advancing understanding of hop genome to aid brewers, medical researchers
Oregon State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture researchers have significantly expanded the understanding of the hop genome, a development with important implications for the brewing industry and scientists who study the potential medical benefits of hops. (2021-02-21)

Sex that is not for reproduction
Conjugation (or mating) of ciliates is a unique phenomenon among living beings. They have sex not for reproduction or pleasure - they seek to increase genetic variation. Scientists from St Petersburg University, together with colleagues from Poland and France, have studied the mating process in five sibling species of the Paramecium aurelia complex. Their findings enabled them to describe genetic mechanisms behind this phenomenon. (2021-02-19)

First multi-whole-genome study of IBD in African Americans
In African Americans, the genetic risk landscape for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is very different from that of people with European ancestry, according to results of the first whole-genome study of IBD in African Americans. The authors say that future clinical research on IBD needs to take ancestry into account. (2021-02-19)

Explainable AI for decoding genome biology
Researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, in collaboration with colleagues at Stanford University and Technical University of Munich have developed advanced explainable artificial intelligence (AI) in a technical tour de force to decipher regulatory instructions encoded in DNA. (2021-02-18)

How inflammatory signalling molecules contribute to carcinogenesis
A team of MedUni Vienna researchers led by Johannes A. Schmid at the Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, has managed to identify a previously unknown molecular connection between an inflammatory signalling molecule and one of the main oncogenes. The study has been published in the leading journal 'Molecular Cancer'. (2021-02-17)

Silencing the alarm
Like a scene from a horror movie, tomato fruitworm caterpillars silence their food plants' cries for help as they devour their leaves. That is the finding of a multidisciplinary team of researchers, who said the results may yield insights into the abilities of crop plants -- such as tomato and soybean -- to withstand additional stressors, like climate change. (2021-02-17)

New research identifies biological causes of muscle weakness in later life
A new largescale genetic analysis has found biological mechanisms that contribute to making people more susceptible to muscle weakness in later life, finding that diseases such as osteoarthritis and diabetes may play a large role in susceptibility. (2021-02-11)

Affordable CRISPR app reveals unintended mutations at site of CRISPR gene repair
Scientists have developed an affordable, downloadable app that scans for potential unintended mistakes when CRISPR is used to repair mutations that cause disease. The app reveals potentially risky DNA alterations that could impede efforts to safely use CRISPR to correct mutations in conditions like sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis. The development of the new tool, called DECODR (which stands for Deconvolution of Complex DNA Repair), was reported today in The CRISPR Journal by researchers from ChristianaCare's Gene Editing Institute. (2021-02-11)

New improved dog reference genome will aid a new generation of investigation
Researchers at Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences have used new methods for DNA sequencing and annotation to build a new, and more complete, dog reference genome. This tool will serve as the foundation for a new era of research, helping scientists to better understand the link between DNA and disease, in dogs and in their human friends. The research is presented in the journal Communications Biology. (2021-02-10)

Sinai team builds first model acute myeloid leukemia progression using CRISPR
A research team led by the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (Icahn Mount Sinai) has built the first cellular model to depict the evolution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), from its early to late stages. By using gene editing technologies to alter genes that make cells malignant, the team was able to identify potential therapeutic targets for early disease stages. The study was reported in the journal Cell Stem Cell in February. (2021-02-10)

Unusual DNA folding increases the rates of mutations
DNA sequences that can fold into shapes other than the classic double helix tend to have higher mutation rates than other regions in the human genome. New research shows that the elevated mutation rate in these sequences plays a major role in determining regional variation in mutation rates across the genome. (2021-02-09)

New CRISPR tech targets human genome's complex code
Rice bioengineers harness the CRISPR/Cas9 system to program histones, the support proteins that wrap up and control human DNA, to manipulate gene activation and phosphorylation. The new technology enables innovative ways to find and manipulate genes and pathways responsible for diseases. (2021-02-09)

Not a living fossil: How the Coelacanth recently evolved dozens of new genes
The research shows the dramatic effect traveling DNA can have on the creation of genes and provide a glimpse into some of the forces that shaped the genome of one of the most ancient and mysterious organisms. (2021-02-09)

Researchers develop platform to identify cancer mutations that may be responsive to drug therapies
A Cleveland Clinic-led team of researchers has developed a personalized genomic medicine platform that will help advance accelerate genomic medicine research and genome-informed drug discovery, according to new study results published recently in Genome Biology. (2021-02-08)

NUI Galway demonstrate the promise of precision genomics in cancer treatment
Researchers at NUI Galway have identified genomic signatures in women developing the most common type of breast cancer that can be associated with long-term survival. The NUI Galway team analysed the genomes of breast cancer patients to look for associations with survival rates using advanced statistical techniques. (2021-02-04)

New combination therapy offers chance of healing hepatitis B
Around 260 million people, more than three percent of the global population, are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV); in the long term, this often leads to complications such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. A cure is not yet possible with the available medication. Scientists at the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) and the University Hospital Eppendorf (UKE) have now investigated a new combination therapy that has proven highly effective in their infection model. (2021-02-04)

