Current Genome Sequence News and Events | Page 2

Current Genome Sequence News and Events, Genome Sequence News Articles.
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Humanizing yeast ORC sheds light on cancer therapy and human development
Researchers from the HKSUST and the HKU recently demonstrated that the selectivity determinant of Origin Recognition Complex for DNA binding lies in a 19-amino acid insertion helix in the Orc4 subunit, which is present in yeast but absent in human. (2021-01-27)

Key switchgrass genes identified, which could mean better biofuels ahead
Biologists believe they are one step closer to a long-held goal of making a cheap, widely available plant a source for energy and fuel, meaning one of the next big weapons in the battle against climate change may be able to trace its roots to the side of a Texas highway. The complex genome analysis of switchgrass is explained in a new paper in Nature. (2021-01-27)

Researchers identify genetic dependencies in tumors that have undergone whole genome doubling
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have identified proteins that are essential for the viability of whole genome doubled tumor cells, yet non-essential to normal cells that comprise the majority of human tissue. (2021-01-27)

Fields of breeders' dreams: A team effort toward targeted crop improvements
In Nature, a team led by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin, the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, and the DOE Joint Genome Institute has produced a high-quality reference sequence of the complex switchgrass genome. Building off this work, researchers at DOE Bioenergy Research Centers are exploring targeted genome editing techniques to customize the crop. (2021-01-27)

Researchers simplify the study of gene-environment interactions
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine and Cornell University's Ithaca campus have developed a new computational method for studying genetic and environmental interactions and how they influence disease risk. (2021-01-26)

Identification of Oligo-DNA that promotes skeletal muscle differentiation
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and is responsible not only for locomotion but for energy metabolism and heat production. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle homeostasis, but it has been reported that the differentiation ability of myoblasts decreases with age and disease and this will be one of the causes of muscle atrophy. To prevent muscle atrophy, researchers of Shinshu University studied molecules that promote myoblast differentiation. (2021-01-25)

Meta-Apo supports cheaper, quicker microbiome functional assessment
A new algorithm called Meta-Apo, developed by researchers led by JING Gongchao of the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) may reduce the need for expensive, time-consuming whole-genome sequencing computations to understand how a microbiome functions. (2021-01-22)

Proteins unspool DNA so cells can take on unique properties
New research reveals how proteins, called 'pioneer transcription factors,' help turn on key genes that give cell types their unique properties and functions. (2021-01-22)

UMD researcher expands plant genome editing with newly engineered variant of CRISPR-Cas9
Recently named a Web of Science 2020 Highly Cited Researcher, Yiping Qi of the University of Maryland already has a new high-profile publication in 2021 introducing SpRY, a newly engineered variant of the famed gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9. SpRY removes the barriers of what can and can't be targeted for gene editing, making it possible for the first time to target nearly any genomic sequence in plants for potential mutation. (2021-01-22)

Sequencing of wastewater useful for control of SARS-CoV-2
Viral genome sequencing of wastewater can detect new SARS-CoV-2 variants before they are detected by local clinical sequencing, according to a new study reported in mBio, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. The ability to track SARS-CoV-2 mutations in wastewater could be particularly useful for tracking new variants, like the B.1.17 strain that is now widespread in the U.K. and has already been introduced in the US. (2021-01-19)

Genetic rewiring behind spectacular evolutionary explosion in East Africa
Genetic rewiring could have driven an evolutionary explosion in the shapes, sizes and adaptations of cichlid fish, in East Africa's answer to Darwin's Galapagos finches. (2021-01-19)

Exploration of toxic Tiger Rattlesnake venom advances use of genetic science techniques
A team of researchers led by the University of South Florida has decoded the genome of the Tiger Rattlesnake, which has venom 40 times more toxic than that of Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes, the largest venomous snake in North America. (2021-01-19)

Sensei RNA: Iron fist in a velvet glove
Scientific pursuit has the habit of offering chance discoveries if we think about things differently. Here is a story behind one serendipitous discovery from the lab of Arati Ramesh at NCBS, Bangalore. (2021-01-18)

Why remdesivir does not fully stop the coronavirus
Their results explain why the drug has a rather weak effect (2021-01-18)

