Current Genome Sequence News and Events | Page 25

Current Genome Sequence News and Events, Genome Sequence News Articles.
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Study discovers 40 new genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer risk
The most comprehensive genome-wide association study, or GWAS, of colorectal cancer risk to date, published today in Nature Genetics, has discovered 40 new genetic variants and validated 55 previously identified variants that signal an increased risk of colon cancer. (2018-12-03)

First jellyfish genome reveals ancient beginnings of complex body plan
The first in-depth look at the genome of a jellyfish -- the moon jelly Aurelia aurita -- shows that early jellyfish recycled existing genes to gain the ability to morph from polyp to medusa. (2018-12-03)

Oregon scientists use EEG to decode how people navigate complex sequences
To perform a song, a dance or write computer code, people need to call upon the basic elements of their craft and then order and recombine them in creative ways. How the brain builds such complex sequences have been captured with the use of EEG by University of Oregon scientists. (2018-12-03)

New research could fine-tune the gene scissors CRISPR
When researchers and doctors use the tool CRISPR to correct genetic errors, it may have side effects on the human genome. Now, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have learned how the molecular machinery behind CRISPR works and thus expect to be able to fine-tune CRISPR and remove the undesired effects. (2018-11-29)

Mechanism safeguarding unique epigenome of oocytes and maternal fertility
Recently, a joint research group led by Dr. ZHU Bing from the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reveals that Stella sequestered UHRF1 from the nucleus through an active nuclear export process, and the dysregulation of UHRF1 by loss of Stella resulted in an accumulation of aberrant DNA methylation during postnatal oogenesis. (2018-11-28)

The warm and loving tegu lizard becomes a genetic resource
Researchers have sequenced the genome of the tegu, Salvator merianae: a lizard that has taken an evolutionary step toward warm-bloodedness. It is also a highly desired pet, that can often be house-trained; unfortunately, as part of the exotic pet trade, it has been released in new environments and become a threat to local species. This extremely high-quality tegu genome sequence will be of use to researchers in the fields of evolution, physiology and ecology. (2018-11-27)

Cancer under pressure: Visualizing the activity of the immune system on tumor development
As tumors develop, they evolve genetically. How does the immune system act when faced with tumor cells? How does it exert pressure on the genetic diversity of cancer cells? Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm used in vivo video techniques and cell-specific staining to visualize the action of immune cells in response to the proliferation of cancer cells. The findings have been published in the journal Science Immunology on Nov. 23, 2018. (2018-11-27)

Largest study of CRISPR-Cas9 mutations creates prediction tool for gene editing
The largest study of CRISPR action to date has developed a method to predict the exact mutations CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing can introduce to a cell. Researchers at the Wellcome Sanger Institute edited 40,000 different pieces of DNA and analysed a thousand million resulting DNA sequences to develop the machine learning predictive tool. Reported today in Nature Biotechnology the new resource will help make CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing more reliable, cheaper and more efficient. (2018-11-27)

How ancient viruses got cannabis high
THC and CBD, bioactive substances produced by cannabis and sought by medical patients and recreational users, sprung to life thanks to ancient colonization of the plant's genome by viruses, U of T researchers have found. (2018-11-26)

What makes vertebrates special? We can learn from lancelets
OIST researcher helps unravel the origins of vertebrate gene regulation in a large collaborative study. (2018-11-21)

The genomic keys to the origin of the vertebrates
An international team of scientists led by Spanish researchers reports how more complex and specialized gene regulation proved to be pivotal in the origin of the vertebrates. The work, published recently by the Nature journal, compiles genomic, epigenomic and gene expression data from several organisms and provides unique information about the functional changes that gave rise to greater complexity in the vertebrates, particularly in the nervous system. (2018-11-21)

Mite genomes reveal 'mighty surprising' fragrant and colorful secrets
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have uncovered some unexpected 'foreign' genes in the tiny itch-inducing chigger mite and its more benign but enormous cousin, the giant velvet mite. Genome sequencing of these mites, both members of the trombidid mite family, reveals them to have functional genes for producing terpenes -- naturally occurring and often fragrant compounds that are commonly found in plants, but extremely rare in the animal world. (2018-11-19)