Special Issue: Human genome at 20
In February 2001, the first drafts of the human genome were published. (2021-02-04)

Thoughts on plant genomes
The growing world population and the challenges posed by climate change make the control of these natural resources one of the most crucial issues for all humanity in the future. In this regard, genome sequence information is of fundamental importance for understanding natural diversity and evolution of living organisms as well as for the design of breeding strategies aimed to produce new varieties with suitable traits. (2021-02-03)

A revolutionary approach to increasing crop yield in rice
Overexpression of a plasma membrane proton pump gene in rice increases nutrient uptake and stomatal opening, promising solutions to food supply and environmental problems. (2021-02-03)

"Genetic SD-card": Scientists obtained new methods to improve the genome editing system
Researchers take a step in the development of genome editing technology. Currently it is possible to deliver genetic material of different sizes and structures to organs and tissues. This is the key to eliminating DNA defects and treating more patients. (2021-02-02)

The underestimated mutation potential of retrogenes
mRNA molecules from retrogenes are reverse transcribed to DNA and incorporated into the genome. (2021-02-02)

Stem cell study illuminates the cause of a devastating inherited heart disorder
Penn Medicine scientists have uncovered the molecular causes of a congenital form of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)-- one of multiple congenital disorders caused by inherited mutations in a gene called LMNA. The scientists used stem cell techniques to grow human heart muscle cells containing DCM-causing mutations in LMNA. They found that these mutations severely disrupt the structural organization of DNA in the nucleus of heart muscle cells. (2021-02-01)

Glitch in genome architecture may cause B-cell malignancies
Restoring an enzyme that maintains the way chromosomes are packed inside cells may lead to new therapies for some blood cancers, according to a new study by Columbia researchers. (2021-02-01)

SLAS Technology special collection on AI in process automation available now
The February edition of SLAS Technology is a special collection of articles focused on 'Artificial Intelligence in Process Automation' by Guest Editor Cenk Ündey, Ph.D. (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA). (2021-02-01)

Constructing the first version of the Japanese reference genome
The Japanese now have their own reference genome thanks to researchers at Tohoku University who completed and released the first Japanese reference genome (JG1). (2021-01-29)

Brain 3D genome study uncovers human-specific regulatory changes during development
A team led by Prof. SU Bing from the Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Prof. LI Cheng from Peking University, and Prof. ZHANG Shihua from the Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science of CAS has reported the highest resolution by far of the 3D genome of the primate brain, and demonstrated the molecular regulatory mechanisms of human brain evolution through cross-species multi-omics analysis and experimental validation. (2021-01-28)

'You say tomato, I say genomics': Genome sequences for two wild tomato ancestors
A research team led by University of Tsukuba has produced genome sequences for two wild species of tomato from South America, ancestors of the cultivated tomato. The ancestral species contain thousands of genes that are not present in modern types. The novel genes will help plant breeders produce new tomatoes with features like improved disease resistance, increased tolerance for the changing climate, and improved flavor and shelf-life. (2021-01-27)

Genome-editing tool TALEN outperforms CRISPR-Cas9 in tightly packed DNA
Researchers used single-molecule imaging to compare the genome-editing tools CRISPR-Cas9 and TALEN. Their experiments revealed that TALEN is up to five times more efficient than CRISPR-Cas9 in parts of the genome, called heterochromatin, that are densely packed. Fragile X syndrome, sickle cell anemia, beta-thalassemia and other diseases are the result of genetic defects in the heterochromatin. (2021-01-27)

Researchers identify genetic dependencies in tumors that have undergone whole genome doubling
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have identified proteins that are essential for the viability of whole genome doubled tumor cells, yet non-essential to normal cells that comprise the majority of human tissue. (2021-01-27)

Fields of breeders' dreams: A team effort toward targeted crop improvements
In Nature, a team led by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin, the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, and the DOE Joint Genome Institute has produced a high-quality reference sequence of the complex switchgrass genome. Building off this work, researchers at DOE Bioenergy Research Centers are exploring targeted genome editing techniques to customize the crop. (2021-01-27)

Genetically-modified mosquitoes key to stopping Zika virus spread
In 2016, the World Health Organization called the Zika virus epidemic a ''public health emergency of international concern'' due to the virus causing birth defects for pregnant women in addition to neurological problems. (2021-01-26)

Two anti-viral enzymes transform pre-leukemia stem cells into leukemia
Viral infections and space travel similarly trigger inflammation and the enzymes APOBEC3C and ADAR1; UC San Diego researchers are developing ways to inhibit them as a means to potentially lower cancer risk for both astronauts and people on Earth. (2021-01-26)

Meta-Apo supports cheaper, quicker microbiome functional assessment
A new algorithm called Meta-Apo, developed by researchers led by JING Gongchao of the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) may reduce the need for expensive, time-consuming whole-genome sequencing computations to understand how a microbiome functions. (2021-01-22)

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