What the lungfishes' genome teaches us about the vertebrates' conquest of land
The genome of the Australian lungfish is the largest sequenced animal genome and helps us to better understand the conquest of land by vertebrates - study led by evolutionary biologists from the University of Konstanz (2021-01-18)

CCNY's David Lohman finds Asian butterfly mimics different species as defense mechanism
Many animal and insect species use Batesian mimicry - mimicking a poisonous species - as a defense against predators. The common palmfly, Elymnias hypermnestra (a species of satyrine butterfly), which is found throughout wide areas of tropical and subtropical Asia, adds a twist to this evolutionary strategy: the females evolved two distinct forms, either orange or dark brown, imitating two separate poisonous model species, Danaus or Euploea. (2021-01-14)

Algorithms designed to study language predict virus 'escape' mutations for SARS-CoV-2 and others
By bridging the conceptual divide between human language and viral evolution, researchers have developed a powerful new tool for predicting the mutations that allow viruses to 'escape' human immunity or vaccines. (2021-01-14)

Model analyzes how viruses escape the immune system
MIT researchers have devised a way to computationally model viral escape, using models that were originally developed to model language. The model can predict which sections of viral surface proteins, including those of influenza, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2, are more likely to mutate in a way that allows the virus to evade the human immune system. It can also identify sections that are less likely to mutate, making them good targets for new vaccines. (2021-01-14)

New molecular structures associated with ALS
Researchers from the University of Seville and the University of Pavia have identified a link between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids in the genome. The accumulation of these hybrids causes increased genomic damage and boosts genetic instability. This finding will make it possible to better understand the molecular basis of the disease, as well as to propose new solutions to curb it. (2021-01-13)

Inferring human genomes at a fraction of the cost promises to boost biomedical research
A new method, developed by Olivier Delaneau's group at the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the University of Lausanne, offers game-changing possibilities for genetic association studies and biomedical research. For less than $1 in computational cost, GLIMPSE is able to statistically infer a complete human genome from a very small amount of data. It offers a first realistic alternative to current approaches, and so allows a wider inclusion of underrepresented populations. (2021-01-13)

A bucket of water can reveal climate change impacts on marine life in the Arctic
We know very little about marine life in the Arctic. Now researchers from the University of Copenhagen, among others, are trying to change that. They have shown that a simple water sample makes it possible to monitor the presence, migration patterns and genetic diversity of bowhead whales in an otherwise hard-to-reach area. The method can be used to understand how climate changes and human activities impact life in the oceans. (2021-01-12)

Biomarkers in fathers' sperm linked to offspring autism
Epigenetic biomarkers in human sperm have been identified that can indicate a propensity to father children with autism spectrum disorder. In the study, researchers identified a set of genomic features, called DNA methylation regions, in sperm samples from men who were known to have autistic children. Then in a set of blind tests, they were able to use the presence of these features to determine whether other men had fathered autistic children with 90% accuracy. (2021-01-11)

Chloroplasts on the move
How different plants can share their genetic material with each other (2021-01-11)

Breakthrough on diarrhea virus opens up for new vaccines
Researchers at UmeƄ University in Sweden have for the first time at the atomic level succeeded in mapping what a virus looks like that causes diarrhea and annually kills about 50,000 children in the world. The discovery may in the long run provide the opportunity for completely new types of treatments for other viral diseases such as COVID-19. (2021-01-11)

Genomes reveal insights into much-loved Aussie animals
Researchers have brought together expertise in bioinformatics, cytogenetics, developmental and molecular biology to produce and analyse the first ever echidna genome and a greatly improved, high quality platypus genome sequence. (2021-01-07)

Unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and duck
Three studies uncovered the unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and Peking duck. Platypus have five pairs of sex chromosomes forming an unusual chain shape, while the sex chromosomes of emu and duck are not as different between sexes as those of human. The studies were led or co-led by Qi Zhou's group at the University of Vienna and Zhejiang University of China and are published as research papers in the journals Nature, Genome Research and GigaScience. (2021-01-07)

DNA-editing method shows promise to treat mouse model of progeria
Researchers have successfully used a DNA-editing technique to extend the lifespan of mice with the genetic variation associated with progeria, a rare genetic disease that causes extreme premature aging in children and can significantly shorten their life expectancy. (2021-01-06)