Widely used reference for the human genome is missing 300 million bits of DNA
Experts say additional reference genomes from different populations are needed for research. (2018-11-19)

Freeze-frame microscopy captures molecule's 'lock-and-load' on DNA
One of the body's largest macromolecules is the machinery that gloms onto DNA and transcribes it into mRNA, the blueprint for proteins. But the molecule, TFIID, is complex with lots of floppy appendages, which makes it hard to obtain a clear picture of its structure. Using state-of-the-art cryo-electron microscopy detectors and computer analysis, UC Berkeley scientists have captured unprecedented detail of how TFIID's structure changes as it binds to DNA and recruits other proteins. (2018-11-19)

Jumping genes shed light on how advanced life may have emerged
A previously unappreciated interaction in the genome turns out to have possibly been one of the driving forces in the emergence of advanced life. This discovery began with a curiosity for retrotransposons, known as ''jumping genes,'' which are DNA sequences that copy and paste themselves within the genome, multiplying rapidly. Researchers inserted a retrotransposon into bacteria, and the results could give depth to the history of how advanced life may have emerged billions of years ago. (2018-11-19)

Smart data enhances atomic force microscopy
In this work, researchers use scanning probe microscopy (SPM) as an example to demonstrate deep data methodology for nanosciences, transitioning from brute-force analytics such as data mining, correlation analysis and unsupervised classification to informed and/or targeted causative data analytics built on sound physical understanding. (2018-11-16)

The common ancestor of species was rod-shaped
There are two major shapes of bacteria, i.e., rod-shape and spherical shape. The genus Deinococcus consists of rod-shape and spherical shape species. (2018-11-16)

Mosquito genome opens new avenues for reducing bug-borne disease
Researchers have assembled a new and improved DNA catalogue for the mosquito Aedes aegypti. This tool will help researchers understand the insect's biology, and may lead to new strategies for preventing diseases like Zika and dengue. (2018-11-14)

The dawn of a new era for genebanks
One important aspect of biodiversity is genetic variation within species. A notable example is the variety of cultivars of crop plants. An international research consortium led by the of the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK Gatersleben) and supported by the iDiv research centre has now characterised at the molecular level a world collection of barley, comprising seed samples from more than 22,000 varieties. The study was published in Nature Genetics. (2018-11-13)

DNA structure impacts rate and accuracy of DNA synthesis
DNA sequences with the potential to form unusual conformations, which are frequently associated with cancer and neurological diseases, can in fact slow down or speed up the DNA synthesis process and cause more or fewer sequencing errors. (2018-11-13)

UTA researchers find new pathway to regulate immune response, control diseases
Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington have found a potential new pathway to regulate immune response and potentially control inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as meningitis and sepsis. (2018-11-09)

Exploiting epigenetic variation for plant breeding
Epigenetic changes can bring about new traits without altering the sequence of genes. This may allow plants to respond quicker to changes in their environment. Plant biologists at the University of Zurich have now demonstrated that epigenetic variation is also subject to selection and can be inherited. This could expand the possibilities for crop breeding. (2018-11-08)

Aging a flock of stars in the Wild Duck Cluster
The way they move belies the true ages of the almost 3,000 stars populating one of the richest star clusters known. Astronomers recently discovered the stars all were born in the same generation, solving a long-standing puzzle about how stars evolve. (2018-11-08)

'Nested sequences': An indispensable mechanism for forming memories
A research team from CNRS, Université PSL, the Collège de France and Inserm has just lifted part of the veil surrounding brain activity during sleep. Though we know that some neurons are reactivated then to consolidate our memories, we did not know how these cells could ''remember'' which order to turn on in. The researchers have discovered that reactivating neurons during sleep relies on activation that occurs during the day: ''nested'' theta sequences. (2018-11-08)

Trying to understand cells' interior design
IBS Scientists have explained how liquid-like droplets made of proteins and DNA form in vitro. Currently, there is a huge interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the creation of such droplets, as it is linked to some human diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The results showed how much the sequence of DNA matters in the formation of such droplets. (2018-11-06)

