Current Germ Cells News and Events

Current Germ Cells News and Events, Germ Cells News Articles.
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Spina bifida can be caused by uninherited genetic mutations
Genetic mutations which occur naturally during the earliest stages of an embryo's development can cause the severe birth defect spina bifida, finds a new experimental study in mice led by UCL scientists. (2021-02-19)

A recipe for regenerating bioengineered hair
Scientists have recently developed ways to grow a variety of useful items in laboratories, from meat and diamonds to retinas and other organoids. At the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research in Japan, a team led by Takashi Tsuji has been working on ways to regenerate lost hair from stem cells. In an important step, a new study identifies a population of hair follicle stem cells in the skin and a recipe for normal cyclical regeneration in the lab. (2021-02-10)

CWRU researchers uncover biochemical rules between RNA-protein interactions and expr
A team of Case Western Reserve University researchers has found a way to measure key characteristics of proteins that bind to RNA in cells--a discovery that could improve our understanding of how gene function is disturbed in cancer, neurodegenerative disorders or infections. (2021-02-10)

New stem cell therapy in dogs -- a breakthrough in veterinary medicine
A team of scientists in Japan has developed a novel method to induce stem cell generation from the blood samples of dogs. Through this technique, the scientists hope to advance regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine. This would mean that, in the near future, veterinarians might be able to reverse conditions in dogs that were previously thought incurable. (2021-02-03)

Our gut-brain connection
MIT researchers developed an 'organs-on-a-chip' system that replicates interactions between the brain, liver, and colon. They modeled the influence microbes living in the gut have on both healthy brain tissue and tissue samples derived from patients with Parkinson's disease. (2021-01-29)

Neonatal antibiotic use associated with reduced growth in boys
Exposure to antibiotics in the first few weeks of life is associated with reduced weight and height in boys up to the age of six, but not girls, reports a paper in Nature Communications. The study, led by Prof. Omry Koren, of Bar-Ilan University, together with Prof. Samuli Rautava, of the University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, suggests that this effect may be due to changes in the development of the gut microbiome. (2021-01-26)

How to find mutated sperm? Just go FISH
A test developed by Berkeley Lab scientists can quickly and easily detect whether sperm cells are carrying chromosomal defects, an advance that will help men who have undergone cancer treatment father healthy children. (2021-01-19)

TU Graz identifies bacterium that protects rice plants against diseases
With their expertise in microbiome research, the researchers at the Institute of Environmental Biotechnology were able to demonstrate how a specific bacterium inside the seeds of rice plants effectively and in an eco-friendly way inhibits destructive plant pathogens. (2021-01-11)

Patterns in primordial germ cell migration
Biologists and mathematicians at the Universities of Münster and Erlangen-Nürnberg investigated how primordial germ cells behave in zebrafish embryos when not influenced by a guidance cue and developed software that merges 3D microscopy images of multiple organisms. This made it possible to recognise patterns in the cell distribution and thus to highlight tissues that influence cell migration. The study was published in 'Science Advances'. (2021-01-07)

Tracking the formation of the early heart, cell by cell
Richard Tyser and colleagues have mapped the origins of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution, helping to define the cell types that make up the heart in the earliest days of development. (2021-01-07)

Brain stem cells divide over months
For the first time, scientists at the University of Zurich have been able to observe the way stem cells in the adult brains of mice divide over the course of months to create new nerve cells. Their study shows that brain stem cells are active over a long period, and thus provides new insights that will feed into stem cell research. (2020-12-21)

Covid-19: contaminated surfaces as a risk factor
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses a threat to the health of millions of people worldwide. Respiratory viruses, including the pathogen SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted both via the air and through contact with contaminated objects. Scientists from the Department of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry at Paderborn University have investigated what promotes the adhesion of viruses to surfaces. This involved examining the proteins that make up the viral envelope. (2020-12-18)

Development of new stem cell type may lead to advances in regenerative medicine
A team led by UT Southwestern has derived a new ''intermediate'' embryonic stem cell type from multiple species that can contribute to chimeras and create precursors to sperm and eggs in a culture dish. (2020-12-03)