Integrator: A guardian of the human transcriptome
In a joint collaboration, Danish and German researchers have characterized a cellular activity that protects our cells from potentially toxic by-products of gene expression. This activity is central for the ability of multicellular organisms to uphold a robust evolutionary 'reservoir' of gene products. (2021-01-05)

DeepTFactor predicts transcription factors
A joint research team from KAIST and UCSD has developed a deep neural network named DeepTFactor that predicts transcription factors from protein sequences. DeepTFactor will serve as a useful tool for understanding the regulatory systems of organisms, accelerating the use of deep learning for solving biological problems. (2021-01-05)

New mammal reference genome helps ID genetic variants for human health
A new reference genome assembly identified more than 85 million genetic variants in the rhesus macaque, the largest database of genetic variation for any one nonhuman primate species to date. (2020-12-23)

Newly discovered receptor helps to sneak a peek at evolution
Certain proteins call for unusual ways to get incorporated into membranes, because the signal sequence required for this process is located at their rear end instead of at the front. The relevant mechanism and its components are well-known and well-studied in yeast and mammals. Scientists have already hypothesised that it also occurs in plants, but there was no evidence of an indispensable receptor, until now. (2020-12-22)

Fungal RNA viruses: Unexpected complexity affecting more than your breakfast omelet
Traditional approaches for studying fungal RNA viruses have relied upon sequence similarity, resulting in an underestimation of RNA viral genome diversity. Researchers from the University of Tsukuba used an advanced technological approach called Fragmented and Primer Ligated Double Stranded RNA sequencing, or FLDS, to identify viral sequences that were previously overlooked. They identified novel viruses and viral genome structures and show that FLDS is a powerful tool for understanding RNA viral genome diversity. (2020-12-21)

New 3D maps reveal inner workings of immune cell gene expression
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how our small genetic differences can have a tremendous effect on how our bodies respond to disease. Researchers have created 3D maps of how enhancer sequences and genes interact in several types of immune cells. Their new study in Nature Genetics opens the door to understanding individual risk for diseases from asthma to cancer. (2020-12-21)

The far-reaching effects of mutagens on human health
Mutagenic threats to a cell's subtle machinery may be far more widespread than previously appreciated. In a new study, Michael Lynch and his colleagues demonstrate that DNA mutation itself may represent only a fraction the health-related havoc caused by mutagens. The study highlights the ability of mutagenic compounds to also affect the process of transcription, during which a DNA sequence is converted (or transcribed) to mRNA, an intermediary stage preceding translation into protein. (2020-12-21)

Researchers discover protein function that could improve chemotherapy in the future
A protein responsible for orchestrating DNA key signaling and repair pathways could play a role in future chemotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The protein's function has been described by researchers at University of Copenhagen. (2020-12-17)

HSE researchers use neural networks to study DNA
HSE scientists have proposed a way to improve the accuracy of finding Z-DNA, or DNA regions that are twisted to the left instead of to the right. To do this, they used neural networks and a dataset of more than 30,000 experiments conducted by different laboratories around the world. Details of the study are published in Scientific Reports. (2020-12-17)

Improved macaque genome enhances biomedical utility
Using advanced sequencing technology, researchers present a new, improved and far more complete reference genome for the rhesus macaque - one of the most important animal models in biomedical research. (2020-12-17)

The DNA regions in our brain that contribute to make us human
With only 1% difference, the human and chimpanzee protein-coding genomes are remarkably similar. Understanding the biological features that make us human is part of a fascinating and intensely debated line of research. Researchers at the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the University of Lausanne have developed a new approach to pinpoint, for the first time, adaptive human-specific changes in the way genes are regulated in the brain. (2020-12-16)

Kernels of history
Earlier this year Douglas J. Kennett, a UC Santa Barbara professor of anthropology, demonstrated that maize, or corn, became a staple crop in the Americas 4,700 years ago. It turns out he was just beginning to tell the story of the world's biggest grain crop. (2020-12-15)

Scientists found out genes involved in a compound in lichens with antiviral activity
Lichens are of great importance both ecologically and as a biological model. These organisms produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, including usnic acid, a compound with unknown biological function but which in-vitro studies have found to present antiviral, neuroprotective and anti-cancer activity. An international research team led by the Complutense University of Madrid has identified the cluster of biosynthetic genes involved in the production of this compound. (2020-12-11)

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