A new piece to the puzzle sheds light on how UHRF1 regulates gene activity
Scientists at Helmholtz Zentrum München have discovered new details about the UHRF1 protein. UHRF1 catalyses particular steps that are required for marking DNA with epigenetic modifications that suppress parts of the genome. As reported in Molecular Cell, the molecule may serve as a target for drug therapies because it is produced at elevated levels in cancer cells. (2018-11-06)

Long noncoding RNA identified as a key regulator of inflammation
Scientists have identified an RNA molecule with broad powers to regulate the body's inflammatory response to infection and injury. Called lincRNA-Cox2, it belongs to a recently discovered, highly abundant class of RNAs whose functions are only beginning to be understood. (2018-11-06)

New deep knowledge AI system could resolve bottlenecks in drug research
Researchers at the University of Waterloo have developed a new system that could significantly speed up the discovery of new drugs and reduce the need for costly and time-consuming laboratory tests. (2018-11-06)

Organisms with small genomes, cells found thriving in hot soils
As our planet warms, what life will survive and thrive? If the coal fire-fueled soils around Centralia, Pennsylvania, are any indication, organisms with smaller genomes and cells may do well in the future. (2018-11-05)

Detecting E. coli strains using molecular electronics
Electrical engineers at UC Davis, the University of Washington and TOBB University of Economics and Technology in Ankara, Turkey have adapted a molecular electronic device called a single-molecule break junction to detect RNA from strains of E. coli known for causing illness. (2018-11-05)

Molecular biology: Phaser neatly arranges nucleosomes
LMU researchers have, for the first time, systematically determined the positioning of the packing units of the fruit fly genome, and discovered a new protein that defines their relationship to the DNA sequence. (2018-11-02)

Researchers at IRB Barcelona explain the origin of the periodicity of the genome
The team headed by Núria López-Bigas has published an article in Cell about what might have favored the periodicity of certain base pairs in the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. (2018-11-02)

Ring-shaped protein complex wrangles DNA
Rice University scientists determine the whole structure of the condensin protein complex, which helps to organize DNA throughout the life cycle of a cell. By combining sequence and limited structural data, they settle a controversy over whether the condensin protein complex is made of a single ring or a molecular 'handcuff.' (2018-11-02)

'Predicting' the origins of mysterious outbreaks using viral RNA
Researchers have used machine learning to develop a model capable of predicting hosts and vectors of otherwise mysterious viral infections. (2018-11-01)

Kent scientists unlock secrets of falcon DNA
Researchers in the University of Kent have made significant strides towards understanding the genomes -- and hence the biology -- of falcons. (2018-10-31)

Researchers have assembled Eurasian perch genome
Eurasian perch (Latin name Perca fluviatilis) genome, which is three times smaller than the human genome, yet contains about a billion nucleotides and more than 23,000 genes, discovered Estonian and Finnish scientists. (2018-10-30)

Scientists call for unified standards in 3D genome and epigenetic data
Studying the three-dimensional structure of DNA and its dynamics is revealing a lot of information about gene expression, expanding our knowledge of how cells, tissues and organs actually work in health and disease. Properly producing and managing this large amount of data is both challenging and necessary for the progress of this field. In a perspective paper published in Nature Genetics, top researchers call for unified standards and suggest guidelines in this emerging and promising research area. (2018-10-30)

Flood of genome data hinders efforts to ID bacteria
A study led by a Rice University computer scientist demonstrates that recent growth in genomic databases has a negative effect on attempts to identify microbes from metagenomic samples. (2018-10-30)

China develops world's first instrument system for raman-activated cell sorting and sequencing
The world's first instrument system for Raman-activated Cell Sorting and Sequencing (RACS-SEQ) was recently developed in East China's Qingdao City, allowing functional identification, sorting and sequencing of individual cells, in a label-free manner. (2018-10-30)

Cancer's most deadly assassin exists in every cell
A kill code is embedded in every cell in the body whose function may be to cause the self-destruction of cells that become cancerous, reports a new study. As soon as the cell's inner bodyguards sense it is mutating into cancer, they punch in the kill code to extinguish the mutating cell. Cancer can't become resistant to it, the study shows, making it a potentially bulletproof treatment. The next step is to turn synthetically duplicate the code and turn it into therapy. (2018-10-29)

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