Early trial hints CAR T cells may combat solid tumors in children with neuroblastoma
A phase 1 trial involving 12 children with relapsed neuroblastoma - a hard-to-treat pediatric cancer - shows that anticancer CAR T cells displayed signs of efficacy against these tumors while avoiding damage to nerve tissue. (2020-11-25)

Stem cell transplantation: undesirable rejection mechanism identified
In the treatment of leukaemia, stem cell transplantation subsequent to chemotherapy and radiation can often engender severe adverse inflammatory reactions - especially in the skin or in the gut, since these so-called barrier organs are more frequently affected. Up until now, the reason for this was unclear. A team of researchers in Vienna has now identified an immune mechanism that is partially responsible for this. (2020-11-19)

Unraveling a mystery surrounding embryonic cells
Last year, researchers at the University of California, Riverside, identified the early origins of neural crest cells -- embryonic cells in vertebrates that travel throughout the body and generate many cell types -- in chick embryos. Now the researchers have used a human model to figure out when neural crest cells acquire distinctive molecular and functional attributes. (2020-11-18)

Diagnostic imaging may increase risk of testicular cancer
Early and repeated exposures to diagnostic imaging, such as X-rays and CT scans, may increase the risk of testicular cancer. (2020-11-11)

The gut trains the immune system to protect the brain
The membranes surrounding our brains are in a never-ending battle against deadly infections, as germs constantly try to elude watchful immune cells and sneak past a special protective barrier called the meninges. In a study involving mice and human autopsy tissue, researchers at the National Institutes of Health and Cambridge University have shown that some of these immune cells are trained to fight these infections by first spending time in the gut. (2020-11-04)

Model of multicellular evolution overturns classic theory
Cells can evolve specialised functions under a much broader range of conditions than previously thought, according to a study published today in eLife. (2020-11-03)

Gut bacteria linked to weight gain following chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer
A new study suggests that gut bacteria are partially responsible for metabolic changes that lead to weight gain following chemotherapy treatment. If the composition of intestinal bacteria may predict which women will gain weight as a result of chemotherapy, researchers say they eventually hope to identify women at risk of gaining weight and offer methods to prevent it. (2020-10-21)

Early trauma influences metabolism across generations
A study by the Brain Research Institute at UZH reveals that early trauma leads to changes in blood metabolites - similarly in mice and humans. Experiments with mice have show that these potentially harmful effects on health are also passed to the next generation. The researchers have identified a biological mechanism by which traumatic experiences become embedded in germ cells. (2020-10-15)

Evolution: No social distancing at the beginning of life
Bacteria are a dominant form of life that inhabit every environment on Earth. This includes human bodies, where they outnumber our cells and genes and regulate our existence for good or bad. Bacteria are regularly viewed as simple, single-celled organisms. As bacteria are ancient, it is widely accepted that a bacteria-like, unicellular being was the first life. Recent work published in 'Molecular Biology and Evolution' by an international research team challenges these views. (2020-10-13)

How an egg cell's "operating manual" sets the stage for fertility
Recently published work from Carnegie's Allan Spradling and Wanbao Niu revealed in unprecedented detail the genetic instructions immature egg cells go through step by step as they mature into functionality. Their findings improve our understanding of how ovaries maintain a female's fertility. (2020-10-08)

Latent lineage potential in neural stem cells enables spinal cord repair in mice
Spinal stem cells in mice can be reprogrammed to generate protective oligodendrocytes after spinal cord injury, enhancing neural repair, according to a new study. (2020-10-01)

Landmark clinical trial shows effectiveness of oral antibiotics in treating cystic fibrosis condition
A major national study led by experts from Bristol and Nottingham has found that oral antibiotics are just as effective as intravenous antibiotics in killing a common germ that causes dangerous complications in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. (2020-09-29)

Unconventional T cell subset enriched in airways of some patients with severe COVID-19
Unconventional T cells called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are recruited to the airways and strongly activated in some patients with severe COVID-19, a new study has found, suggesting the cells' possible involvement in the development of disease. (2020-09-28)

Super-potent blood stem cells discovered in human embryos
In research recently published in Stem Cell Reports, Andrejs Ivanovs, Alexander Medvinsky (a.medvinsky@ed.ac.uk) and colleagues from the University of Edinburgh discovered that HSCs from early human embryos, when HSCs are just starting to form, are more robust at expanding than those from the cord blood. (2020-09-17)

Climate crisis ages fish, amphibians and reptiles
Climatic conditions are changing at an unprecedented rate, affecting mainly fish, amphibians and reptiles, ectothermic animals that are unable to generate their own internal heat. With heat waves and rising temperatures, these organisms experience not only increased growth rates and heat stress, but also further ageing. (2020-09-16)

A 'cell-less' therapy may regenerate heart tissue without cell transplant risks
Ling Gao and colleagues have developed a strategy that uses exosomes - tiny membrane-bound sacs secreted by cells - to mimic the heart-regenerating effects of cardiac cell transplants, while potentially avoiding risks associated with whole-cell transplants. (2020-09-16)

Viruses play critical role in evolution and survival of the species
New research in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology shows viruses also play a key evolutionary role in mammals' ability to reproduce and survive, according to scientists in the Cincinnati Children's Perinatal Institute and at Azabu University in Japan. (2020-09-07)

Ultraviolet B exposure expands proenkephalin+ regulatory T cells with a healing function
Skin exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) induces expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells with immunosuppressive activity. Here researchers found that UVB-expanded skin Treg (UVB-skin Treg) cells had a tissue repair function. UVB-skin Treg cells expressed proenkephalin (PENK) and amphiregulin (AREG), which promoted keratinocyte outgrowth and skin wound healing. Their results provide a new implication in developing a therapy using UVB-skin Treg cells. (2020-09-01)

Scientists shed new light on pollen tube growth in plants
New insight on how an enzyme ensures the correct growth of pollen tubes in flowering plants has been published today in the open-access journal eLife. (2020-09-01)

How cells solve mazes and traverse great distances through the body
Cells are particularly good at solving mazes, according to a new study, which demonstrates how they are able to navigate long and complicated routes through the body using self-generated chemoattractant gradients. (2020-08-27)

Tag team gut bacteria worsen symptoms of multiple sclerosis
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) have discovered that a particular combination of microorganisms in the gut can worsen symptoms in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. The study published in the scientific journal Nature shows that two specific gut bacteria enhance the activity of immune cells that attack the body's own brain and spinal cord. (2020-08-26)

Psychological disease avoidance linked to preventative behavior, study finds
More than other factors, strong feelings of germ aversion and pathogen disgust are significantly associated with concern about COVID-19 and preventative behavior, according to findings from UConn School of Nursing researchers published in the journal PLOS ONE. The findings are part of a year-long examination of how behavior and social attitudes change, and what factors influence those changes, when people in the United States are faced with the threat of widespread disease. (2020-08-21)

UCalgary researchers discover the microbiome's role in attacking cancerous tumours
University of Calgary researchers have discovered which gut bacteria help our immune system battle cancerous tumours and how they do it. The discovery may provide a new understanding of why immunotherapy, a treatment for cancer that helps amplify immune response, works in some cases, but not others. The findings, published in Science, show combining immunotherapy with specific microbial therapy helps the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells in three forms of cancer. (2020-08-13)

Oxygen therapy harms lung microbiome in mice
A new mouse study hints that oxygen therapy may have unintended consequences via an unexpected source--the microbiome. (2020-08-12)

A safer cell therapy harnesses patient T cells to fight multiple myeloma
A treatment for multiple myeloma that harnesses the body's cancer-fighting T cells was safe in humans and showed preliminary signs of effectiveness, according to a clinical trial involving 23 patients with relapsed or treatment-resistant disease. (2020-07-29)

SARS-CoV-2 infection of non-neuronal cells, not neurons, may drive loss of smell in patients with COVID-19
A new study of human olfactory cells has revealed that viral invasion of supportive cells in the nasal cavity might be driving the loss of smell seen in some patients with COVID-19. The findings show that non- (2020-07-24)

A never-before-seen cell state may explain cancer's ability to resist drugs
Scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute, the Koch Institute at MIT, and the Klarman Cell Observatory at the Broad Institute have identified an unusual cell state that emerges early in tumor evolution and supports a cancer's ability to outwit chemotherapy. (2020-07-23)

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